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HENRY LONGUEVILLE MANSEL (1820-1871)

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Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 599 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HENRY LONGUEVILLE MANSEL (1820-1871), English philosopher, was born at Cosgrove, Northamptonshire (where his father, also Henry Longueville Mansel, fourth son of General John Mansel, was rector), on the 6th of October 182o. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St John's College, Oxford. He took a double first in 1843, and became tutor of his college. He was appointed reader in moral and metaphysical philosophy at Magdalen College in 1855, and Waynflete professor in 1859. He was a great opponent of university reform and of the Hegelianism which was then beginning to take root in Oxford. In 1867 he succeeded A. P. Stanley as professor of ecclesiastical history, and in 1868 he was appointed dean of St Paul's. He died on the 31st of July 1871. The philosophy of Mansel, like that of Sir William Hamilton, was mainly due to Aristotle, Kant and Reid. Like Hamilton, Mansel maintained the purely formal character of logic, the duality of consciousness as testifying to both self and the external world, and the limitation of knowledge to the finite and " conditioned." His doctrines were developed in his edition of Aldrich's Artis logicae rudimenta (1849)—his chief contribution to the reviving study of Aristotle—and in his Prolegomena logica: an Inquiry into the Psychological Character of Logical Processes (1851, 2nd ed. enlarged 1862), in which the limits of logic as the " science of formal thinking " are rigorously deter-mined. In his Bampton lectures on The Limits of Religious Thought (1858, 5th ed. 1867; Danish trans. 1888) he applied to Christian theology the metaphysical agnosticism which seemed to result from Kant's criticism, and which had been developed in Hamilton's Philosophy of the Unconditioned. While denying all knowledge of the supersensuous, Mansel deviated from Kant in contending that cognition of the ego as it really is is itself a fad of experience. Consciousness, he held—agreeing thus with the doctrine of " natural realism " which Hamilton developed from Reid—implies knowledge both of self and of the external world. The latter Mansel's psychology reduces to consciousness of our organism as extended; with the former is given consciousness of free will and moral obligation. A summary of his philosophy is contained in his article " Meta-physics " in the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (separately published, 186o). Manserwrote also The Philosophy of the Conditioned (1866) in reply to Mill's criticism of Hamilton; Letters, Lectures, and Reviews (ed. Chandler, 1873), and, The Gnostic Heresies (ed. J. B. Lightfoot, 1875, with a biographical sketch by Lord Carnarvon). He wrote a commentary on the first two gospels in the Speaker's Commentary. See J. W. Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men (1888—188e) ; James Martineau, Essays, Reviews and Addresses (London,1891), 117 seq. ; A. W. Bean, History of Rationalism (1906), ii. 100—112; Masson, Recent British Philosophy (3rd ed., London, 1877), pp. 2g2 seq. ; Sir Leslie Stephen in Dict. Nat. Biog.of Cologne from 1558 to 1562. A scion of another branch of the Mansfelds was Peter Ernst, Furst von Mansfeld (1517-1604), governor of Luxemburg, who unlike his kinsmen was loyal to Charles V. He went with the emperor to Tunis and fought for him in France. He was equally loyal to his son, Philip II. of Spain, whom he served at St Quentin and in the Netherlands. He distinguished himself in the field and found time to lead a body of troops to aid the king of France against the Huguenots. In this capacity he was present in 1569 at the battle of Moncontour, where another member of his family, Count Wolrad of Mansfeld (d. 1578) was among the Huguenot leaders. The Mansfeld family became extinct in 1780 on the death of Josef Wenzel Nepomuk, prince of Fondi, the lands being divided between Saxony and Prussia. See L. F. Niemann, Geschichte der Grafen von Mansfeld (Aschersleben, 1834). M'ANSFELD, ERNST, GRAF VON (c. 158o-1626), German soldier, was an illegitimate son of Peter Ernst, Furst von Mansfeld, and passed his early years in his father's palace at Luxemburg. Ile gained his earliest military experiences in Hungary, where his half-brother Charles (1543–1595) also a soldier of renown, held a high command in the imperial army. Later he served under the Archduke Leopold, until that prince's ingratitude, real or fancied, drove him into the arms of the enemies of the house of Habsburg. Although remaining a Roman Catholic he allied himself with the Protestant princes, and during the earlier part of the Thirty Years' War he was one of their foremost champions. He was despatched by Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, at the head of about 2000 men to aid the revolting Bohemians when war broke out in 1618. He took Pilsen, but in the summer of 1619 he was defeated at Zablat; after this he offered his services to the emperor Ferdinand II. and remained inactive while the titular king of Bohemia, Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, was driven in headlong rout from Prague. Mansfeld, however, was soon appointed by Frederick to command his army in Bohemia, and in 1621 he took up his position in the Upper Palatinate, successfully resisting the efforts made by Tilly to dislodge him. From the Upper he passed into tile Rhenish Palatinate. Here he relieved Frankenthal and took Hagenau; then, joined by his master, the elector Frederick, he defeated Tilly at Wiesloch in April 1622 and plundered Alsace and Hesse. But Mansfeld's ravages were not confined to the lands of his enemies; they were ruinous to the districts he was commissioned to defend. At length Frederick was obliged to dismiss Mansfeld's troops from his service. Then joining Christian of Brunswick the count led his army through Lorraine, devastating the country as he went, and in August 1622 defeating the Spaniards at Fleurus. He next entered the service of the United Provinces and took up his quarters in East Friesland, capturing fortresses and inflicting' great hardships upon the inhabitants. A mercenary and a leader of mercenaries, Mansfeld often interrupted his campaigns by journeys made for the purpose of raising money, or in other words of selling his services to the highest bidder, and in these diplomatic matters he showed considerable skill. About 1624 he paid three visits to London, where he was hailed as a hero by the populace, and at least one to Paris. James I. was anxious to furnish him with men and money for the recovery of the palatinate, but it was not until January 1625 that Mansfeld and his army of " raw and poor rascals " sailed from Dover to the Netherlands. Later in the year, the Thirty Years' War having been renewed under the leadership of Christian IV., king of Denmark, he re-entered Germany to take part therein. But on the 25th of April 1626 Wallenstein inflicted a severe defeat upon him at the bridge of Dessau. Mansfeld, however, quickly raised another army, with which he intended to attack the hereditary lands of the house of Austria, and pursued by Wallenstein he pressed forward towards, Hungary, where he hoped to accomplish his purpose .by the aid of Bethlem Gabor, prince of Transylvania. But when Gabor changed his policy and made peace with the emperor; Mansfeld was compelled to disband his troops. He set out for Venice, but when he reached Rakowitza he was taken ill, and
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