Online Encyclopedia

MARATHI (properly Marathi)

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 675 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: it!
MARATHI (properly Marathi),1 the name of an important Indo-Aryan language spoken in western and central India. In 1 The name is sometimes spelt Mahrathi, with an h before the r, but, according to a phonetic law of the Aryan languages of western India, this is incorrect. The original h in " Mahardstri," from which the word is derived, is liable to elision on coming between two vowels.1901 the number of speakers was 18,237,899, or about the same as the population of Spain. Marathi occupies an irregular triangular area of approximately too,000 sq.m., having its apex about the district of Balaghat in the Central Provinces, and for its base the western coast of the pen nsula from Daman on the Gulf of Cambay in the north to Karwar on the open Arabian Sea in the south. It covers parts of two provinces of British India—Bombay and the Central Provinces (including Berar)—with numerous settlers in Central India and Madras, and is also the principal language of Portuguese India and of the north-western portion of His Highness the Nizam's dominions. The standard form of speech is that of Poona in Bombay, and, in its various dialects it covers the larger part of that province, in which it is the vernacular of more than eight and a half millions of people. As explained in the article INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES, there were in ancient times two main groups of these forms of speech—one, the language of the Midland, spoken in the country near the Gangetic Doab, and the other, the languages of the so-called " Outer Band," containing the Midland on three sides, west, east and south. The country to the south of the Midland, in which members of this Outer group of languages were formerly spoken, included the modern Rajputana and Gujarat, and extended to the basin of the river Nerbudda, being bounded on the south by the Vindhya hills. In the course of time the population of the Midland expanded, and gradually occupied this tract, reaching the sea in Gujarat. The language of the Outer Band was thus forced farther afield. Its speakers crossed the Vindhyas and settled in the central plateau of the Deccan and on the Konkan coast. Here they came into contact with speakers of the Dravidian languages of southern India. As happened elsewhere in India, they retained their own Aryan tongue, and gradually through the influence of their superior civilization imposed it upon the aborigines, so that all the inhabitants of this tract became the ancestors of the speakers of modern Marathi. In Rajputana and Gujarat the language (see GUJARAT) is to a certain extent mixed. Near the original Midland there are few traces of the Outer language, but as we go farther and farther away from that centre we find, as might be expected, the influence of the Midland language becoming weaker and weaker, and traces of the Outer language becoming more and more evident, until in Gujarati we recognize several important survivals of the old language once spoken by the earlier Aryan inhabitants. Dialects.—Besides the standard form of speech, there is only one real dialect of Marathi, viz. Konkani (Konkalti), spoken in the country near Goa. There are also several local varieties, and we may conveniently distinguish between the Marathi of the Deccan, that of the Central Provinces (including Berar), and that of the northern and central Konkan. In the southern part of the district of Ratnagiri this latter Konkani variety of Marathi gradually merges into the true Konkani dialect through a number of intermediate forms of speech. There are also several broken jargones, based upon Marathi, employed by aboriginal tribes surviving in the hill country. Relations with other Indo-Aryan Languages.—Marathi has to its north, in order from west to east, Gujarati, Rajasthani, Western Hindi and Eastern Hindi. To its east and south it has the Dravidian languages, Gondi, Telugu and Kanarese. Elsewhere in India Aryan languages gradually fade away into each other, so that it is impossible to fix any definite boundary line between them. But this is not the case with Marathi. It does not merge into any of the cognate neighbouring forms of speech, but possesses a distinct linguistic frontier. A native writer 2 says: " The Gujarati language agrees very closely with the languages of the countries lying to the north of it, because the Gujarati people came from the north. If a native of Delhi, Ajmere, Marwar, Mewar, Jaipur, &c., comes into Gujarat, the Gujarati people find no difficulty in understanding