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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 607 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MANES . FECIT . (C.I.L. xv. 7249). brick-facing, probably of the time of Nero; all had been richly decorated with marble linings and mosaics. The line of the street was parallel to that of the later Aurelian wall, which at this part was built against the back of this row of houses. At the same time, behind the line of houses were uncovered fine peperino and tufa piers of the aqueduct rebuilt by Augustus, one arch of which forms the Porta S. Lorenzo. These interesting remains have all been completely destroyed. A fine house of the end of the 1st century A.D., with richly decorated walls, was exposed in June 1884 against the slope of the Quirinal, near the Palazzo Colonna; it was immediately destroyed to make room for new buildings. The praetorian camp was first made permanent and surrounded with a strong wall by the emperor Tiberius (Suet. Tib. 37). Owing Praetor to the camp being included in the line of the Aurelian lancamp. wall, a great part of it still exists; it is a very interesting specimen of early imperial brick-facing. The wall is only I2 to 14 ft. high, and has thinly scattered battlements, at intervals of 20 ft. The north-east gate (Porta Principalis Dextra) is well preserved ; it had a tower on each side, now greatly reduced in height, in which are small windows with arched heads moulded in one slab of terra-cotta. The brick-facing is very neat and regular,—the bricks being about 1 z in. thick, with i-in. joints. On the inside of • the wall are rows of small rooms for the guards. Part of the Porta Praetoria also, remains. This camp was dismantled by Constantine, who removed its inner walls; the outer ones were left because they formed part of the Aurelian circuit. The present wall is nearly three times the height of the original camp wall. The upper part was added when Aurelian included it in his general circuit wall round Rome. The superior neatness and beauty of Tiberius's brick-facing make it easy to distinguish where his work ,ends and that of the later emperors begins. Owing to the addition of the later wall it requires some care to trace the rows of battlements which belong to the camp. The Pantheon is the most perfect among existing classical buildings in Rome. The inscription on the frieze of the portico (M Pantheon. AGRIPPA . L F COS . TERTIVM . FECIT) refers to a build- ing erected by Agrippa in 27 B.C., consecrated to the divinities of the Julian house (Mars, Venus, etc.) under the name Pantheum (" all-holy "); cf, Dio Cass. liii. 27; Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 43. It was sometimes used as the meeting-place of the Fratres Arvales before they began to meet in the temple of Concord (C.I.L. v. 2041). Pliny mentions the sculpture by the Athenian Diogenes which adorned it, and its capitals and dome covering of Syracusan bronze (xxxiv. 7). It was long supposed that the present rotunda was the Pantheon of Agrippa; but this was destroyed in the great fire of A.D. 8o (Oros. 7, 12; Hieron. Abr. 2127);. and recent investigations have shown that the rotunda is a work of Hadrian's reign, bricks of that period having been found in all parts of the building. Excavations have made it probable that the site of the rotunda was previously occupied by an open piazza, whose pavement of coloured marbles has been discovered beneath the flooring, and that Agrippa's Pantheon covered the present piazza and faced southward. The present portico has been reconstructed; it is probable that Agrippa's portico had ten columns in the front. The ceiling of the portico too was of bronze, supported by hollow bronze girders,l which remained till Urban VIII. melted them to make cannon for S. Angelo; the bronze weighed 450,000 lb. The bronze tiles of the dome were stolen long before by Constans II., in 663, but on their way to Constantinople they were seized by the Saracens. The portico has eight columns on the front and three on the sides, all granite monoliths except the restored ones on the east side,—sixteen in all. The capitals are Corinthian, of white marble; the tympanum (eceros) of the pediment was filled with bronze reliefs of the battle of the gods and the giants.2 The walls of the circular part, nearly 20 ft. thick, are of solid tufa concrete, thinly faced with brick. The enormous dome, 142 ft. 6 in. in span, is cast in concrete made of pumice-stone, pozzolana and lime; being one solid mass, it covers the building like a shell, free from any lateral thrust at the haunches. On the face of the concrete is a .system of superimposed relieving arches in brick. These no longer possess any constructive value, but were designed to preserve the stability of the dome whilst the concrete became firmly set. Round the central opening or hypaethrum still