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MANUSCRIPTS

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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 830 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MANUSCRIPTS.—The chief MSS. of Plautus belong to two families, which are proved by the errors which they have in common to be descended from a single source (Sicker, " Novae quaestiones plautinae," in Philologus suppl. xi. 2 ; 1908) : (i.) that represented by the fragmentary palimpsest of the Ambrosias_ Library at Milan (A, 4th century A.D.), discovered in 1815 by Cardinal Mai and now accessible in the A pograph of Studemund, edited by Seyffert (1889) ; (ii.) that represented by the Palatine MSS. (P, loth-12th century), viz. B, now in the Vatican, containing all the twenty plays preceded by the spurious Querolus; C, now at Heidelberg, containing the last twelve plays, i.e. Bacchides-Truculentus; D, now in the Vatican, containing the Amphitruo, Asinaria, Aulularia, half of the Captivi and the last twelve plays: to the same family belong the following less important MSS.: E (at Milan), V (at Leiden), J (in the British Museum), 0 (in the Vatican). EDi tioxs.—The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the " Vulgate "), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848. A new era began with the great critical edition of certain plays by Ritschl, 1848-1854, in which a collation of A was used; a revised and completed form of this work was commenced by Ritschl himself and continued by his disciples Goetz, Loewe and Schoell, 1871-1894: and of this an entirely rewritten editio minor by Goetz and Schoell appeared in 1893-1896 (continued by a 2nd ed. of Fasciculus ii. in 1904), which is still the most useful of modern editions for a critical study of the text, exhibiting, as it does, the MS. tradition with only such emendations as are securely established by the results of modern investigation. The other modern editions of the text are those of Fleckeisen (containing ten plays, excellent for his time), 1859; Ussing (with a commentary), 1875-1887, 2nd ed. of vol. iii. 1888; Leo (a very important work), 1895-1896; Lindsay, 1904-1905. Among modern editions of separate plays with commentaries the following are probably the most useful: Amphitruo by Palmer, 1890, and Havet, 1895; Asinaria by Gray, 1894; Aulularia by Wagner, 1866 and 1876; Captivi by Brix, 6th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 191o; an English edition of this work by Sonnenschein (with introduction on prosody), 1880; same play by Lindsay (with metrical introduction), 1900; Epidicus by Gray, 1893; Menaechmi by Brix, 4th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1891; Miles gloriosus by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1886; by Brix, 3rd ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1901; by Tyrrell, 3rd ed., 1894; Mostellaria by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1883; by Sonnenschein, 2nd ed., 1907; Pseudolus by Lorenz, 1876; Rudens by Sonnenschein, 1891, editio minor (with a metrical appendix), 1901; Trinummus (with a metrical introduction) by Brix, 5th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1907; by Gray, 1897; Truculentus by Spengel and Studemund, 1898.
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