LYCIA , in
See also:ancient geography, a
See also:district in the S.W. of
See also:Asia Minor, occupying the
See also:coast between
See also:Caria and
See also:Pamphylia, and extending inland as far as the
See also:ridge of Mt
See also:Taurus . The region thus designated is a peninsula projecting southward from the
See also:mountain masses of the interior . It is for the most
See also:part a rugged mountainous
See also:country, traversed by offshoots of the Taurus range, which terminate on the coast in lofty promontories . The coast, though less irregular than that of Caria, is indented by a succession of bays—the most marked of which is the Gulf of Macri (anc .
See also:Glaucus Sinus) in the extreme west . A number of smaller bays, and broken rocky headlands, with a few small islets, constitute the coast-
See also:line thence to the S.E. promontory of Lycia, formed by a long narrow
See also:tongue of rocky
See also:hill, known in ancient times as the " Sacred Promontory " (Hiera Acra), with three small adjacent islets, called the Chelidonian islands, which was regarded by some ancient geographers as the commencement of Mt . Taurus . Though the mountain ranges of Lycia are all offshoots of Mt . Taurus, in ancient times several of them were distinguished by
See also:separate names . Such were Daedala in the west, adjoining the Gulf of Macri, Cragus on the
See also:sea-coast, west of the valley of the
See also:Xanthus, Massicytus (10,000 ft.) nearly in the centre of the region, and Solyma in the extreme east above Phaselis (7800 ft.) . The steep and rugged pass between Solyma and the sea, called the
See also:Climax ("
See also:Ladder" ), was the only
See also:direct communication between Lycia and Pamphylia . The only two considerable
See also:rivers are: (1) the Xanthus, which descends from the central mass of Mt Taurus, and flows through a narrow valley till it reaches the city of the same name, below which it forms a plain of some extent before reaching the sea, and (2) the Limyrus, which enters the sea near Limyra .
The small alluvial plains at the mouths of these rivers are the only level ground in Lycia, but the hills that rise thence towards the mountains are covered with a
See also:rich arborescent vegetation . The upper valleys and mountain sides afford
See also:good pasture for
See also:sheep, and the
See also:main Taurus range encloses several extensive upland
See also:basin-shaped valleys (vailas), which are characteristic of that range throughout its extent (see Asia MINOR) . The limits of Lycia towards the interior seem to have varied at different times . The high and
See also:cold upland
See also:tract to the
See also:north-east, called Milyas, was by some writers included in that province, though it is naturally more connected with
See also:Pisidia . According to
See also:Artemidorus (whose authority is followed by
See also:Strabo), the towns that formed the Lycian
See also:league in the days of its integrity were twenty-three in number; but Pliny states that Lycia once possessed seventy towns, of which only twenty-six remained in his
See also:day .
See also:Recent re-searches have fully confirmed the fact that the sea-coast and the valleys were thickly studded with towns, many of which are proved by existing remains to have been places of importance . By the aid of inscriptions the position of the greater part of the cities mentioned in ancient authors can be fixed . On the gulf of Glaucus, near the frontiers of Caria, stood Telmessus, an important place, while a
See also:short distance inland from it were the small towns of Dacdala and Cadyanda . At the entrance of the valley of the Xanthus were
See also:Patara, Xanthus itself, and, a little higher up, Pinara on the west and Tlos on the east side of the valley, while Araxa stood at the
See also:head of the valley, at the
See also:foot of the pass leading into the interior .
See also:Myra, one of the most important cities of Lycia, occupied the entrance of the valley of the Andriacus; on the coast between this and the mouth of the Xanthus stood Antiphellus, while in the interior at a short distance were found Phellus, Cyaneae and Candyba . In the alluvial plain formed by the rivers Arycandus and Limyrus stood Limyra, and encircling the same
See also:bay the three small towns of Rhodiapolis, Corydalla and Gagae . Arycanda commanded the upper valley of the
See also:river of the same name .
On the east coast stood
See also:Olympus, one of the cities of the league, while Phaselis, a little farther north, which was a much more important place, never belonged to the Lycian league and appears always to have maintained an
See also:independent position . The cold upland district of the Milyas does not seem to have contained any
See also:town of importance . Podalia appears to have been its chief place . Between the Milyas and the Pamphylian Gulf was the lofty mountain range of Solyma, which was supposed to derive its name from the Solymi, a
See also:people mentioned by
See also:Homer in connexion with the Lycians and the
See also:story of
See also:Bellerophon . In the flank of this mountain, near a place called Deliktash, was the celebrated fiery source called the
See also:Chimaera, which gave rise to many fables . It has been visited in
See also:modern times by Captain F .
See also:Beaufort, T . A . B . Spratt and
See also:Forbes, and other travellers, and is merely a stream of inflammable
See also:gas issuing from crevices in the rocks, such as are found in several places in the Apennines . No traces of recent volcanic
See also:action exist in Lycia .
See also:History.—The name of the Lycians, Lukki, is first met with in the Tel el-Amarna tablets (1400 B.c.) and in the
See also:list of the nations from the eastern Mediterranean who invaded
See also:Egypt in the reign of Mineptah, the successor of Rameses II .