remains a ring of enriched mouldings in gilt bronze, the only bit left of the bronze which once covered the whole dome. The lower storey of the circular part and the walls of the projecting portico were covered with slabs of Greek marble; a great part of the latter still remains, enriched with Corinthian pilasters and bands of sculptured ornament. The two upper storeys of the drum were covered outside with hard stucco of pounded' marble. Inside the whole was lined with a great variety of rich oriental marbles. This magnificent interior, divided info two orders by an entablature supported on columns and pilasters, has been much injured by 1 Adtawing of this interesting bronze work, by G. A. Dosio, is preserved in.the Uffizi at Florence (No. 1021). 2 On the architrave is cut an inscription recording the restoration of the Pantheon by Severus in 202.alteration.° About 6o8 the Pantheon was given by Pliocas to Boniface IV., who consecrated it as the church of S. Maria ad Martyres. In 1881–82 the destruction of a row of houses `Thermae behind the Pantheon exposed remains of a grand hall with of richly sculptured entablature on Corinthian columns, part Agrippa. of the great thermae of Agrippa, which extend beyond the Via della Ciambella. A great part of the thermae appears from the brick stamps to belong to an extensive reconstruction in the reign of Hadrian 4 (see BATHS). Close by the Pantheon is the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, which stands (as its name records) on or near the site of a temple to Minerva Chalcidica (Plan, No. 12), probably founded by Pompey the Great, c. 6o B.C. (Plin. H.N. vii. 97), and restored by Domitian. Adjoining this were temples to Isis and Serapis, a cult which became very popular in Rome in the time of Hadrian; large quantities of sculpture, Egypto-Roman in style, have been found on this site at many different times.° Several of the barracks (excubitoria) of the various cohorts of the vigiles or firemen have been discovered in various parts of Rome. That of the first cohort (Plan, No. 29) is buried under the Fhemsn's Palazzo Savorelli; that of the second (Plan, No. 30) was harm;u . on the Esquiline, near the so-called temple of Minerva Medica ; that of the third (Plan, No. 31) was near the baths of Diocletian. The most perfect is that of the seventh cohort (Plan, No. 34), near S. Crisogono in Trastevere, a handsome house of the 2nd century, decorated with mosaic floors, wall-paintings, &c.° The excavations made in exposing the ancient church of S. Clemente brought to light interesting remains of different periods; drawings are given by Mullooly, St Clement and his Basilica (1869), and De Rossi, Bull. Arch. Grist. (1863),. 28. Some remains exist of the Golden House of Nero, which, including its parks, lakes, &c., covered an incredibly large space of ground, extending from the Palatine, over the Velia and the site oomden of the temple of Venus and Rome, to the Esquiline, filling noose of the great valley between the Caelian and the Esquiline Nero. where the Colosseum stands, and reaching far over the Esquiline to the great reservoir now called the Sette Sale." No other extravagances or cruelties of Nero appear to have offended the Roman people so much as the erection of this enormous palace, which must have blocked up many important roads and occupied the site of a whole populqus quarter. It was partly to make restitution for this enormous theft of land that Vespasian and Titus destroyed the Golden House and built the Colosseum and Thermae of Titus on part of its site. Adjoining the baths of Titus were those built on a much larger scale by Trajan. Under the substructions of these extensive remains of the Golden House still exist;7 and at one point, at a lower level still, pavements and foundations remain of one of the numerous houses destroyed by Nero to clear the site. The great bronze colossus of Nero, 120 ft. high (Suet. Nero, 31), which stood in one of the porticus of the Golden House, was moved by Vespasian, with head and attributes altered to those of Apollo (Helios), on to the Velia; and it was moved again by Hadrian, when the temple of Rome was built, on to the base which still exists near the Colosseum. Several coins show this colossus by the side of the Colosseum. Under the Palazzo Doria, the church of S. Maria in Via Lata, and other neighbouring buildings extensive remains exist of a great porticus, with long rows of travertine piers; this Saepta building is designated on fragments of the marble plan Jada. with the words SAEPT . . . LIA. This must be the Saepta Julia, begun by Julius Caesar, and completed by Agrippa in 27 B.c., as the voting place for the Comitia Centuriata, divided into compartments, one for each century. The building contained rostra, and was also used for gladiatorial shows. Under the later empire it became a bazaar and resort of slave-dealers. That