See also:ALMA'MON (" in whom men
See also:trust "), the seventh of the Abbasid caliphs of
See also:Bagdad, was
See also:born about A.D . 786, and was the second son of
See also:Harun al-Rashid . By Harun's will he was successor- designate to his
See also:brother Amin, during whose reign he was to be
See also:governor of the eastern
See also:part of the
See also:empire . On Harun's
See also:death (8og) Amin succeeded and
See also:Mamun acquiesced . Irritated, how-ever, by the treatment he received from Amin, and supported by a portion of the army, Mamun speedily rebelled . A five years' struggle between the two
See also:brothers ended in the death of Amin and the proclamation of Mamun as
See also:caliph at Bagdad (
See also:Sept . 813) . Various factions and revolts, which disturbed the first years of his reign, were readily quelled by his prudent and energetic
See also:measures . But a much more serious
See also:rebellion, stirred up by his countenancing the heretical
See also:sect of
See also:Ali and adopting their
See also:colours, soon after threatened his
See also:throne . His
See also:crown was actually on the
See also:head of his
See also:Ibrahim b .
See also:Mandi (surnamed Mobarek) for a
See also:time (Barbier de Meynard, in Journal Asiatique,
See also:April 1869) . This inaugurated a
See also:period of tranquillity, which Mamun employed in fostering literature and science .
He had already, while governor ofKhorasan, founded a
See also:college there, and attracted to it the most eminent men of the
See also:day, and Bagdad became the seat of academical instruction . At his own expense he caused to be translated into Arabic many valuable books from the Greek, Persian, Chaldean and Coptic
See also:languages; and he was himself an ardent student of
See also:mathematics and astronomy . The first Arabic
See also:translation of Euclid was dedicated to him in 813 . Mamun founded observatories at Bagdad and Kassiun (near
See also:Damascus), and succeeded in determining the inclination of the
See also:ecliptic . He also caused a degree of the meridian to be measured on the plain of Shinar; and he constructed astronomical tables, which are said to be wonderfully accurate . In 827 he was converted to the heterodox faith of the Mo'tazilites, who asserted the
See also:free-will of man and denied the eternity of the
See also:Koran . The later years (829-830) of his reign were distracted by hostilities with the Greek emperor
See also:Theophilus, while a series of revolts in different parts of the Arabian empire betokened the decline of the military
See also:glory of the caliphs . Spain and part of Africa had already asserted their independence, and
See also:Egypt and
See also:Syria were now inclined to follow . In 833, after quelling Egypt, at least nominally, Mamun marched into
See also:Cilicia to prosecute the war with the Greeks, but died near
See also:Tarsus, leaving his crown to a younger brother, Motasim . The death of Mamun ended an important epoch in the
See also:history of science and letters and the period of Arabian prosperity which his
See also:father's reign had begun . See further under
See also:CALIPHATE, sect . C., §§ 5, 6, 7 .
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