See also:device or apparatus for the application or modification of force to a specific purpose . The
See also:term "
See also:simple machine " is applied to the six so-called
See also:mechanical powers—the
See also:wheel and
See also:screw, and inclined
See also:plane . For machine-tools see TooLs . The word machine was formerly applied to vehicles, such as stage-coaches, &c., and is still applied to carriages in Scotland; a survival of this use is in the term " bathing machine." Figuratively, the word is used of persons whose actions seem to be regulated according to a rigid and unchanging
See also:system . In politics, especially in
See also:America, machine is synonymous with party organization . A stage device of the
See also:ancient Greek drama gave rise to the proverbial expression, " the
See also:god from the machine,"
See also:Lat. deus ex machina, for the disentangling and conclusion of a plot by supernatural interference or by some accident extraneous to the natural development of the
See also:story . When a god had to be brought on the stage he was floated down from above by a 'yEpavos (
See also:crane) or other machine (iz, xavi1) .
See also:Euripides has been reproached with an excessive use of the device, but it has been pointed out (A.E . Haigh, Tragic Drama of the Greeks, p . 245 seq.) that only in two plays (
See also:Orestes and Hippolytus) is the god brought on for the solution of the plot . In the others the god comes to deliver a kind of
See also:epilogue, describing the future story of the characters, or to introduce some account of a
See also:legend, institution, &c . MACHINE-
See also:GUN, a weapon designed to deliver a large number of bullets or small shells, either by volleys 1 or in very
See also:quick 1 The French term mitrailleuse, made famous by the War of 187o, reappears in other Latin tongues (e.g .
See also:Spanish ametralladora) . It signifies a weapon which delivers a shower of small projectiles mstraille—grape or case shot), and has no
See also:special reference to its mechanical (
See also:hand or automatic)
See also:action .
See also:MACHICOLATION- bold and plausible adventurer, aided by the profligacy, of a parasite, the avarice and
See also:hypocrisy of a
See also:confessor, and a
See also:mother's complaisant familiarity with
See also:vice, achieves the
See also:triumph of making a gulled
See also:husband bring his own unwilling but too yielding wife to shame . The whole
See also:comedy is a study of stupidity and baseness acted on by roguery . About the power with which this picture of domestic immorality is presented there can be no question . But the perusal of the piece obliges us to ask ourselves whether the author's
See also:radical conception of human nature was not false . The same suspicion is forced upon us by the Principe . Did not
See also:Machiavelli leave
See also:habit, as an essential ingredient of character, out of account ? Men are not such absolute fools as Nicia, nor such compliant catspaws as Ligurio and Timoteo;
See also:women are not such weak
See also:instruments as Sostrata and Lucrezia . Somewhere, in actual
See also:life, the stress of craft and courage acting on the springs of human vice and weakness fails, unless the hero of the comedy or tragedy, Callimaco or Cesare, allows for the revolt of healthier instincts . Machiavelli does not seem to have calculated the force of this recoil . He speculates a
See also:world in which virtil, unscrupulous strength of character, shall
See also:deal successfully with frailty .
This, we submit, was a deep-seatederror in his theory of life, an error to which may be ascribed the numerous stumbling-blocks and rocks of offence in his more serious writings . Some
See also:time after the Mandragola, he composed a second comedy, entitled Clizia, which is even homelier and closer to the life of Florence than its predecessor . It contains incomparable studies of the Florentine housewife and her husband, a
See also:grave business-like
See also:citizen, who falls into the senile folly of a
See also:base intrigue . There remains a
See also:short piece without title, the Commedia in prosa, which, if it be Machiavelli's, as
See also:internal evidence of
See also:style sufficiently argues, might be accepted as a study for both the Clizia and the Mandragola . It seems written to expose the corruption of domestic life in Florence, and especially to satirize the friars in their familar
See also:part of go-betweens, tame
See also:cats, confessors and adulterers . Of Machiavelli's minor poems, sonnets, capitoli and
See also:carnival songs there is not much to say . Powerful as a comic playwright, he was not a poet in the proper sense of the term . The little novel of Belfagor claims a passing word, if only because of its celebrity . It is a good-humoured satire upon
See also:marriage, the devil being forced to admit that
See also:hell itself is preferable to his wife's
See also:company . That Machiavelli invented it to
See also:express the irritation of his own domestic life is a myth without foundation . The story has a
See also:medieval origin,. and it was almost simultaneously treated in
See also:Italian by Machiavelli, Straparola and Giovanni Brevio . In the
See also:spring of 1526 Machiavelli was employed by
See also:Clement VII. to inspect the fortifications of Florence .
He presented a
See also:report upon the subject, and in the summer of the same
See also:year received orders to attend Francesco
See also:Guicciardini, the
See also:pope's commissary of war in
See also:Lombardy . Guicciardini sent him in
See also:August to Cremona, to transact business with the Venetian provvedilori . Later on in the autumn we find him once more with Guicciardini at Bologna . Thus the two
See also:great Italian historians of the 16th century, who had been friends for several years, were brought into relations of close intimacy . After another visit to Guicciardini in the spring of 1527, Machiavelli was sent by him to Civita Vecchia . It seemed that he was destined to be associated in the papal service with Clement's
See also:viceroy, and that a new
See also:period of
See also:diplomatic employment was opening for him . But soon after his return to Florence he fell
See also:ill . His son
See also:Piero said that he took
See also:medicine on the loth of
See also:June which disagreed with him; and on the 22nd he died, having received the last offices of the
See also:Church . There is no foundation for the legend that he expired with profane sarcasms upon his lips . Yet we need not run into the opposite extreme, and try to
See also:fancy that Machiavelli, who had professed Paganism in his life, proved himself a believing Christian on his deathbed . That he
See also:left an unfavourable opinion among his
See also:fellow citizens is very decidedly recorded by the historian
See also:Varchi . The Principe, it seems, had already begun to
See also:prejudice the world against him; and we can readily believe that Varchi sententiously observes, that " it would have been better for him if nature had given him either a less powerful intellect or a mind of a more genial
See also:temper." There is in truth a something crude, unsympathetic, cynical in his
See also:mental attitude toward human nature, for which, even after the lapse of more than three centuries, we find it difficult to make
See also:allowance .
The force of his intellect renders this want of geniality repulsive . We cannot help objecting that one who was so powerful could have been kindlier and sounder if he willed . We therefore do him the injustice of mistaking his infirmity for perversity . He was
See also:blind to
See also:commonplace succession, at a high
See also:rate of
See also:fire . Formerly the mechanism of machine-guns was hand operated, but all
See also:modern weapons are automatic in action, the
See also:gas of the
See also:explosion or the force of recoil being utilized to
See also:lock and unlock the breech mechanism, to load the weapon and to eject the fired cartridge cases . The smaller types approximate to the " automatic
See also:rifle," which is expected to replace the
See also:magazine rifle as the
See also:arm of the
See also:infantry-man . The large types, generically called "pompoms," fire a
See also:artillery projectile, and are considered by many artillery experts as " the gun of the. future." The
See also:medium type, which takes the ordinary rifle'
See also:ammunition but is fired from various forms of
See also:carriage, is the ordinary machine-gun of to-
See also:day, and the
See also:present article deals mainly with this .
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