curiously planned building on the Esquiline, in the new Piazza Vit. Emmanuele, where the so-called trophies of Marius once were placed (see Du Perac, Vestigj, pl. 27), is one of the numerous castella or reservoirs from which the water of the various aqueducts was distributed in the quarters they were meant to supply, and may perhaps be identified with the Nymphaeum Alexandri built ° The bronze door is not in its present form antique, having been recast by order of Pius IV. t The plan of the whole group, including the Pantheon, is given by Palladio (op. cit.). The recent discoveries are given by Lanciani, Not. d. Scavi (1882), p. 357, with a valuable plan. See also Geymuller, Documents inedits sur les Thermes d'Agrippa (Lausanne, 1883) ; Beltrami and Armanini, Il Panteon (1898) ; Durm, Baukunst der Romer, ed. 2, pp. 550 ff. ; Rivoira, Rivista di Roma (291o), p. 412. ° See Lanciani in Bull. Comm. Arch. Rom. (1883), and Marucchi, ibid. (1896) ; Fea, Miscell. ccliv. 112. Part of the Serapeum is shown on fragments of the marble plan, which have been pieced together by Huelsen (Jordan, Topographie der Stadt Rom. i. 3, pl. X.). ° See Visconti, La stazione della Coorte VII. de' Vigils (1867). 7 See De Romanis, Le antiche camere esquiline (1822). It should be noted that the paintings said to have belonged to, the baths of Titus really decorated the Golden House, over which the baths of Titus and Trajan were built. by Severus Alexander at the termination of his Alexandrine aqueduct, opened in 225 (see Hist. Aug. Sev. Alex. 25). But the marble trophies now set at the top of the Capitoline steps bear a quarry mark which shows them to be of the time of Domitian: it consists of the following inscription, now. not visible, as it is cut on the under part—IMP . DOM . AVG . GERM . PER . CHREZ . LIB . * Ca .i Places of Amusement. The Circus Maximus (see CIRCUS) occupied the Vallis Murcia2 between the Palatine and the Aventine. Its first rows of seats, amuses. which were of wood, are said to have been made under the' Tarquins (Liv. i. 26, 35; Dionys. iii. 68). Permanent carceres were set up in 329 B.C. and restored in 174 B.C. (Liv. viii. 20, xli. 27). In the reign of Julius Caesar it was rebuilt with (for the first time) lower seats of stone (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 102), the upper being still of wood (Suet. Caes. 39) ; Dionysius (iii. 68) describes it as it was after this rebuilding. It was further ornamented with marble by Augustus, Claudius and other emperors. The wooden part was burnt in the great fire of Nero, and again under Domitian; it was considerably enlarged by Trajan, and lastly it was restored by Constantine. In its later state it had a marble facade with three external tiers of arches with engaged columns, and (inside) sloping tiers of marble seats, supported on concrete raking vaults (Plan. Paneg. 51). A great part of these vaults existed in the 16th century, and is shown by Du Perac. It is said by Pliny (H.N. xxxvi. Io2)—if the text be not corrupt—to have held 250,000 spectators, while the Regionary Catalogues give the number of seats as 485,000; but Huelsen has shown (Bull. Comm. Arch., 1894, 421 ff.) that the figures are much exaggerated and must, moreover, be interpreted, not of the number of spectators, but of the length of the tiers expressed in feet. The end with the carceres was near the church of S. Maria in Cosmedin.' Some of its sub-structures, with remains of very early tufa structures on the Palatine side, still exist below the church of S. Anastasia (see Plan of Palatine). The obelisk now in the Piazza del Popolo was set on the spina by Augustus, and that now in the Lateran piazza by Constantius II. The Circus Flaminius in the Campus Martius was built in 221 B.C. by the C. Flaminius Nepos who was killed at the Trasimene Lake in 217 B.C.; remains of the structure existed until the 16th century, when they were destroyed to build the Palazzo Mattei. In the middle ages its long open space was used as a rope-walk, hence the name of the church called S. Caterina dei Funari, which occupies part of its site.' The circus of Caligula and Nero was at the foot of the Vatican Hill (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 74). The modern sacristy of St Peter's stands over part of its site. The obelisk. on its spina remained standing in situ till it was moved by Fontana' for Sixtus V. to its present site in the centre of the piazza. The great stadium, foundations of which exist under most of the houses of the Piazza Navona (Agonalis), and especially below S. Agnese, is that built by Domitian and restored by Severus Alexander. That it'was a stadium and not a circus is shown by the fact that its starting end is at right angles to the sides and not set diagonally, as was always the case with the carceres of a circus; nor is there any trace of foundations of a spina. The best preserved circus