his language. But it is very wonderful that when people from countries bordering Gujarat on the south, as the Konkan, Maharashtra, &c. 2 Shastri Vrajlal Kalidas, quoted by Beames in Comparative Grammar, i. to2. (i.e. people speaking Marathi) come to Gujarat, the Gujarati isolation for so many centuries." Elsewhere (p. 38) he uses people do not in the least comprehend what they say." This language which would easily well apply to Maharastri Prakrit isolated character of Marathi is partly due to the barrier of the when he says, " Marathi is one of those languages which we Vindhya range which lies to its north, and partly to the fact that may call playful—it delights in all sorts of jingling formations, none of the northern languages belongs now to the Outer Band, and has struck out a larger quantity of secondary and tertiary but are in more or less close relationship to the language of the words, diminutives, and the like, than any of the cognate Midland. There was no common ground either physical or tongues," and again (p. 52): linguistic, upon which the colliding forms of speech could meet " In Marathi we see the results of the Pandit's file applied to a on equal terms. Eastern Hindi is more closely related to Marathi form of speech originally possessed of much natural wildness and than the others, and in its case, in its bordering dialects, we licence. The hedgerows have been pruned and the wild briars do find a few traces of the influence of Marathi—traces which and roses trained into order. It is a copious and beautiful language, second only to Hindi. It has three genders, and the same elaborate are part of the essence of the language, apd not mere borrowed preparation of the base as Sindhi, and, owing to the great corruption waifs floating on the top of a sea of alien speech and not which has taken place in its terminations, the difficulty of determin- absorbed by it. ing the gender of nouns is as great in Marathi as in German. In Written Character: Marathi books are in fact, if we were to institute a parallel in this respect, we might generally printed appropriately describe Hindi as the English, Marathi as the German the well-known Nagari character (see SANSKRIT), and this is also of the Indian group—Hindi having cast aside whatever could used to a great extent in private transactions and correspon- possibly be dispensed with, Marathi having retained whatever has dence. In the Maratha country it is known as the Bdlbodh been spared by the. action of time. To an Englishman Hindi „ country itself by ts absence of form, and the positional structure (teachable to children,” i.e. easy ") character. A cursive of its sentences resulting therefrom; to our High-German cousins form of Nagari called Madi, or " twisted," is also employed as the Marathi, with its fuller array of genders, terminations, and a handwriting. It is said to have been invented in the inflexions, would probably seem the completer and finer language." 17th century by Balaji Avaji, the secretary of the celebrated In the article PRAKRIT it is explained that the literary Prakrits Sivaji. Its chief merit is that each word can be written as a were not the direct parents of the modern Indo-Aryan verwhole without lifting the pen from the paper, a feat which is naculars. Each Prakrit had first to pass through an intermediate impossible in the case of Nagari.' stage—that of the Apabhramsa—before it took the form current Origin of the Language.—The word " Marathi " signifies (the at the present day. While we know a good deal about Mahalanguage) of the Maratha country. It is the modern form of rastri and very little about Sauraseni Prakrit, the case is reversed the Sanskrit Mdhdrdstri, just as " Maratha " represents the old in regard to their respective Apabhramsas. The Sauraseni Mdhd-rdstra, or Great Kingdom. Maharastri was the name Apabhramsa is the only one concerning which we have definite given by Sanskrit writers to the particular form of Prakrit information. Although it would be quite possible to reason spoken in Maharagtra, the great Aryan kingdom extending south- from analogy, and thus to obtain what would be the correwards from the Vindhya range to the Kistna, broadly corre- sponding forms of Maharastra Apabhramsa, we should often be sponding to the southern part of the Bombay Presidency and to travelling upon insecure ground, and it is therefore advisable the state of Hyderabad. As pointed out in the article PRAKRIT to compare Marathi, not with the Apabhramsa from which it this Maharastri early obtained literary pre-eminence in India, is immediately derived, but with its grandmother, Maharastri and became the form of Prakrit employed as the language not Prakrit. We shall adopt this course, so far as possible, in the only of lyric poetry but also of the formal epic (kavya). Dramatic 'following pages. works were composed in it, and it was the vehicle of the Vocabulary.