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MALT (O. Eng., mealt; O. Sax., malt; ...

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Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 503 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MALT (O. Eng., mealt; O. Sax., malt; O. Tent., maltos; Mod. Ger., Malz; Scand., malt; probably derived from the Sanskrit mrdu, soft, thus having reference to the fact that malt is raw grain rendered soft or tender), the name given to grain in which germination has been caused to proceed to a certain stage and has then been arrested by the removal of water and the application of heat. During this limited germination enzymes are developed (see FERMENTATION), and the constituents of the grain modified so that the finished malt, when ground and submitted to the mashing process (see BREWING), differs from the original raw grain in that the greater portion dissolves. This solubility is, however, a direct one to a slight extent only; it is due for the most part to the action of the malt enzymes, diastase, &c. on the constituents of the grain, the main portion of which are of themselves insoluble. Thus starch, the main constituent of all graminaceous seeds, probably exists in the same condition in raw grain and in malt. When however the malt is mashed, the starch is attacked by the enzyme diastase, and converted by the process of hydrolysis into a mixture of soluble compounds, e.g. the crystalline sugar, maltose, and a number of gummy substances known as maltodextrins. But to a certain extent starch and other carbohydrate substances are rendered directly soluble and diffusible during the malting process, some of the products serving the respiratory needs of the growing germ, others being assimilated by the plantlet and reconverted into reserve carbohydrates in the tissues of the germ and rootlets, whilst the remaining portions are retained as such in the finished malt. Similarly certain of the nitrogenous constituents of the grain, the proteins, are broken down and rendered soluble by proteolytic enzymes, the products being assimilated to a certain extent by the _germ and rootlets, by the cells of which they are again built up into complex proteins, whilst others remain in their simplified form. It is now known that proteolytic enzymes exist in finished malt, and that, when the mashing process is conducted under certain conditions, these are able to degrade and render soluble some of the higher proteins present in the malt. When germination is allowed to proceed as it does when the grain is planted in the soil, the whole of the contents are rendered soluble by degrees and in turn assimilated by the growing plantlet. By the limited germination which constitutes the malting process, however, the balance of soluble compounds left in the finished malt is from 15 to 25% of the total weight of the corn. Although other seeds of the natural order Gramineae are occasionally malted, the greater portion of malt is made from the various species of Hordeum, known by the name of barley 49.9 (q.v.), bigg, or here. Indeed ordinary beer derives its characteristic flavour to the greatest extent from barley malt. A small proportion of malted oats or malted wheat is sometimes used in conjunction with barley malt for certain kinds of beer, whilst rye, maize, and even rice are occasionally malted. Barley is, however, the grain best adapted for making malt intended for brewing beer, and accordingly some space will be devoted to a description of those varieties of this grain which are used by the brewer. Barley belongs to the genus Hordeum, of which there are numerous species and varieties. Linnaeus and the earlier botanists recognized six species of cultivated barleys, but modern botanists usually consider all cultivated barleys as belonging to , one species to which the name H. sativum has been given. KOrnicke regards H. spontaneum, a very long thin-grained two-rowed barley (see below) which grows in the East, as being the parent form; but E. S. Beaven inclines to the view that wild species of more than one form were originally used as food and subsequently cultivated. The last-named author has drawn up a scheme of classification for the varieties and races of cultivated barleys. a. Three spikelets in situ on the rachis, showing short internodes. b. Spike. Median spikelets uppermost, and with lower awns removed. Six-rowed c. Spike. Lateral spikelets uppermost, and with barleys. lower awns removed. a. Three spikelets in situ on the rachis, showing long internodes. b. Spike. Median spikelets uppermost. c. Spike. . Lateral spikelets uppermost. a, d. Spikelets. Rachis edgewise, showing short internodes. b. Var. zeocrithum (fan barley). Spike converging. c. Var. erectum (Goldthorpe). Spike parallel. FIG. 4.—H. distichum. a, d. Spikelets. Rachis edgewise, showing long internodes. b. Var. nutans (Chevallier). c. Ouchak barley. Figures 1-4 redrawn from a paper by E. S. Beaven in Journ. Fed. Inst. Brewing (1902), 8. 