is that built by Maxentius in honour of his deified son Romulus, by the Via Appia, 2 M. outside the walls of Rome. It was attributed to Caracalla till 1825, when an inscription recording its true dedication was founds The first permanent naumachia was that constructed by Augustus between the foot of the Janiculan hill and the Tiber. The 'naumachia of Domitian was pulled down and the materials used to restore the Circus Maximus (Suet. Dom. 5) ; it was perhaps restored by Trajan, for the remains of a naumachia built of opus reticulatum mixed with brick have been discovered near the mausoleum of Hadrian. The first stone theatre in Rome was that built by Pompey in 55—52 B.C. (see THEATRE: Roman); it contained a temple to Venus Theatres. Victrix, and in front of it was a great porticus, called Hecatostylum from its hundred columns. This is shown on the marble plan' Considerable remains of the foundations exist between the Piazza dei Satiri, which occupies the site of the i See Bruzza, in Ann. Inst. (187o), and Lenormant, Trophees de Marius, Blois (1842). This once magnificent building, with the marble trophies in their place, is shown with much minuteness on a bronze medallion of Severus Alexander (see Froehner, Medallions de t empire, Paris, 1878, p. 169). 2 So called from a, prehistoric altar to the Dea Murcia (Venus) ; Varro, L.L. v. 154. 3 Part of it is shown on a fragment of the marble plan (see Jordan, F. U.R.) ; it is represented on a bronze medallion of Gordian III., with an obelisk on the spina and three metae at each end; in front are groups of wrestlers and boxers (see Graeber, Rom. Med. pl. xli., London, 1874). ' The remains extant in the 16th century were described by Ligorio, Libro delle Antichita (1553), Q. 17. ' See his Trasporiazione dell' Obelisco Vat. (1590). 6 Nibby, Circo di Caracalla (1825) ; Canina, Edifizj di Roma, iv. pls. 194–96. 'Thu. Porn!). 52 ; Dion Cass. xxxix. 38; Tac. Ann. xiv. 20.scena, and the Via de' Giubbonari and Via del Paradiso. Adjoining this was the porticus Pompeictna, which contained the curia of Pompey, where Caesar was murdered, after which it was walled up. The colossal statue, popularly supposed to be that of Pompey, at the feet of which Caesar died,' now in the Palazzo Spada, was found in 1553 near the theatre. This theatre was restored by Augustus (Mon. Anc. 4, 9) ; in the reign of Tiberius it was burnt, and its rebuilding was completed by Caligula. The seen, was again burnt in A.D. 8o, and restored by Titus. According to Pliny (H.N. xxxvi. 115), it held 40,000 spectators; the Regionary Catalogues give the number 17,580. Huelsen estimates its capacity at 9000–.10,0o0 spectators. In 1864 the colossal gilt bronze statue of Hercules, now in the Vatican, was found near the site of the theatre of Pompey, carefully concealed underground. The theatre of Marcellus is much more perfect; complete foundations of the cunei exist under the Palazzo Savelli, and. part of the external arcade is well preserved. This is built of travertine in two orders, Tuscan and Ionic, with delicate details, very superior to those of the Colosseum, the arcade of which is very similar to this in general design. This theatre was begun by J. Caesar, and finished by Augustus in 13 B.C., who dedicated it in the name of his nephew Marcellus.' It was restored by Vespasian (Suet. Vesp. 19). Foundations also of the theatre dedicated by Cornelius Balbus in 13 B.C. (Suet. Aug. 29; Dio Cass. list. 25) exist under the Monte dei Cenci; and in the Via dei Calderari there is a small portion of the external arcade of a porticus (Plan, No. 42) ; the lower storey has travertine arches with engaged columns, and the upper has brick-faced pilasters. This has been sup-posed to be the Crypta Balbi mentioned in the Regionary Catalogues, but is more probably the Porticus Minucia; built in I to B.C. An interesting account of the temporary theatre of M. Aemilius Scaurus, erected in 58 B.C., is given by Pliny (H.N. xxxvi. 5, 113). The same writer mentions an almost incredible building, which consisted of two wooden theatres made to revolve on pivots, so that the two together made an amphitheatre; this was erected by C. Curio ih 50 B.C. (H.N. xxxvi. 