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MANURIAL VALUE OF FOOD CONSUMED IN TH...

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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 745 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MANURIAL VALUE OF FOOD CONSUMED IN THE PRODUCTION OF MILK In any attempt to estimate the average value of the manure derived from the consumption of food for the production of milk, the difficulty arising from the very wide variation in the amount of milk yielded by different cows, or by the same cow at different periods of her lactation, is increased by the inadequate character of information concerning the difference in the amount of the food actually consumed by the animal coincidently with the production of such different amounts of milk. But although information is lacking for correlating, with numerical accuracy, the great difference in milk-yield of individual cows with the coincident differences in consumption to produce it, it may be considered as satisfactorily established that more food is consumed by a herd of cows to produce a fair yield of milk, of say ro or 12 quarts per head per day, than by an equal live-weight of oxen fed to produce fattening increase. In the cases supposed it may, for practical purposes, be assumed that the cows would consume about one-fourth more food than the oxen. Accordingly, in the Rothamsted estimates of the value of the manure obtained on the consumption of food for the production of milk, it is assumed that one-fourth more will be consumed by x000 lb live-weight of cows than by the same weight of oxen; but the estimates of the amounts of the constituents of the food removed in the milk, or remaining for manure, are nevertheless reckoned per ton of each kind of food consumed, as in the case of those relating to feeding for the production of fattening increase. It may be added that the calculations of the amounts of the constituents in the milk are based on the same average composition of milk as is adopted in the construction of Table V. Thus the nitrogen is taken at o•579 (=3.65 nitrogenous substance) %, the phosphoric acid at 0.2175%, and the potash at 0.1875% in the milk. Table VIII. shows in detail the estimate of the amount of nitrogen in one, ton of each food, and in the milk produced from its consumption, on the assumption of an average yield of ro quarts per head per day; also the amount remaining for manure, the amount of ammonia corresponding to the nitrogen, and the value of the ammonia at 4d. per lb. Similar particulars are also given in relation to the phosphoric acid and the potash consumed in the food, removed in the milk, and remaining for manure, &c. This table will serve as a sufficient illustration of the mode of estimating the total or original value of the manure, derived from the consumption of the different foods for the production of milk in the case supposed; that is, assuming an average yield of a herd of ro quarts per head per day. In Table IX. are given the results of similar detailed calculations of the total or original manure-value (as in Table VIII. for to quarts), on the alternative assumptions of a yield of 6, 8, 12 or 14 quarts per head per day. For comparison there is also given, in the first column, the estimate of the total or original manure-value when the foods are consumed for the production of fattening increase. So much for the plan and results of the estimations of total or original manure-value of the different foods, that is, deducting only the constituents removed in the milk, and reckoning the remainder at the prices at which they can be purchased in artificial manures. With a view to direct application to practice, however, it is necessary to estimate the unexhausted manure-value of the different foods, or what may be called their compensation-value, after they have been used for a series of years by the outgoing tenant and he has realized a certain portion of the manure-value in his increased crops. In the calculations for this purpose the rule is to deduct one-half of the original manure-value of the food used the last year, and one-third of the remainder each year to the eighth, in the case of all the more concentrated foods and of the roots—in fact, of all the foods in the list excepting the hays and the straws. For these, which contain larger amounts of indigestible matter, and the constituents of which will be more slowly available to crops, two-thirds of the original manure-value is deducted for the last year, and only Nitrogen. Phosphoric Acid. Potash. Total or In Manure. In Manure. In Manure. Original In In In Manure- Nos. Description In Milk Nitro- Value In Milk In Milk Value of Food. I Ton from Total gen of Am- I Ton from Total Value I Ton from Total Value per Ton of I Ton remain- Am 1 ato d of i Ton remain- at 2d. of I Ton remain- at of Food Food. of ing for monia. per lb. Food. of ing for P',' lb Food. of ing for t#d. con- Food. Manure. Food. Manure. Food. Manure. per Ib. sumed. I Linseed lb lb lb lb £ s. d. lb lb lb s. d. lb lb lb s. d. £ s. d. 80.64 25.04 55.60 67.52 I 2 6 34.50 9.34 30.69 8.02 22.67 2 10 I 9 6 25.16 4 2 2 Linseed cake 106.40 20.86 85.54 103.87 114 7 44.8o 7.79 37.05 6 2 31.36 6.71 24.65 3 I 2 3 10 3 Decorticated cotton cake 147.84 19.27 128.57 156.13 2 12 I 69.44 7.18 62.26 10 5 44•8o 6.22 38.58 4 10 3 7 4 4 Palm-nut cake 56.00 17.86 38.14 46.31 0 15 5 26.88 6.68 20.20 3 4 11.20 5.73 5.47 0 8 o 19 5 5 Undecorti- cated cot- 84.00 15.66 68.34 82.99 I 7 8 44.80 5.85 38.95 6 6 44.80 5.07 39.73 5 0 119 2 ton cake . 