LUKE , the traditional author of the third
See also:Gospel and of the
See also:Book of Acts, and the most
See also:literary among the writers of the New Testament . He alone, too, was of non-Jewish origin (Col. iv . 11, 14), a fact of
See also:interest in relation to his writings . His name, a more
See also:form of Lucanus (cf .
See also:Silas for
See also:Silvanus, Acts xvii . 4, 1 Thess. i . 1, and see Encycl . Bibl. s.v., for instances of Lovxas on
See also:Egyptian inscriptions), taken together with his profession of physician (Col. iv . 14), suggests that he was son of a Greek freedman possibly connected with Lucania in south Italy; and as
See also:Julius Caesar gave
See also:Roman citizenship to all physicians in Rome (Sueton . Jul . 42), Luke may even have inherited this status from his
See also:father . But in any case such a man would have the attitude to things Roman which appears in the
See also:works attributed to Luke .
He was a
See also:fellow-worker of Paul's when in Rome (Philemon 24), where he seems to have remained in
See also:constant attendance on his
See also:leader, as physician as well as attached friend (Col. iv . 14; 2 Tim. iv . II) . That Luke, before he became a Christian, was an adherent of the synagogue—not a full
See also:proselyte, but one of those " worshippers " of
See also:God to whom Acts makes frequent reference—is fairly certain from the familiarity with the Septuagint indicated in Acts, as well as from its sympathy with the Hellenistic type of piety as distinct from specific Paulinism, of which there is but little trace . The earliest extra-biblical reference to him is perhaps in the Muratonian
See also:Canon, which implies that his name already stood in
See also:MSS. of both Gospel (probably so even in
See also:day) and Acts, and says that Paul took him for his
See also:companion quasi ut
See also:juris studiosum (" as being a student of
See also:law ") . Here juris is almost certainly corrupt; and whether we take the sense to have been " as being devoted to travel " (ut juris = itineris) or " as skilled in disease " (vbaou passing into vbµou in the Greek
See also:original), it is probably a mere inference from biblical data . Beyond references in
See also:Clement of Alexandria (cf .
See also:HEBREws) and
See also:Tertullian, which add nothing to our knowledge, we have the belief to which
See also:Origen (Hom. i. in Lucam) witnesses as existing in his day, that Luke was the "
See also:brother " of 2
See also:Cor. viii . 18, " whose praise in the Gospel " (as preached) was " throughout all the churches." Though the basis of the
See also:identification be a
See also:mistake, yet that this " brother," " who was also appointed by the churches (note the generality of this) to travel with us in the
See also:matter of the charity," was none other than Paul's constant companion Luke is quite likely; e.g. he seems to have been almost the only non-Macedonian (as demanded by 2 Cor. ix . 2-4) of Paul's circle available' at the
See also:time (see Acts xx . 4) . Our next witness, a prologue to the
See also:Lucan writings (originally in Greek, now known only in Latin, see Nov .
Test . Latine (
See also:Oxford), I. iii., II. i.), perhaps preserves a genuine tradition in stating that Luke died in
See also:Bithynia at the age of seventy-four . It is hard to see why this should be fiction, which usually took the form of martyrdom, as in a later tradition touching his end . The same prologue, and indeed all early tradition, connects him originally with
See also:Antioch (see Euseb . Hist . Eccl. iii . 4, 6, possibly after Julius
See also:Africanus in the first
See also:half of the 3rd century) . That he was actually a native of Antioch is as doubtful as the statement that he was a Syrian by
See also:race (Prologue) . But
See also:internal evidence bears out the view that he practised his profession in Antioch, where (or in
See also:Tarsus) he probably first met Paul . Whether any of his information in Acts as to the Gospel in Antioch (xi . 19 if., xii1 . I if., )(iv .
26-xv . 35) was due to an Antiochene• document used by him (cf . A .
See also:Harnack, The Acts of the Apostles, 245 ff.) or not, this knowledge in any case suggests Luke's connexion with that
See also:church . He shows, too,
See also:local knowledge on points unlikely to have stood in any such source (e.g. it was in Antioch that the name " Christians " was first coined, xi . 26), which points to his
See also:share in early Church
See also:life there . The Bezan
See also:reading in Acts xi . 27, " when we.were assembled," may imply memory of this . But while Luke probably met Paul in Antioch, and thence started with him on his second great missionary enterprise (xv . 36 ff.), partly at least as his medical attendant (cf . Gal. iv . 13), it is possible that he had also some
See also:special connexion with the
See also:part of the
See also:Aegean .