116). The first stone amphitheatre in Rome was that built by Statilius Taurus in the reign of Augustus. (For the Colosseum and Amphlthe Amphitheatrum Castrense, see AMPHITHEATRE; for theatres. the Baths, see that article.) Arches, Columns, Tombs and Bridges. The earliest triumphal arches were the two erected by L. Stertinius (196 B.c.) in the Forum Boarium and in the Circus Maximus, out of spoils gained in Spain.10 In the later years of the Arches. empire there were nearly forty in Rome. The arch of Titus and Vespasian on the Summa Sacra Via was 'erected by Domitian to commemorate the conquest of Judaea by Titus in his father's reign. Reliefs inside the arch represent the triumphal procession—Titus in a chariot, and on the other side soldiers bearing the golden candlestick, trumpets and table of prothesis, taken from the Jewish temple. The central part only of this monument is original; the sides were restored in 1823 " Another arch in honour of Titus had previously been built (A.D. 8o) in the Circus Maximus; its inscription is given in the Einsiedeln MS. (C.I.L. vi. 944). A plain travertine arch near the supposed palace of Commodus on the Caelian is inscribed with the names of the Consul Publius Cornelius Dolabella (A.D. 10) and of the flamen martialis, C. Junius Silanus. It may have originally been used to carry the Aqua Marcia; in later times the Aqua Claudia passed over it. The so-called arch of Drusus by the Porta Appia also carries the spscus of an aqueduct—that built by Caracalla to supply hisgreat thermae. Its composite capitals show, however, that it is later than the time of Drusus, and it was very possibly the work of Trajan. Adjoining the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro a rich though coarsely decorated marble gateway with flat lintel still exists—built, as its inscription records, in honour of Severus and his sons by the argentarii (bankers and silversmiths) and other merchants of the Forum Boarium in 204. It formed an entrance from the Forum Boarium into the Velabrum. The figure of Geta in the reliefs and his name have been erased by Caracalla; the sculpture is poor both in design and execution (see Bull. Inst., 1867, p. 217, and 1871, p. 233). Close by is a quadruple arch, set at the intersection of two roads, such as was called by the 8 See Fea, Rom. Ant. lxviii. 57, for an account of its discovery. 9 Suet. Aug. 29. See Mon. Anc. 4, 22: " Theatrvm ad aedem. Apollinis . in . solo . magna . ex . parte a . [privatis .] empto . feci . qvod . svb . nomine . M . Marcelli . generi . [me]i . esset." The temple of Apollo here named was one of the most ancient and highly venerated in Rome; it was dedicated to the Delphic Apollo in 431 B.C. by Cn. Julius (Liv. iv. 25) ; meetings of the Senate were held in it; and it contained many fine works of art—an ancient cedar-wood statue of Apollo (Plin. H.N. xiii. II) and the celebrated statues of the slaughter of the Niobids by Praxiteles or Scopas (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 28), of which many ancient copies exist. 10 Liv. xxxiii. 27. " This arch is the earliest known example of the so-called Composite order, a modification of Corinthian in which the capitals combine Ionic volutes with Corinthian acanthus leaves; in other respects it follows the Corinthian order. Romans an arch of Janus Quadrifrons. Though partly built of earlier fragments, it is late in style, and may be the Arcus Constantini mentioned in the XIth region. The finest existing arch is that by the Colosseum erected by Constantine. It owes, however, little of its beauty to that artistically degraded period. Not only most of its reliefs but its whole design and many of its architectural features were stolen from an earlier arch erected by Trajan as an entrance to his forum (see above). The arch of Claudius, built in 43 to commemorate his supposed victories in Britain, stood across the Via Lata (modern Corso) in the Piazza Sciarra. Its exact position is shown in Bull. Comm. Arch. Rom., 1878, pl. iv. Its remains were removed in the middle of the 16th century,' and nothing now is left but half its inscription, preserved in the garden of the Barberini palace. It is shown on both aurei and denarii of Claudius, with an attic inscribed DE BRITANNIS, and surmounted by a quadriga and trophies. A little to the N. of the Piazza Colonna was an arch popularly called the Arco di Portogallo, destroyed in 1665, whose reliefs are now in the Palazzo dei Conservatori. They appear to date from the reign of Hadrian, but may have been used at a later time to decorate this arch. An arch also stood opposite S. Maria in Via Lata until 1498, which was probably erected by Diocletian in A.D. 303. The central part of the once triple arch of Gallienus still exists on the Esquiline; it took the place of the ancient Porta Esquilina of the Servian wall. It is built of travertine, is simple in design, with coarse details, and has an inscription on its attic. The two side arches and pediment over the centre existed in the 16th century, and are shown in the Mantuan oil-painting Rome,' and in several antiquarian works of the 16th century. The inscription (CLL. vi. 1106) records that it was erected in honour of Gallienus and his wife Salonina by Aurelius Victor.' ' The column of Antoninus Pius was a monolith of red granite, erected after his death by his adopted sons M. Aurelius and L. Columns. Verus. One fragment of it is preserved in the Vatican with an interesting quarry incription, recording that it was cut in the ninth year of Trajan's reign, under the supervision of Dioscurus and the