See also:time they seem to have occupied the Cilician coast . Their occupation of Lycia was probably later, and since the Lycian inscriptions are not found far inland, we may conclude that they entered the country from the sea . On the other
See also:hand the name appears to be preserved in
See also:Lycaonia, where some bands of them may have settled . According to
See also:Herodotus they called them-selves Termilae, written Trmmile in the native inscriptions, and he further states that the
See also:original inhabitants of the country were the Milyans and Solymi, the Lycians being invaders from Crete . In this tradition there is a reminiscence of the fact that the Lycians had been sea-rovers before their settlement in Lycia . The Lycian
See also:Sarpedon was believed to have taken part in the Trojan war . The Lydians failed to subdue Lycia, but after the fall of the Lydian
See also:empire it was conquered by Harpagus the general of Cyrus, Xanthus or Arnna, the capital, being completely destroyed, While acknowledging the
See also:suzerainty of
See also:Persia, however, the Lycians remained practically independent, and for a time joined the Delian league . " The son of Harpagus" on the obelisk of Xanthus boasts of having sacked numerous cities in
See also:alliance with the Athenian goddess . The Lycians were incorporated into the empire of
See also:Alexander and his successors, but even after their
See also:conquest by the Romans, preserved their federal institutions as
See also:late as the time of
See also:Augustus . According to Strabo the
See also:principal towns in the league were Xanthus, Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra and Tlos; each of these had three votes in the general
See also:assembly, while the other towns had only two or one .
See also:Taxation and the
See also:appointment of the Lyciarch and other magistrates were vested in the assembly . Under
See also:Claudius Lycia was formally annexed to the
See also:Roman empire, and
See also:united with Pamphylia:
See also:Theodosius made it a separate province .
Antiquities.—Few parts of Asia Minor were less known in modern times than Lycia up to the 19thcentury . Captain Beaufort was the first to visit several places on the sea-coast, and the remarkable
See also:rock-hewn tombs of Telmessus had been already described by Dr
See also:Clarke, but it was
See also:Fellows who first discovered and drew
See also:attention to the extraordinary richness of the district in ancient remains, especially of a sepulchral character . His visits to the country in 1838 and 184o were followed by an expedition sent by the
See also:government in 1842 to transport to England the valuable monuments now in the British Museum, while
See also:Admiral Spratt and Edward Forbes explored the interior, and laid down its
See also:physical features on an excellent map . The monuments thus brought to
See also:light are among the most interesting of those discovered in Asia Minor, and prove the existence of a distinct native architecture, especially in the rock-cut tombs . But the theatres found in almost every town, some of them of very large
See also:size, are sufficient to attest the pervading influence of Greek
See also:civilization; and this is confirmed by the sculptures, which are for the most part wholly Greek . None of them, indeed, can be ascribed to a very early
See also:period, and hardly any trace can be found of the influence of
See also:Assyrian or other
See also:art . One of the most interesting results of these recent researches has been the
See also:discovery of numerous inscriptions in the native language of the country, and written in an
See also:peculiar to Lycia . A few of these inscriptions are bilingual, in Greek and Lycian, and the
See also:clue thus afforded to their
See also:interpretation has been followed up, first by Daniel
See also:Sharpe and
See also:Schmidt, and in more recent years by J . Imbert, W .
See also:Arkwright, V . Thomsen, A . Torp, S .
See also:Bugge and E . Kalinka . The alphabet was derived from the Doric alphabet of Rhodes, but ten other characters were added to it to
See also:express vocalic and other sounds not found in Greek . The attempts to connect the language with the Indo-
See also:family have been unsuccessful; it belongs to a separate family of speech which we may
See also:term " Asianic." Most of the inscriptions are sepulchral; by far the longest and most important is that on an obelisk found at Xanthus, which is a
See also:historical document, the concluding part of it being in a peculiar dialect, supposed to be an older and poetical
See also:form of the language . Among the deities mentioned are Trzzube (Trosobis) and Trqqiz or Trqqas . Lycian art was modelled on that of the Greeks . The rock-cut
See also:tomb usually represented the
See also:house of the living, with an elaborate
See also:facade, but in one or two instances, notably that of the so-called
See also:Harpy-tomb, the facade is surmounted by a tall, square tower, in the upper part of which is the sepulchral chamber . Lycian sculpture followed closely the development of Greek sculpture, and many of the sculptures with which the tombs are adorned are of a high
See also:order of merit . The exquisite bas-reliefs on a Lycian sarcophagus now in the museum of Constantinople are among the,finest surviving examples of classical art . The bas-reliefs were usually coloured . For the coinage, see NuMls-MATICS, section "Asia Minor." Kretschmer, Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache (1896); S . Bugge, Lykische Studien (from 1897); A .
Torp, Lykische Beitrage (from 1898) ; V . Thomsen, Etudes lyciennes (1899) ; E . 1 Kalinka and R . Heberdey, Tituli Asiae Minoris, i . (1901) ; see also 1 articles XANTHUS, IMMYRA, PATARA . (A . H .
LYCK, or LYK
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