See also:Sir W . M .
See also:Ramsay and others
See also:fancy that Luke's original home was
See also:Philippi, and that in fact he may have been the " certain Macedonian " seen in vision by Paul at Troas, inviting help for his countrymen (xvi . 9 f.) . But this is as
See also:precarious as the view that, because "we" ceases at Philippi in xvi . 17, and then re-emerges in xx . 6, Luke must have resided there during all the
See also:interval . The use and disuse of the first
See also:person plural, identifying Paul and his party, has probably a more subtle and psychological' meaning (see Acts) . The local connexion in question may have been subsequent to that with Antioch, dating from his
See also:work with Paul in the province of
See also:Asia, and being resumed after Paul's martyrdom . This accords at once with Harnack's
See also:argument that Luke wrote Acts in Asia' (Luke the Physician, p . 149 ff.), and with the early tradition, above cited, that he died in Bithynia at the age of seventy-four, without ever having married (this
See also:touch may be due to an ascetic feeling current already in the 2nd century) . The later traditions about Luke's life are based on fanciful inference or misunderstanding, e.g. that he was one of the Seventy (Adamantius
See also:Dial. de recta fide, 4th century), or the
See also:story (in
See also:Lector, 6th century) that he painted a portrait of the Virgin
See also:Mother .
See also:deal can still be gathered by sympathetic study of his writings as to the manner of man he was . It was a beautiful soul from which came " the most beautiful book " ever written, as
See also:Renan styled his Gospel . The selection of stories which he gives us—especially in the section mainly
See also:peculiar to himself (ix . 51-xviii . 14)—reflects his own character as well as that of the source he mainly follows . His was indeed a religio medici in its pity for frail and suffering 'humanity, and in its sympathy with the
See also:triumph of the Divine " healing
See also:art " upon the bodies and souls of men (cf . Harnack, The Acts, Excursus, iii.) . His was also a humane' spirit, a spirit so ' Tychicus may be the other " brother," in viii . 22 . z So also A . Hilgenfeld, Zeit. f. theol . Wissenschaft (1907), p .
214, argues that " we " marks the author's wish to give his narrative more vividness at great turning-points of the story—the passage from Asia to
See also:Europe, and again the real beginning of the
See also:solemn progress of Paul towards the crisis in Jerusalem, as yet later towards Rome,
See also:xxvii. i if . ' Note that Luke is at pains t'o explain why Paul passed by Asia and Bithynia in the first instance (xvi . 6 f.) . 'Compare what A . W . Verrall has said of the poet Statius and " the gentle
See also:doctrine of humanity " on Hellenic
See also:soil, as embodied in his description of The
See also:Altar of Mercy at Athens (Oxford and Cambridge Review, i. lot ff.).
See also:tender that it saw further than almost any save the
See also:Master himself into the soul of womanhood . In this, as in his joyousness,
See also:united with a feeling for the poor and suffering, he was an early
See also:Francis of
See also:Assisi . Luke, " the physician, the beloved physician," that was Paul's characterization of him; and it is the impression which his writings have
See also:left on humanity . How great his contribution to
See also:Christianity has been, in virtue of what he alone preserved of the
See also:historical Jesus and of the embodiment of his Gospel in his earliest followers, who can measure ? Harnack even maintains (The Acts, p . 301) that his story of the Apostolic age was the indispensable
See also:condition for the incorporation of the Pauline epistles in the Church's canon of New Testament scriptures . Certainly his conception of the Gospel, viz. a Christian Hellenistic universalism (with some slight infusion of Pauline thought) passed through a Graeco-Roman mind, proved more easy of assimilation, and so more directly influential for the
See also:ancient Church, than Paul's own distinctive teaching (ib .
281 ff . ; cf . Luke the Physician, pp . 139-145) .
BERNARDINO LUINI (?1465-?154o)
GOSPEL OF ST LUKE
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