542. In an ear of barley the primary axis or rachis is divided into internodes of which there may be any number up to forty. Each internode bears three single-flowered spikelets arranged alternately on either side of the rachis. In the six-rowed varieties the whole of these spikelets attain maturity, whilst in the two-rowed varieties only one on each side of the rachis, viz. the median, develops. British beer is brewed principally from the malt made from home-grown two-rowed barleys. Of late years, however, it has been found advantageous to employ a proportion of malt made from the thinner and more husky foreign barleys, mostly six-rowed varieties. The corns of two-rowed barleys are as a rule plumper than those of six-rowed barleys. The most favourite barley for malting purposes grown in the United Kingdom is the narrow-eared two-rowed H. distichum, commonly known as Chevallier, from the name of the original cultivator, the Rev. John Chevallier. Of late years the quantity of Two-rowed barleys. barley of the so-called Goldthorpe type (H. zeocriton), used for malting, has increased. The paleae or outer coverings of the corns of this variety are somewhat "greasy" in appearance, and do not adhere so closely to the corn as in the Chevallier. The corns of Goldthorpe barley possess a small dimple or transverse furrow near the basal end. Further the basal bristle or rachilla (the prolongation of the axis or point from which the corn was originally developed) is invariably covered with long hairs, whilst in the case of Chevallier it has generally very short hairs. In the variety of Chevallier known as Archer, however, the rachilla has somewhat long hairs. Further the corns of Chevallier barley lie nearly vertical, that is almost parallel to the rachis, whereas in Goldthorpe they are spread out at a greater angle, hence the name fan or peacock barley given to that variety commonly known as sprat. It is believed by some brewers that Goldthorpe barleys never yield malt of so high a quality as do Chevallier barleys. On the other hand, when well matured. Goldthorpes work evenly and freely on the malting floors; and from an agricultural point of view they have the advantage of standing up better against unfavourable weather conditions on account of their stouter straws. Numerous fresh varieties of barley are continually being introduced as a result of artificial cross-fertilization, but cross-fertilization rarely if ever occurs naturally. Hungarian two-rowed barleys are excellent as regards quality, and command a high price. The so-called Californian Chevallier and Chilean Chevallier contain a certain admixture of the six-rowed H. vulgare. Of the imported thin barleys may be mentioned Brewing Californian, Brewing Chilean, Danubian and Smyrna (Yerli), all for the most part six-rowed varieties; also Ouchak, consisting principally of a two-rowed variety. For the manufacture of grain spirit a malt of high diastatic activity is required, and this is largely made from a very thin barley shipped from Odessa. In the common six-rowed English barley or Scottish bere (H. vulgare), the two lateral rows of spikelets springing from one side of the rachis, either partially or entirely intersect and overlap the alternate lateral spikelets which spring from the opposite side of the rachis. This has given rise to the term " four-rowed barley." Figs. 1–4 show some typical barleys in the ear. The production of new varieties by cross-fertilization has of late years attained a degree of almost mathematical precision by thewhen it begins to develop into a young plant. Next to this, actually between the scutellum and the endosperm, will be seen a layer of empty cells. These at one time in the history and the development of the corn contained starch granules, but this starch was absorbed during its later development by the embryo. It will be observed further that the endosperm is filled with a network of thin-walled cells closely packed with starch granules, and smaller granules of protein matter (fig. 6). Nearest the skin will be seen the triple layer of aleurone cells already referred to (fig. 7). application of the law of inheritance first discovered by Gregor FIG. 5.—Median longitudinal section of a barleycorn showing Mendel in 1865, and brought to light in 1901 independently by the germ and its appendages. de Vries, Correns and Tschermak. a, Constitution of Barley.—A grain of barley is shuttle-shaped; Rudimentary leaves or plu- e, Absorptive epithelial layer; mules; f, Compressed layer of empty the end containing the germ which was originally attached b, Rudimentary stem; cells; c, Rudimentary root; g, Starch cells (filled). to the rachis is known as the proximal end, whilst the opposite d, Empty starch cells of the end of the corn is called the distal end. A deep furrow runs endosperm ; down the more convex side, which is accordingly denoted the ventral side, the opposite side being distinguished as the dorsal side. Within the ventral furrow at the proximal end is the rachilla already referred to. The skin or husk of a barleycorn consists of two paleae, one adhering to the dorsal side (the palea inferior) and the other to the ventral side (the palea superior) ; the former overlaps the edges of the latter. The awn or beard is merely an elongation of the palea inferior. If the two paleae are removed from a barleycorn after soaking it in water, it will be seen that there are other skins completely enveloping the embryo and endosperm. These are the true skins, and are known as the pericarp and the testa respectively. It may here be mentioned that A. J. Brown has shown recently that the embryo and endosperm of a barleycorn are enclosed in a semi-permeable membrane, i.e. one which allows the passage of water to the interior of the corn, but not of certain salts and acids. This property appears to be associated with