architect Aristides. The rest of its fragments were used by Pius VI. to repair the obelisk of Monte Citorio, set up by Augustus in the Campus Martius as the gnomon of a sundial (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 72). The marble pedestal of the Antonine column is now in the Vatican; it has reliefs representing the apotheosis of Faustina and Antoninus Pius, and the decursio equitum which formed part of the funeral ceremony. This and the column of M. Aurelius were both surmounted by colossal portrait statues of gilt bronze. The column of M. Aurelius is very similar in size and design to that of Trajan. Its spiral reliefs represent victories in Germany from 171-175, arranged in twenty tiers. Like the column of Trajan, it is exactly ioo Roman ft. high, without the pedestal. The pedestal was originally much higher than at present, but is now partly buried; it is shown by Gamucci, Du Perac and other 16th-century writers. This column stood in front of a temple to M. Aurelius, and within a great peribolus, forming a forum similar to that of Trajan, though much smaller; the remains of this temple, amongst other buildings, probably form the elevation now called Monte Citorio.' For the catacombs, see CATACOMBS; for obelisks, see OBELISK and EGYPT. The prehistoric cemeteries of Rome are described above (Prehistoric Rome). Few tombs exist of the Roman period earlier than the 1st Tombs. century B.c.,—probably owing to the great extension of the city beyond the Servian limits, which thus obliterated the earlier burial-places. The tomb of the Cornelii Scipiones is the most important of early date which still exists. It is excavated in the tufa rock at the side of the Via Appia, outside the Porta Capena. Interments of the Scipio family went on here for about 400 years, additional chambers and passages being excavated from time to time. The peperino sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus (Liv. X. 12, 13), consul in 298 B.C., is now in the Vatican; its inscription, in rude Saturnian verse, is one of the most important existing specimens of early Latin epigraphy. Many other inscribed slabs were found in the 17th century, covering the loculi in which lay the bodies of later members of the family. Those now existing in the tomb are modern copies.' This burial-place of the Scipios is unlike those of other families, owing to the gens Cornelia keeping up the early custom of interment without burning; thus stone sarcophagi or loculi (rock-cut recesses) were required instead of mere pigeon-holes to hold the cinerary urns. The tomb of M. Bibulus, a few yards outside the Porta Fontinalis, and remains of two recently ' See Vacca, ap. Fea, Misc, p. 67. 2 Reproduced by De Rossi in his Piante di Roma Anteriori at Sec. XVI. (1879). See Bellori, Veteres Arcus (169o), showing some now destroyed : and Rossini, Archi Trionfali (1832). On the Antonine column see Petersen in Amelung's Katalog der vaticanischen Sculpturen, i. p. 883; on that of M. Aurelius see Die Marcussdule, by Petersen, v. Domaszewski and Calderini (Munich, 1896). The inscriptions are given in C.I.L. i. 29-39—vi. 1284-94. On the earlier ones see Woelfflin, Mii.nchener Sitzungsberichte (1892), 188 if.discovered during the destruction of the Aurelian towers at the Porta Salara, date from about the middle of the 1st century B.c., as does also the curious tomb of the baker Eurysaces outside the Porta Maggiore. In 1863 an interesting tomb of the Sempronia gens' was discovered on the Quirinal, below the royal palace, near the site of the Porta Salutaris. It is of travertine, with a rich entablature and frieze sculptured with the Greek honeysuckle ornament (see Bull. Comm. Arch., 1876, 126, pl. xii.). This also is of the last years of the republic. The mausoleum of Augustus, built 28 B.C., stood in the north part of the Campus Martius, between the Tiber and the Via Flaminia. It is a massive cylindrical structure of concrete, faced with Mausolea. opus reticulatum; according to Strabo, this was faced with " white stone," i.e. travertine; inside was a series of radiating chambers, in plan like a wheel. On the top was a great mound of earth, planted with trees and flowers (Tac. Ann. iii. 9). In the middle ages it was converted into a fortess by the Colonna, which was destroyed in 1167. In the 16th century the central portion was occupied by a garden.' Only the bare core exists now, with its fine opus reticulatum, best seen in the court of the Palazzo Valdambrini. The inside is concealed by modern seats, being now used as a concert-hall (Anfiteatro Chorea). The sepulchral inscription in honour of Augustus, engraved on two bronze columns at the entrance, is preserved to us by its copy at Ancyra (q.v.). It records an almost incredible amount of building: in addition to the long list of building'mentioned by name Augustus says, DVO. ET. OCTAGINTA. TEMPLA . DEVM.IN.VRBE . CONSVL. SEXTVM . REFECI.The first burial in the mausoleum of Augustus was that of M. Claudius Marcellus (died 23 B.C.), and it continued to be the imperial tomb till the death of Nerva, A.D. 98, after whose interment there was no more room. The mausoleum of Hadrian, built by that emperor as a substitute for that built by Augustus, and dedicated in A.D. 138 by his successor, was a large circular building on a square podium; its walls, of enormous thickness, were of tufa faced with Parian marble and surrounded by a colonnade with rows of statues,—a work of the greatest magnificence. The splendour of the whole is described by Procopius (Bell. Goth. i. 22), who mentions its siege by the Goths, when the defenders hurled statues on to the heads of the enemy. In the 7th century the church of S. Angelus inter Nubes was built on its summit, and all through the middle ages it served asa papal fortress. The interior chambers are still well preserved, but its outside has been so often wrecked and refaced that little of the original masonry is visible.8 Several of the grander sepulchral monuments of Rome were built in the form of pyramids. One of these still exists, included in the Aurelian wall, by the Porta Ostiensis. It is a pyramid of concrete, I18 feet high, faced with blocks of white marble, Sepul. and contains a small chamber decorated with painted chral stucco. An inscription in large letters on the marble ps'ramlds. facing records that it was built as a tomb for C. Cestius, a praetor, tribune of the people, and septemvir of the epulones (officials who supervised banquets in honour of the gods). It was erected, according to Cestius's will, by his executors, in the space of 330 days. It dates from the time of Augustus' (see Falconieri, in Nardini, Roma Anlica, iv. p. 1, ed. 1818-2o). Another similar pyramid, popularly known as the tomb of Romulus, stood between the mausoleum of Hadrian and the basilica of St Peter. It was destroyed at the close of the 15th century, during the rebuilding of the long bridge which connects the former building with the Vatican. The earliest bridge was a wooden drawbridge called the Pons Sublicius from the piles (sublicae) on which it was built. The river being an important part of the defence of Rome from Bridges. the Aventine to the Porta Flumentana (see plan of Servian wall, fig. 8), no permanent bridges were made till the Romans were strong enough not to fear attacks from without. The Pons Sublicius had a sacred character, and was always restored in wood, even in the imperial period.° Its exact site is doubtful, but it must be placed, some distance below the Ponte Rotto. The first stone bridge was begun in 179 B.C. and completed in 142 B.C., when the conquest of Etruria and the defeat of Hannibal had put an end to fears of invasion; it was called the Pons Aemilius, after the pontifex maximus" M. Aemilius Lepidus, its founder. It was also called Pons ' This is shown by an inscription (C.I.L. vi. 26152) found on the site in the 17th century. 7 See Du Perac's Vestigj, pl. 36, which shows the garden on the top. 8 On the mausoleum of Hadrian, see Borgatti, Castel S. Angelo (189o). ' Near the tomb of Cestius is that extraordinary mound of pot-sherds called Monte Testaccio. These are mostly fragments of large amphorae, not piled up at random, but carefully stacked, with apertures at intervals for ventilation. It has been shown by Dressel (Ann. dell' Inst., 1878, 118 ff.; C.I.L. xv. p. 492) that damaged or imperfect vessels were thus disposed of. °See Varro, L.L. v. 83; Ov. Fast. v. 622; Tac. Hist. i. 86; Vita Antonini Pii, 8. " The bridges were specially under the care of the pontifex, maximus, at least till the later years of the republic (Varro, I L. v. 83). Lapideus, to distinguish it from the woodenSublician bridge. The modern Ponte Rotto represents this bridge; but the existing arches are mainly medieval. An ancient basalt-paved road still exists, leading to the bridge from the Forum Boarium. The Pons Fabricius united the city and the island (Insula Tiberina).' The bridge derived its name from L. Fabricius, a curator viarum in 62 B:c; its inscription, twice repeated, is L . FABRICIVS . C . F . CVR . VIAR. FACIVNDVM . COERAVIT. Like the other existing bridges, it is built of great blocks of peperino and tufa, with a massive facing of travertine on both sides. Corbels to support centering were built in near the springing of the arches, so that they could be repaired or even rebuilt without a scaffolding erected in the river-bed. The well-preserved Pons Cestius, probably named after L. Cestius, praefectus urbi in 46 B.C., unites the island and the Janiculan side; on the marble parapet is a long inscription re-cording its restoration in 370 by Gratian, Valentinian, and Valens.' The next bridge, Ponte Sisto, is probably on the site of an ancient bridge called in the Notitia Pons Aurelius. Marliano gives an inscription (now lost) which recorded its restoration in the time of Hadrian. About too yards above this bridge have been found the remains of sunken piers, which are proved by an inscription (C.I.L. Vi. 31545) to have belonged to the Pons Agrippae, not otherwise known. The Pons Aelius was built in 134 by Hadrian, to connect his mausoleum with the Campus Martius; it is still well preserved, and is now called the Ponte S. Angelo (see Dante, Inferno, xviii. 