—In the article INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES it is exnon-canonical scriptures of the Jaina religion. The oldest work plained that, allowing for phonetic development, the vocabulary in the language of which we have any knowledge is the Sattasai, of Sauraseni Prakrit was the same as that of Sanskrit, but that the or Seven Centuries of verses, compiled at Pratigthana, on the farther we go from the Midland, the more examples we meet of a new Godavari, the capital of King Hala, at some time between the class of words, the so-called desyas, descendants of the old Primary Prakrits spoken outside the Midland, and strange to Sanskrit. 3rd and 7th centuries A.D. Pratigthana is the modern Paithan Maharastri Prakrit, the most independent of the Outer languages, in the Aurangabad district of Hyderabad, and that city was for was distinguished by the large proportion of these desyas found in long famous as a centre of literary composition. In later times its vocabulary, and the same is consequently the case in Marathi. the political centre of gravity was changed to Poona, the language The Brahmins of the Maratha country have always had a great the standard of the best reputation for learning, and their efforts to create a literary language of which district is now accepted as out of their vernacular took, as in other parts of India, the direction Marathi. of borrowing tatsamas from Sanskrit, to lend what they considered General Character of Language.—In the following account to be dignity to their sentences. But the richness of the language in f g de"sya words has often rendered such borrowing unnecessary, and has of the main features of Marathi, the reader is presumed to be saved Marathi, although the proportion of tatsamas to tadbhavas3 in familiar with the leading facts stated in the articles INDO-ARYAN the language is more than sufficiently high, from the fate of the LANGUAGES and PRAKRIT. In the Prakrit stage of the Lido- Pandit-ridden literary Bengali, in which 8o to 90 % of the vocabulary Aryan languages we can divide the Prakrits into two well- in pthee Mara hat country from dthe earliest d times andstylistic even Sanskrit defined groups, an Inner, Sauraseni and its connected dialects writer's contrasted the simple elegance of the Deccan (or Vaidarbhi) on the one hand, and an Outer, Maharastri, Ardhamagadhi, style with the flowery complexity of eastern India. and Magadhi with their connected dialects on the other. These The proportion of Persian and, through Persian, of Arabic words differed in their phonetic laws, in their systems of in the Maratha vocabulary is comparatively low, when compared two groups P Y with, say, Hindostani. The reason is, firstly, the predominance declension and conjugation, in vocabulary, and in general char- in the literary world of these learned Brahmins, and, secondly, the acter.2 In regard to the last point reference may be made fact that the Maratha country was not conquered by the Mussulmans to the frequent use of meaningless suffixes, such as alla, ills, till a fairly late period, nor was it so thoroughly occupied by them as were Sind, the Punjab, and the Gangetic valley. -ulla, &c., which can be added, almost ad libitum to any noun, phonetics.'—In the standard dialect the vowels are the same as adjective or particle in Maharastri and Ardhamagadhi, but in Sanskrit, but r, and } only appear in words borrowed directly from which are hardly ever met in Sauraseni. These give rise to that language (tatsamas). Final short vowels (a, i and u) have all numerous secondary forms of words, used, it might be said, in disappeared in prose pronunciation, except in a few local dialects, spirit of playfulness, which give a distinct flavour to the whole and final i and u are not even written. On the other hand, in the a Nagari character, the non-pronunciation of a final a is not indicated. language. Similarly the late Mr Beames (Comparative Grammar, After an accented syllable a medial a is pronounced very lightly, even i. 103) well describes Marathi as possessing " a very decided when the accent is not the main accent of the word. Thus, if we individuality, a type quite its own, arising from its comparative indicate the main accent by ', and subsidiary accents (equivalent ' See B. A. Gupte in Indian Antiquary (1905), xxxiv. 