one of the layers of- the testa. Next to these skins will be seen the triple layer of thick-walled square-shaped aleurone cells. The histology of the barleycorn is best studied by the examination of sections under the microscope. The grain consists of two main portions, the. embryo or germ, and the endosperm, the storehouse of reserve materials for the growing plant. The accompanying illustrations show portions of longitudinal sections of a barleycorn magnified to different degrees. On examining fig. 5, which represents a section of the germ end of a grain of barley cut through the ventral furrow, it will be noticed that the rudimentary leaves, stem and roots are distinguishable. The embryo lies embedded in a mass of cells, the part dividing it from the endosperm being known as the scutellum. Special note should be taken of the elongated cells known as the absorptive epithelial layer, which has certain very important functions to fulfil during the process of germination, notably in feeding the embryo highly magnified. d, Walls of starch cells; g, Cells filled with starch Bra- e, Epithelial layer; nules; f, Compressed layer of empty h, Cells of the scutellum. cells; Germination.—The barleycorn in its resting stage is in a state which may be described as one of dormant vitality; it end to end. The sample should have a sweet odour, and it should be dry to the touch. The presence of light or weevilled corns may be detected by the fact that they float in water. Careless threshing or dressing is responsible for much damage done to barley. In this way many of the corns may be broken, have the paleae partly stripped off or portions removed along with the awn. All broken and dead corns are prone to become mouldy on the malting floors, the contagion thus presented becoming general. E. R. Moritz drew attention in 1895 to the ill effects of close dressing, and more recently (1905) the matter has been brought before the Highland and Agricultural Society, chiefly through Montagu Baird, who with C. H. Babington was instrumental in inducing the Board of Agri-culture to publish a leaflet recommending more careful methods of threshing barley. Close dressing was at one time practised as a means of raising the bushel weight, and thus giving a fictitious value to the barley. Immature barley feels cold to the hand, has a greenish-yellow colour, and, when dry, a starved wrinkled appearance. Over-ripeness in barley is distinguished by a white dead appearance of the corn. Mature or dry grains slip through the fingers more readily than unripe or damp ones. The contents of the endosperm should present a white friable or mealy appearance when the corns are bitten or cut in two with a penknife. The condition of the grain may be determined by means of a mechanical cutter, which cuts a certain number of corns (fifty or more) at one time. Some cutters are constructed to cut the corns transversely, others to cut them longitudinally. The so-called transparency test may be used for the same purpose. It is. carried out in an apparatus known as the diaphanoscope, which consists of a box fitted with a sliding tray, furnished with a certain number of shuttle-shaped holes (usually 500), each of such a size as just to hold a barleycorn longitudinally. Into the portion of the box below this tray an electric lamp is placed, and the corns are looked at from above. Thoroughly mealy corns are opaque, whilst steely corns are transparent. When certain portions of a corn are steely, these present the appearance of lakes. By this means the percentage of mealy, steely, or half steely corns in a sample may readily be estimated. E. Prior points out that steeliness of barley is of two kinds, one of which disappears after the grain has been steeped and dried, and therefore does not necessarily influence the malting value of the sample, and the other which is permanent, and therefore retards the modification of the corn. He proposed to determine what he called the coefficient of mellowness of a sample of barley by means of the formula: A_,(M,—M) loo loo—M+M' in which A is the degree of mellowness, 1VI is the percentage of mealy corns in the original barley, and MI is the percentage of mealy corns after steeping and drying the barley. Prior points out that, generally speaking, the degree of mellowness varies inversely as the protein content. The physical differences between steely and mealy grains were first investigated by Johansen, who arrived at the conclusion that mealiness is always accompanied by the presence of air spaces in the endosperm. Munro and Beaven confirmed and extended this. Their conclusions are as follow: " Mealy grains have a lower specific gravity than steely grains, and contain a larger amount of interstitial air. The total nitrogen content of mealy grains is less than that of steely grains. Steely grains contain a relatively high pro-portion of nitrogenous substances soluble (a) in 5% salt solution, and (b) in alcohol of specific gravity 0.9. Mealy barley modifies better than steely during germination. The process of drying damp and under-matured barley intact at roo° F. produced an apparent mellowing or maturation. Other things being equal, maturation, which is physiologically a post-ripening process, is correlated with the mealy appearance of the endosperm." H. T. Brown and his collaborators point out that thin sections of steely corns when examined under the microscope no longer exhibit