6 Cocoa-nut cake . 76.16 15.66 60.50 73.47 I 4 6 31.36 5.85 25.51 4 3 44.80 5.07 39.73 5 0 113 9 7 Rape cake 109.76 12.50 97.26 I18•II 119 4 56.00 4.69 51.31 8 7 33.60 4.09 29.51 3 8 2 II 7 8 Peas 80.64 17.86 62.78 76.24 15 5 19.04 6.68 12.36 2 I 21.50 5.73 15.77 2 0 19 6 9 Beans 89.6o 17.86 71.74 87.12 I 9 0 24.64 6.68 17.96 3 0 29.12 5.73 23.39 2 I1 114 II to Lentils 94.08 17.86 76.22 92.56 5 Io 10 16.8o 6.68 10.12 I 8 15.68 5.73 9.95 I 3 13 9 II Tares (seed) 94.08 17.86 76.22) 92.56 110 10 17.92 6.68 11.24 110 17.92 5.73 12.19 5 6 114 2 12 Maize . 38.08 17.38 20.70 25.14 0 8 5, 13.44 6.50 6.94 I 2 8.29 5.56 2.73 0 4 0 9 II 13 Wheat 40.32 17.38 22.94 27.86 0 9 3 19.04 6.5o 12.54 2 I 11.87 5.56 6.31 0 9 0 12 I 14 Malt . 38.08 17.86 20.22 24.55 0 8 2 17.92 6.68 11.24 I 10 II.20 5.73 5.47 0 8 o to 8 15 Barley 36.96 17.38 19.58 23.78 0 7 II 16.8o 6.50 10.30 I 9 12.32 5.56 6.76 0 10 o lo 6 16 Oats 44.8o 16.68 28.12 34.15 0 II 5 13'44 6.24 7.2o I 2 11.20 5.40 5.80 0 9 0 13 4 17 Rice meal . 42.56 16.68 25.88 31.43 0 10 6 (13.44) 6.24 7.20 I 2 (8.29) 5'40 2.89 0 4 0 I2 0 18 Locust beans 26.88 13.90 12.98 15.76 0 5 3 .. 5.19 .. .. .. 4.42 .. 19 Malt coombs 87.36 15.66 71.70 87.07 I 9 0 44.80 5.85 38.95 6 6 44.80 5.07 39.73 5 0 2 0 6 20 Fine pollard 54.88 16.68 38.20 46.39 0 15 6 64.96 6.24 58.72 9 9 32.70 5.40 27.30 3 5 t 8 8 21 Coarse pol- lard 56.00 15.66 40.34 48.99 0 16 4 78.40 5.85 72.55 12 I 33.60 5.07 28.53 3 7 1 12 0 22 Bran 56.00 13.90 42.10 51.12 0 17 0 80.64 5.19 75.45 12 7 32.48 4.42 28.06 3 6 113 I 23 Clover hay 53.76 8.94 44.82 54.43 0 18 2 12.77 3.35 9.42 I 7 33.60 2.94 30.66 3 10 I 3 7 24 Meadow hay 33.60 8.36 25.24 30.65 0 10 3 8.96 3.10 5.86 o 35.84 2.62 33.22 4 2 0 15 5 25 Pea straw . 22.40 7.83 14.57 17.69 0 5 5I 7.84 2.91 4.93 0 10 22.40 2.46 19.94 2 6 0 9 3 26 Oat 11.20 6.95 straw . 27 Wheat straw 10•08 5.98 4.25 5.16 0 I 9 5.38 2.6o 2.78 0 6 22.40 2.29 20•1 I 2 6 o 4.10 4.98 0 t 8 5.38 2.23 3.15 0 6 17.92 I.96 15.96 2 0 0 4 9 28 Barley straw 8.96 5.46 3.50 4.25 0 I 5 4.03 2.04 1.99 0 4 22.40 1.8o 20.6o 2 7 0 4 4 29 Bean straw 20.16 5.68 14.48 17.58 0 5 10 6.72 2.14 4.58 0 9 22.40 1.80 20.60 2 7 0 9 2 30 Potatoes . 5.60 2.07 3.53 4.29 0 I 5 3.36 0.78 2.58 0 5 12.32 o•66 II.66 I 5 0 3 3 31 Carrots 4.48 P46 3.02 3.67 0 I 3 2.02 0.54 I.48 0 3 6.27 0.49 9 3 32 Parsnips . 4.93 1.67 3.26 3.96 o I 4 4.26 0.63 3.63 0 7 8•06 0.49 7.57 o II 0 2 X10 33 Mangel wur- zels 4.93 I'32 3.61 4.38 0 I 6 P57 0.49 I•08 o 2 8.96 0.49 8'47 1, I 0 2 9 34 Swedish turnips . 5.6o 1.14 4.46 5.42 0 5 10 1.34 0.44 0.90 0 2 4.93 0.33 4.6o 0 7 0 2 7 35 Yellow tur- 36 Wipe t. 4.48 0.93 3.55 4.31 0 I 5 (P34) 0.34 I.00 0 2 (4.93) 0.33 (4.6o) 0 7 0 2 2 it- 4'03 0.84 3.19 3.87 0 I 3 1.12 0.31 0.81 0 2 6.72 0.33 6.39 0 10 0 2 3 nips . one-fifth from year to year to the eighth year back. The results of the estimates of compensation-value so made are given for the five yields of 6, 8, ro, 12 and 14 quarts of milk per head per day respectively in Lawes and Gilbert's paper' on the valuation of the manures. obtained by the consumption of foods for the production of milk, which may be consulted for fuller details. It must, however, be borne in mind that when cows are fed in sheds or yards the manure is generally liable to greater losses than is the case with fattening oxen. The manure of the cow contains much more water in proportion to solid matter than that of the ox. Water will, besides, frequently be used for washing, and it may be that a good deal of the manure is washed into drains and lost. In the event, therefore, of a claim for compensation, the management and disposal of the manure requires the attention of the valuer. Indeed, the varying circumstances that will arise in practice must be carefully considered. Bearing these in mind, the estimates may be accepted as at any rate the best approximation to the truth Journ. Roy. Agric. Soc., 5898. that existing knowledge provides; and they should be found sufficient for the requirements of practical use. Obviously they will be more directly applicable in the case of cows feeding entirely on the foods enumerated in the list, and not depending largely on grass; but, even when the animals are partially grass-fed, the value of the manure derived from the additional dry food or roots may be estimated according to the scale given.
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