27. ' For the explanation of these terms see INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES. 2 For details see Dr Sten Konow's article on Maharastri and ' Abbreviations: Skr. = Sanskrit. Pr. = Maharastri Prakrit. Marathi in Indian Antiquary (1903), xxxii. i8o seq. M. = Marathi. 672 to the Hebrew methegh) by then the word kdrawat, a saw, is pronounced kdr°wat; and kajakdlane, to be agitated, is pronounced kal°kdl°ne. In Konkani the vowel a assumes the sound of o in " hot," a sound which is also heard in the language of Bengal. In dialectic speech e is often interchangeable with short or long a, so that the standard saitgit°lee, it was said, may appear as sahgit°la or saiigit°la'. The vowels e and o are apparently always long in the standard dialect, thus following Sanskrit; but in Konkani there is a short and a long form of each vowel. Very probably, although the distinction is not observed in writing, and has not been noticed by native scholars, these vowels are also pronounced short in the standard dialect under the circumstances to be now described. When a long a, i or u precedes an accented syllable it is usually shortened. In the case of a the shortening is not indicated by the spelling, but the written long a is pronounced short like the a in the Italian ballo. Thus, the dative of pik, a ripe crop, is pikds, and that of hat, a hand, is hatds, pronounced ha.tds. Almost the only compound consonants which survived in the Prakrit stage were double letters, and in M. these are usually simplified, the preceding vowel being lengthened in compensation. Thus, the Prakrit karma becomes Win, an ear; Pr. bhikkha becomes bhik, alms; and Pr. putto becomes put, a son. In the Pisaca (see INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES) and other languages of north-western India it is not usual to lengthen the vowel in compensation, and the same tendency is observable in Konkani, which, it may be remarked, appears to contain many relics of the old Prakrit (Saurastri) spoken in the Gujarat country before the invasion from the Midland. Thus, in Konkani, we have put as well as put, while the word corresponding to the Pr. ekko, one, is ek as well as the standard ek. On the whole, the consonantal system is much the same as in other Indian languages. Nasalization of long vowels is very common, especially in Konkani. In this article it is indicated by the sign - placed over the affected vowel. The palatals are pronounced as in Skr. in words borrowed from that language or from Hindostani, and also in Marathi tadbhavas before i, i, e or y. Thus, cand (tatsama), fierce; jama (Hindostani), collected; cikhal (M. tadbhava), mud. In other cases they are pronounced ts, tsh, dz, dzh respectively. Thus tsakar (for cakar), a servant; dzane (for jape), to go. There are two s-sounds in the standard dialect which are very similarly distinguished. .1', pronounced like an English sh, is used before i, i, e or y; and s, as in English " sin," elsewhere. Thus, simphi, a caste-name; sil, a stone; set a field; syam, dark blue; but sap, a snake; sumar (Persian shumar), an estimate; stri, a woman. In the dialects s is practically the only sibilant used, and that is changed by the vulgar speakers of Konkani to h (again as in north-western India). Aspirated letters show a tendency to lose their aspiration, especially in Konkani. Thus, bhik (for bhikh), alms, quoted above; hat (Pr. hattho), a hand. In Konkani we have words such as boin, a sister, against standard bhain; ter, standard ghari, in a house; ami, standard amhi, we. Here again we have agreement with north-western India. Generally speaking Marathi closely follows Maharastri when that differs from the Prakrits of other parts of India. Thus we have Skr. vrajati, Maharastri vaccai (instead of vajjai), he goes; Konkani votsu, to go; Saurasenigenhiduim,Maharastrighettum, to take; Marathi ghet°le, taken. There is similarly both in Marathi and Maharastri a laxness in distinguishing between cerebral and dental letters (which again reminds us of north-western India). Thus, Skr. dahati, Maharastri dasai, he bites; M. das°ixe to bite; Skr. dahati, Maharastri dahai, he burns; M. /adz°ne, to be hot; Skr. gardabhas; auraseni gaddaho; Hindostani gadha; but Maharastri gaddaho; M. gadhav, an ass; and so many others. In Maharastri every n becomes n, but in Jaina MSS. when the n was initial or doubled it remained unchanged. A similar rule is followed regarding land the cerebral common in Vedic Sanskrit, in MSS. coming from southern India, and, according to the grammarians, also in the Pisaca dialects of the north-west. In M. a Pr. double nn or 11 is simplified, according to the usual rule, to n or 1 respectively, with lengthening of the preceding vowel in compensation. Both n and l are of frequent