a translucent appear, ance, but show the mealy properties as completely as if they had been cut from a mealy grain, and they suggest that in a steely corn the whole of the endosperm is under a state of tensile stress which cannot .be maintained in the thin sections. If, however, a thin section of a steely barley be cemented to a slide with Canada balsam and then pared away with a razor, steeliness and translucency may be pre-served even in the thinnest sections. The mealy appearance in the endosperm of barley is assumed to be a direct consequence of the formation of interspaces around the cell-contents and within the respires very slowly and thus loses weight during storage. The best and driest barleys are said to lose 1'3% of their weight in the first year, 0.9% in the second, and 0'5% in the third. The loss is considerably more with coarse and damp samples. When the grain is steeped this dormant vitality gives place to that complicated series of processes comprised under the general term germination. When germination begins, enzymes are secreted, and these act on the reserve materials, starch and proteins of the endosperm, converting them into simpler compounds, capable of diffusing to various parts of the growing germ. Following this, starch and proteins are re-formed, the former being deposited in the tissues of the germ and in the t, VIM wo won) DO Elfin Eua cm.. g, Starch cells; k, Layers which collectively con- Aleurone layer; stitute the husk. (Figs. 5-7 from Sykes & Ling, Principles and Practice of Brewing (19o7), Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd.] 9 cells of the scutellum, which previously were almost free from starch; the protein matter deposited in the latter disappears to a 'considerable extent, and the protoplasmic. content of the cells assumes a very granular appearance. The pointed mass of cells constituting the root-sheath is pushed forward by the root which protrudes through the base of the grain. It is at this stage that the barley is said by the maltster to " chit." After the first rootlet has broken through the ends of the sheath, it is followed by others. The cotyledonary sheath begins to elongate on the third or fourth day of germination and ruptures the true covering of the seed; it then grows upwards between this and the husk and forms the acrospire or " spire " of the maltster. According to Brown and Morris, when the first rootlet is breaking through the sheath, starch begins to appear in the tissues of the grain, also in the protoplasm of those cells which are nearest the epithelial layer, and it gradually invades the deeper-seated cells. Further the cellulose walls of the endosperm, situated immediately above the secretory layer, are partially dissolved, the dissolved matter passing into the scutellum, there to be transformed into starch. Brown and Morris state that this process gradually extends to the cellulose walls of the endosperm, and until these are affected there is no evidence of any solvent action on the starch granules themselves. Thus according to these authors the first enzyme to be formed is one which dissolves cell walls, and it was consequently termed by them a " cytohydrolyst." They assert further that the so-called mealy or modified condition, which the maltster desires to bring about to the fullest degree, depends on the extent to which the cell walls have been affected, and they enter into a minute description of the entire disappearance of these during the malting process. On the other hand, J. Grilss has pointed out that the action which takes place on the cell walls of the endosperm during germination does not consist in their complete solution. Schulze has shown that these cell walls consist of two carbohydrates, an araban and a xylan. ' Griiss states that the araban is completely dissolved, whilst the xylan is more or less unattacked. The cell walls become, however, transparent so that they can only be seen in sections which have been stained; Brown and Morris examined unstained sections. The writer (A. R. Ling) has proved that the cell wall is present in the most friable and well modified finished malt. Condition.—Barley is bought in the open market solely on the evidence of certain external signs, and judgment can only be acquired by long experience. The corns should be plump, even in size, and the colour should be uniform from cell walls. Under ordinary conditions it is conjectured that these interspaces are filled with air, but it is pointed out that they can also be produced under circumstances which suggest that they are at times vacuous or partly so. According to the last-mentioned authors they appear to originate from a system of stresses and strains induced within the endosperm by its gradual loss of water, a break of continuity taking place which gives rise to these interspaces when the cohesive power of the heterogeneous cell-contents falls, below a certain point. It is further suggested by them that the most important factor in producing the stresses and strains is probably the shrinkage of the starch granules as their water content is reduced from, say, 40 to about 15 %. It is pointed out, however, that actual discontinuity in the cell-contents can only take place when the tensile strength of the protoplasmic matrix in which the starch granules are embedded has been surpassed, and this being so it might be anticipated that those cells which contain the larger amount of