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LUCIAN (d. 312)

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Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 100 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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LUCIAN (d. 312)  , Christian martyr, was born, like the famous,
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heathen writer of the same name, at Samosata . His parents, who were Christians, died when he was in his twelfth
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year . In his youth he studied under Macarius of Edessa, and after receiving
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baptism he adopted a strictly ascetic
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life, and devoted himself with zeal to the continual study of scripture . Settling at
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Antioch when Malchion was master of the Greek school he became a presbyter, and, while supporting himself by his skill as a rapid writer, became celebrated as a teacher, so that he is regarded as the founder of the famous theological school of Antioch . He did not escape suspicion of
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heresy, and is represented as the connecting
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link between Paul of Samosata and Arius . Indeed, on the deposition of the former (A.D . 268) he was excluded from ecclesiastical fellowship by three successive bishops of Antioch, while Arius seems to have been among his pupils (
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Theodoret, Hist . Eccl. i . 3, 4) . He was, however, restored before the outbreak of persecution, and the reputation won by his high character and learning was confirmed by his courageous martyrdom . He was carried to Nicomedia before Maximin Daza, and persisting in his faith perished on the 7th of
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January 312, under torture and
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hunger, which he refused to satisfy with food offered to idols . His defence is preserved by Rufinus (ix .

6; on

Eusebius, Hist . Eccl. ix . 9) . His remains were conveyed to Drepanum in Bithynia, and under
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Constantine the
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town was founded anew in his honour with the name of Helenopolis, and exempted from ta4es by the emperor (A.D . 327)(see Chron . Pasch.,
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Bonn ed., p . 527) . Here in 387, on the anniversary of his
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death,
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Chrysostom delivered the panegyrical
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homily from which, with notices in Eusebius, Theodoret and the other ecclesiastical historians, the life by Jerome (Vir .
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Ill. cap . 77), but especially from the account by S . Metaphrastes (cited at length in Bernhardy's notes to Suidas, s.v. voBebei), the facts above given are derived . See also, for the celebration of his day in the
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Syriac churches, Wright, Cat. of Syr .

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MSS. p . 283 . Jerome says that Lucian wrote Libelli de fide and several letters, but only a short fragment of one
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epistle remains (Chron . Pasch., ed . Dindorf, i . 516) . The authorship of a confession of faith ascribed to Lucian and put forth at the semi-Arian synod of Antioch (A.D . 341) is questioned . Lucian's most important
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literary labour was his edition of the Greek Old Testament corrected by the
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Hebrew text, which, according to Jerome (Adv . Ruf. ii . 77), was in current use from Constantinople to Antioch . That the edition of Lucian is represented by the text used by Chrysostom and Theodoret, as well as by certain extant MSS., such as the Arundelian of the
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British Museum, was proved by F .

Field (Prol. ad Origenis Hexapla, cap. ix.) . Before the publication of Field's Hexapla, Lagarde had already directed his attention to the Antiochian text (as that of Lucian may be called) and ultimately published the first
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part (Genesis, 2 Esdras,
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Esther) of a provisional reconstructed text . The distinguishing marks of the Lucianic recension are thus summarized by S . R . Driver, Notes on Heb . Text of
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Samuel, p. li. seq.: (I) The substitution of synonyms for the words employed by the Septuagint; (2) the occurrence of double renderings; (3) the occurrence of renderings " which presuppose a Hebrew
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original self-evidently
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superior in the passages concerned to the existing Massoretic text," a peculiarity which makes it very important for the criticism of the Hebrew Bible . From a statement of Jerome in his preface to the gospels it seems probable that Lucian had also a share in fixing the Syrian recension of the New Testament text, but of this it is impossible to speak with certainty . He was associated in his
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work with the Hebraist
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Dorotheus . See, generally, A . Harnack's
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art. in Hauck-Herzog, Realencyk. vol. xi., and for " remains " Routh, Rel .
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Sac. iv . 3-17 .

A full account of his recension of the Septuagint is given in H . B . Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, p . 81 sqq . ; and a

good account of his doctrinal position in the prolegomena to the
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volume on Athanasius in the series of Nicene and
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Post-Nicene Fathers (p.
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xxviii.) and A . Harnack's
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History of Dogma, especially vol. iv .

End of Article: LUCIAN (d. 312)
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