occurrence in M., but only as medial letters, and then only when they represent n or in the Pr. stage. When the letter is initial or represents a double nn or ll of Pr. it is always n or 1 respectively, thus offering a striking testimony to the accuracy of the Jaina and southern MSS. Thus, ordinary Maharastri na, but Jaina Maharastri na, M. na, not; Maharastri (both kinds) ghano, M. ghan, dense; Maharastri sonnaain, Jaina sonnaarii, M. some", gold; Maharastri kalo, time, southern MSS. of the same kalO, M. kal, time; Maharastri callai, M. tsale, he goes or used to go. In some of the local dialects, following the Vedic practice, we find l where d is employed elsewhere, as in (Berar) ghola for ghoda, a horse; and there are instances of this change occurring even in Maharastri; e.g. Skr. tadagarii, Maharastri talaam, M. tali, a pond. The Skr. compound consonant jii is pronounced dny in the standard dialect, but gy in the Konkan. Thus, Skr. jnanain be-comes dnyan or gyan according to locality. Declension.—Marathi and Gujarati are the only Indo-Aryan languages which have retained the three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter, of Sanskrit and Prakrit. In rural dialects of Western Hindi and of Rajasthani sporadic instances of the neuter gender have survived, but elsewhere the only example occurs in the interrogative pronoun. In Marathi the neuter denotes not only inanimate things but also animate beings when both sexes are included, or when the sex is left undecided. Thus, ghode, neut., a horse, without regard to sex. In the Konkan the neuter gender is further employed to denote females below the age of puberty, as in cedu, a girl. Numerous masculine and feminine words, however, denote inanimate objects. The rules for distinguishing the gender of such nouns are as complicated as in German, and must be learned from the grammars. For the most part, but not always, words follow the genders of their Skr. originals, and the abrasion of terminations in the modern language renders it impossible to lay down any complete set of rules on the subject. We may, however. say that strong bases (see below) in a—and these do not include tatsamas—are masculine, and that the corresponding feminine and neuter words end in i and e respectively. Thus, mulaga, a son; mul°gi, a daughter; mul°ge, a child of so and so. As a further guide we may say that sex is usually distinguished by the use of the masculine and feminine genders, and that large and powerful inanimate objects are generally masculine, while small, delicate things are generally feminine. In the case of some animals (as in our " horse " and " mare ") sex is distinguished by the use of different words; e.g. bokad, he-goat, and self, a nanny-goat. The nominative form of a tadbhava word is derived from the nominative form in Sanskrit and Prakrit, but tatsama words are generally borrowed in the form of the Sanskrit crude base. Thus, Skr. crude base malin, nom. sing. mall; Pr. nom. media (malio); M. mall (tadbhava), a gardener; Skr. base mati-; nom. matis; M. mati (tatsama). Some tatsamas are, however, borrowed in the nominative form, as in Skr. dhanin, nom. dhani; M. dhani, a rich man. In Prakrit the nominative singular of many masculine tatsamas ended in o. In the Apabhramsa stage this o was weakened to u, and in modern Marathi, under the general rule, this final short u was dropped, the noun thus reverting as stated above to the form of the Sanskrit crude base. But in old Marathi, the short u was still retained. Thus, the Sanskrit isvaras, lord, became, as a Prakrit tatsama, isvaro, which in Apabhramsa took the form isvaru. The old Marathi form was also isvaru, but in modern Marathi we have Thvar. Tadbhavas derived from Sanskrit bases in a are treated very similarly, the termination being dropped in the modern language. Thus, Skr. nom. masc. karnas, Pr. kanno, M. kan; Skr. nom. sing. fern. kha(va, Pr. khalla, M. kha(, a bed; Skr. nom. sing. neut. grham, Pr. gharam, M. ghar, a house. Sometimes the Skr. nom. sing. fem. of these nouns ends in i, but this makes no difference, as in Skr. and Pr. culli, M. cal, a fireplace. There is one important set of exceptions to this rule. In the article PRARRIT attention is drawn to the frequent use of pleonastic suffixes, especially of -(a)ka- (masc. and neut.), -(i)ka (fern.). This could in Sanskrit be added to any noun, whatever the termination of the base might be. In Prakrit the k of this suffix, being medial, was elided, so that we get forms like Skr. nom. sing. masc. ghola-kas, Pr. glair', a-5, M. ghoda, a horse; Skr. nom. sing. fern. ghofi-ka, Pr. ghodi-a, M. hodi, a mare; Skr. ghoda-karii, Pr. ghoda-(y)am, M. ghode, a