protein material would probably best resist the internal stresses and strains, a deduction in close agreement with observed facts, steely grains being as a rule richer in protein than mealy grains. Brown and his co-workers determine the coefficient of mealiness of a barley as follows: Five hundred corns are cut transversely in a corn cutter and the percentage of mealy, half mealy and steely corns is noted. The number Too is taken to represent complete mealiness, I complete steeliness, and 50 the intermediate class. If the percentage of each class be multiplied by its special value, and the sum of the products divided by too, the result is the coefficient of mealiness. By steeping and drying a very steely Scottish barley, the coefficient of mealiness was raised from 29.7 to 87.1, whilst concurrently the specific gravity fell from 1.417 to 1.289. Barley even of the same kind varies widely in its chemical composition, but on an average the proximate constituents of British malting barleys lie within the following limits: Moisture 18 -12 per cent. Nitrogenous matters expressed as proteins 8 -15 Fat 2 — 2.5 Starch 6o -65 „ Sugars 1.5—2.0 Gums 1.7- 2.0 Fibre (cellulose) 5 — 7 „ Ash 2 — 2.5 „ Any sample of barley which contains more than 20 % of moisture would be considered damp. The late Professor Lintner expressed the view several years ago that a good malting barley should not contain more than xo % of protein, but R. Wahl asserts that in America six-rowed barleys containing a far higher percentage of protein are used successfully, indeed preferably, for malting purposes. The only precise knowledge we possess of the protein compounds of barley is due to the researches of T. B. Osborne. According to this observer, barley contains the under-mentioned compounds of this class in the following proportions: Soluble in water LPeroteosucosien (albumin) Soluble in salt solution: Edestin (globulin) . Soluble in 75 alcohol c Insoluble protein Total 10.75 „ It should be pointed out here that the above are only average values for the particular samples of barley investigated. Undoubtedly the nitrogenous constituents of different barleys vary widely in nature as well as in amount. Raw barley contains enzymes, thus diastase of translocation, so called by 'Horace T. Brown and G. H. Morris, and catalase (H. van Laer). - Proteolytic enzymes appear only to arise with the beginning of germination; but it has been asserted that raw barley contains proenzymes (zymogens), which can be rendered active by treatment with dilute lactic acid at an appropriate temperature. The action of the diastase of raw barley on starch has been studied by Julian L. Baker. Barley should not be cut until it is properly ripe, but over-ripeness is much more to be guarded against by the maltster than premature cutting, as it is accompanied by a loss in germinative power. Moreover, unripe corn may to a certain extent be matured in stack, whilst a great improvement in germinative capacity is frequently produced by sweating. Very wet seasons are prejudicial to the ripening of the grain, and when the latter is stacked in too moist a condition it is apt to become what is known as mow burnt. Especially is this the case with barleyscontaining large percentages of nitrogen and of high enzymatic activities. Such barleys are denoted " warm " by M. Delbriick from their tendency to heat when stored in a moist condition. The effect of this heating is exhibited in the corns becoming black and discoloured at the tips; they are then said to be magpied. Even in an otherwise dry season a large amount of rain during harvest causes the corns to become " weathered,” whilst some of them begin germinating and rot. At the same time heavy dews at night whilst the barley lies cut in the field, or even a sprinkling of rain, assists in mellowing the grain, which often in consequence works the more freely on the malting floors. Properly harvested barley is all the better for remaining in stack for two or three months, as was the practice in former years; if, however, it has been stacked too wet the sooner it is broken down the better. It is difficult to give any specific test for ripeness, but a series of observations has been made by H. T. Brown and F. Escombe. Samples of barley were taken from the field on the loth, 24th and 29th of July, and on the 2nd, 6th and loth of August, and preserved in spirit so that they remained in the same state as when they were gathered. Sections were then cut of these corns, when it was found that the progress of maturation is attended by deformation and ultimate disintegration of the cell nuclei. The change which is denoted by the term nuclear senescence is said to begin in the starch-containing cells, near the periphery of the corn, immediately under-lying the layer next to the aleurone layer. This deformation is followed by complete disintegration of the nucleus, and at the end of seven or eight days nearly the whole of the endosperm has been involved. Brown and Escombe state that when this nuclear test is properly applied it stamps as immature those corns in a sample which are manifestly unripe owing to premature desiccation as well as those in which the ratio of nitrogen to carbohydrate is unduly high, owing to an excess of nitrogenous manure in the soil, or to sparser sowing with its consequent reduction of root competition. This method, interesting though it be, is not fitted for practical