28–33). It had eight arches, of which the three in the centre were higher than the rest, so that the road sloped on both sides. The material is peperino, with travertine facings. Its inscription, now lost, is given in the Einsiedeln MS.—IMP, CAESAR . DIVI . TRAIANI. PARTHICI . FILIVS DIVI NERVAE. NEPOS . TRAIANVS . HADRIA N V S , AVG. PONT • MAX TRIB . POT . X V IIII . COS . III . P . P . FECIT. The Pons Aelius is shown on coins of Hadrian. A little below it are the foundations of another bridge, probably the. Pons Neronianus of the Mirabilia, called also Vaticanus, built probably by Nero as a way to his Vatican circus and the Horti Agrippinae. At the foot of the Aventine, near the Marmorata, are the remains of piers which seem to have belonged to the Pons Probi, mentioned in the Notitia. It is uncertain whether this bridge is to be identified with the Pons Theodosii, which was built in A.D. 381–387 (Symm. Ep. 4, 70, 2 ; 5, 76, 3), and is mentioned in the Mirabilia.' Regiones of Augustus. In spite of the extensive growth of the city under the republic no addition was made to the four regiones of Servius till the reign of Augustus, who divided the city and its suburbs Augustan into fourteen regiones. The lists in the Notitia and regiones. Curiosum are the chief aids in determining the limits of each, which in many cases cannot be done with any exactness (see Preller, Die Regionen der Stadt Rom (1846) and Urlich's Codex Topographicus (Wurzburg, 1871)). Each regio was divided into vici or parishes, each of which formed a religious body, with its aedicula larum, and had magistri victorum. The smallest regio (No. II.) contained seven vici, the largest (No. XIV.) seventy-eight. The list is as follows: I. Porte Capena, a narrow strip traversed by the Appian Way; it extended beyond the walls of Aurelian to the brook Almo. II. Caelemontium, the Caelian Hill. IV. Templum Pacis, included the Velia, part of the Cispius, most of the Subura, the fora of Nerva and Vespasian, the Sacra Via, and also buildings along the north-east side of the Forum Magnum. V. Esquiliae, north part of the Esquiline and the Viminal. VI. Alta Semita, the Quirinal as far as the praetorian camp. and by the neighbouring hills on the east. IX. Circus Flaminius, between the Tiber, the Capitol, and the Via Flaminia. X. Palatium, the Palatine hill. XI. Circus Maximus, the valley between the Palatine and the Aventine, with the Velabrum and Forum Boarium. 1 Livy (ii. 5) gives the fable of the formation of this island from the Tarquins' corn, cut from the Campus Martius and thrown into the river. : The two stone bridges connecting the island with the right and left banks took the place of earlier wooden structures. ' See Mayerhofer, Die Briicken im alien Rom, 1883.Aventinus, the hill, and the bank of the Tiber below it. The walls of Aurelian (see fig. 7), more than 12 m. in circuit, enclosed almost the whole of the regiones of Augustus, the greater part of which were then thickly inhabited. This enormous AureIiae work was begun in 271, to defend Rome against sudden x re attacks of the Germans and other northern races when the great armies of Rome were fighting in distant countries.' After the death of Aurelian the walls were completed by Probus in 28o, and about a century later they were restored and strengthened by the addition of gate-towers under Arcadius and Honorius (A.D. 403), in place of the earlier gateways of Aurelian; this is recorded by existing inscriptions on three of the gates.' At many periodsthese walls suffered much more from the attacks of the Goths (Procop, Bell. Goth. iii, 22, 24), and were restored successively by Theodoric (about 500), by Belisarius (about 56o), and by various popes during the 8th and 9th centuries, and in fact all through the middle ages. A great part of the Aurelian wall still exists in a more or less perfect state; but it has wholly vanished where it skirted the river, and a great part of its trans-Tiberine course is gone. The best reserved pieces are between Porta Pinciana and Porta Salaria best-preserved which breaches have lately been made for streets), and between the Lateran and the Amphitheatrum Castrense. The wall, of concrete, has the usual brick-facing and is about 12 ft. thick, with a guard's passage formed in its thickness. Fig. 13 shows its plan: on the inside the
End of Article: MANES
EDOUARD MANET (1832-1883)

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