MAGNESIA , in
See also:ancient geography the name of two cities in
See also:Asia Minor and of a
See also:district in eastern
See also:Thessaly, lying between the Vale of
See also:Tempe and the Pagasaean Gulf . (I) MAGNESIA AD MAEANDRUM, a city of
See also:Ionia, situated on a small stream flowing into the Maeander, 15
See also:miles from
See also:Miletus and rather less from Ephesus . According to tradition, reinforced by the similarity of names, it was founded by colonists from the Thessalian tribe of the Magnetes, with whom were associated, according to
See also:Strabo, some Cretan settlers (Magnesia retained a connexion with Crete, as inscriptions found there attest) . It was thus not properly an Ionic city, and for this reason, apparently, was not included in the Ionian
See also:league, though
See also:superior in
See also:wealth and prosperity to most of the members except Ephesus and Miletus . It was destroyed by the
See also:Cimmerii in their irruption into Asia Minor, but was soon after rebuilt, and gradually recovered its former prosperity . It was one of the towns assigned by
See also:Artaxerxes to
See also:Themistocles for support in his
See also:exile, and there the latter ended his days . His statue stood in its market-place . Thibron, the Spartan, persuaded the Magnesians to leave their indefensible and mutinous city in 399 B.C. and build afresh at Leucophrys, an
See also:hour distant, noted for its
See also:temple of
See also:Artemis Leucophryne, which, according to Strabo, surpassed that at Ephesus in the beauty of its architecture, though inferior in
See also:size and wealth . Its ruins were excavated by Dr K . Humann for the Constantinople Museum in 1891—1893; but most of the
See also:frieze of the temple of Artemis Leucophryne, representing an
See also:battle, had already been carried off by Texier (1843) to the Louvre . It was an octostyle, pseudo-
See also:dipteral temple of highly ornate Ionic
See also:order, built on older
See also:foundations by
See also:Hermogenes of Alaba'nda at the end of the 3rd century B.C . The plat-
See also:form has been greatly overgrown since the excavation, but many bases, capitals, and other architectural members are visible .
In front of thewest
See also:facade stood a
See also:altar . An immense peribolus
See also:wall is still
See also:standing (20 ft. high), but its Doric
See also:colonnade has vanished . The railway runs right through the
See also:precinct, and much of Magnesia has gone into its bridges and embankments . South and west of the temple are many other remains of the Roman city, including a fairly perfect theatre excavated by Hiller von Gartringen, and the
See also:shell of a large gymnasium .
See also:Part of the
See also:Agora was laid open to Humann, but his trenches have fallen in . The site is so unhealthy that even the Circassians who settled there twenty years ago have almost all died off or emigrated . Magnesia continued under the
See also:kings of
See also:Pergamum to be one of the most flourishing cities in this part of Asia; it resisted
See also:Mithradates in 87 B.C., and was rewarded with civic freedom by Sulla; but it appears to have greatly declined under the Roman
See also:empire, and its name disappears from
See also:history, though on coins of the
See also:time of
See also:Gordian it still claimed to be the seventh city of Asia . See K . Haumann, Magnesia am Maeander (1904) . (2) MAGNESIA AD SIPYLUM (mod .
See also:Manisa, q.v.), a city of
See also:Lydia about 40 M . N.E. of
See also:Smyrna on the
See also:river Hermus at the
See also:foot of Mt Sipylus .
No mention of the
See also:town is found till 190 B.C., when
See also:Antiochus the Great was defeated under its walls by the Roman
See also:consul L . Scipio Asiaticus . It became a city of importance under the Roman dominion and, though nearly destroyed by an
See also:earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, was restored by that emperor and flourished through the Roman empire . It was one of the few towns in this part of Asia Minor which remained prosperous under the
See also:rule . The most famous relic of antiquity is the "
See also:Niobe of Sipylus-" (Suratlu Task) on the lowest slopes of the
See also:mountain about 4 M. east of the town . This is a
See also:colossal seated image cut in a
See also:niche of the
See also:rock, of "Hittite" origin, and perhaps that called by
See also:Pausanias the " very ancient statue of the
See also:Mother of the Gods," carved by Broteas, son of
See also:Tantalus, and sung by
See also:Homer . Near it lie many remains of a
See also:primitive city, and about
See also:half a mile east is the rock-seat conjecturally identified with Pausanias' "
See also:Throne of
See also:Pelops." There are also hot springs and a sacred grotto of
See also:Apollo . The whole site seems to be that of the early " Tantalus " city . (D . G .
MAGNES (c. 46o B.C.)
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