use, and the agriculturist must rely as heretofore upon empirical methods for deciding whether or not the grain has attained ripeness or maturity. The bushel weight is a useful criterion in arriving at an opinion regarding the value of a sample of barley; but in basing judgment upon this factor regard must be paid to the fact already mentioned that if the grains be dressed closely the bushel weight is increased. The reason of this is that with the removal of the awns the corns pack more closely together. The best British malting barleys should weigh 52–56 lb per bushel, the standard weight for malting barleys being 56 lb. During the storage of barley access of air is necessary, otherwise the grain dies from asphyxiation. Sound barley after being kiln-dried retains its vitality for a number of years; but the statement that the corns found in the Egyptian mummy cases, in which they had remained for several thousands of years, were still capable of germination, is contrary to modern experience. Moisture must also be carefully excluded, as it initiates germination in a few cells only of the endosperm and causes heating. A constant repetition of wetting such as may take place on account of alterations of the atmospheric temperature, which causes moisture. to be deposited, in the form of dew, may ultimately destroy the vitality and foster the growth and development of mould fungi which usually grow on broken and damaged corns. In this connexion the advantage of screening and sweating of barley before storing it will be apparent (see below). An immense amount of damage is caused to the grain, during storage, by various insects, one of the most destructive of these being the common weevil (Calandra granaria). When fully developed this insect measures ith to xth of an inch in length, and is of a bright chestnut colour. The larvae are fleshy legless grubs, shorter than the perfect insect, with a series of tubercles along each side of the body; the head is round with strong jaws. The pupa is white, clear and transparent, showing the form of the future weevil. The female bores a hole in the grain with her snout and deposits an egg. The larva when hatched lives on the contents of the grain and under-goes its changes therein. Windisch asserts that only barley which has ripened in the granary is attacked by weevil. Grain which is only slightly attacked should be kilned at a temperature of 1220 F., which destroys the weevil in all stages of development. To detect weevil in a sample of barley, the grain should be spread out on a sheet of white paper in bright sunlight. If weevils are present they soon appear, and betake themselves to a position outside the sunlight, to which they are averse. Treatment of the grain with carbon 0.30 per cent. 1.95 4.00 4.50 bisulphide has been suggested as a means of destroying weevil; even if efficacious, however, such a process could not be recommended on account of its danger, carbon bisulphide being highly inflammable. The only practical means of ridding a granary or shop of weevil is to clear out all the grain and leave it empty for a year or more. The vitality of barley may be determined by causing a sample to germinate in any of the well-known forms of apparatus devised for that purpose, and counting the percentage of germinating and idle corns. The germinative capacity of a sample of barley may frequently be raised by sweating (see below), which, as already mentioned, brings about a kind of artificial maturation. Malling.—There are two systems of malting used in England: floor malting and pneumatic or drum malting. These systems will be described separately. A floor malting consists of a rectangular building of several storeys, having the cisterns at one end and the kilns at the other. The uppermost floor is devoted to barley. The capacity of a malting is described by the number of quarters which are put through it every four days. A fifty quarter malting does not merely mean that the cisterns have a capacity of fifty quarters, but that this quantity of barley goes through the house every four days. The average time the germinating barley is on the floors is twelve days, and, as a rule, kilning occupies four days. If, as sometimes happens, the malt has to be kept on the floors thirteen, fourteen, fifteen days, or even longer, the malting is not being worked at the capacity under which it is described, and the kilns may remain unused, for a day or more. Conversely, when the malt is loaded at less than twelve days, a day or two has to be missed in steeping. In the former case when the kilns are not being used for drying and curing malt, advantage may be taken to utilize them for sweating barley. Steeping cisterns were formerly rectangular vessels, of slate, brick or cement, from which the barley had to be discharged by shovelling it out. The forms approved most at the present N N N ~\ I'IIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIyII11111111111111111111III1111119iUUIIIIIIIIUU!IlII19111111IIIIII u ^I hP11111111IIIII0111111111111IIIIIIIj11111111111 Iilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll611111i11111111} ll% ~__ i El NI; !!Ii Wok M
End of Article: MALT (O. Eng., mealt; O. Sax., malt; O. Tent., maltos; Mod. Ger., Malz; Scand., malt; probably derived from the Sanskrit mrdu, soft, thus having reference to the fact that malt is raw grain rendered soft or tender)

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