horse (without distinction of sex). Such modern forms made with this pleonastic suffix, and ending in a, i or `e are called " strong forms," while all those made without it are called " weak forms." As a rule the fact that a noun is in a weak or a strong form does not affect its meaning, but sometimes the use of a masculine strong form indicates clumsiness or hugeness. Thus bhakar (weak form) means " bread," while bhak°ra (strong form) means " a huge loaf of bread." The other pleonastic suffixes mentioned under PRAIRIT are also employed in Marathi, but usually with specific senses. Thus the suffix -illa- generally forms adjectives, while -da-ka- (in M. -Sla, fern. -di, neut. -de) implies contempt. The synthetic declension of Sanskrit and Prakrit has been pre-served in Marathi more completely than in any other Indo-Aryan language. While Maharastri Prakrit, like all others, passed through the Apabhram§a stage in the course of its development, the conservative character of the language retained even in that stage some of the old pure Maharastri forms. In the article PRAKRIT we have seen how there gradually arose a laxity in distinguishing the cases. In Maharastri the Sanskrit dative fell into almost entire disuse, the genitive being used in its place, while in Apabhramsa the case terminations become worn down to -hu, -ho, -hi, -hi and -lid, of which -hi and -hi were employed for several cases, both singular and plural. There was also a marked tendency for these terminations to become confused, so that in the earliest stages of most of the modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars we find -hi freely employed for any oblique case of the singular, and -hi for any oblique case of the plural. Another feature of Prakrit was the simplification of the complicated declensional system of Sanskrit by assimilating it in all cases to the declension of a-bases, corresponding to the first and second declensions in Latin. In the formation of the plural the Prakrit declensions are very closely followed by Marathi. We shall confine our remarks to a-bases, which may be either weak or strong forms, and of which the feminine ends sometimes in a, and sometimes in i. In Prakrit the nom. plur. of these nouns ends masc. a, fern. ao, 10, neut. aim. We thus get the following:— Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Weak form. kanno, karma khatta, khattao cart, cullio ghararh, gharaiih Prakrit . . . . an ear. kan a bed. khata a fireplace. cull a house. ghare Marathi. . . . kan ghddaya khat ghodiao cul — ghar *ghddayairh Strong form. ghodao, ghode ghotlia, ghodya — *ghodayarh, gho4li Prakrit . . . . a horse. a mare. a horse. Marathi. . . . ghoda ghodi ghode Several of the old synthetic cases have survived in Marathi, especially in the antique form of the language preserved in poetry. Most of them have fallen into disuse in the modern prose language. We may note the following, some of which have preserved the Maharastri forms, while others are directly derived from the Apabhrarnsa stage of the language. We content ourselves with giving some of the synthetic cases of one noun, a weak neuter a-base, ghar, a house. As already stated, in Prakrit the genitive is employed instead of the dative, and thus forms the basis of the Marathi dative singular. The genitive plural is not used as a dative plural in Marathi, but it is the basis of the plural general oblique case. The Marathi singular general oblique case is really the same as the Marathi dative singular, but in the standard form of speech when so used the final s is dropped, gharas, as a general oblique case, being only found in dialects. This general oblique case is the result of the confusion of the various oblique cases originally distinguished in Sanskrit and in literary Prakrit. In Apabhramsa the genitive began to usurp the function of all the other cases. It is obvious that if it were regularly employed in so indeterminate a sense, it would give rise to great confusion. Hence when it was intended to show clearly what particular case was meant, it became usual to add, to this indeterminate genitive, defining particles corresponding to the English " of," " to," " from," " by," &c., which, as in all Indo-Aryan languages they follow the main word, are called " postpositions." Before dealing with these, it will be convenient to give the modern Marathi synthetic declension of the commoner forms of nouns. The only synthetic case which is now employed in prose is the dative, and this can always be formed from the general oblique case by adding an s to the end of the word. It is therefore not given in the following table. The accusative is usually the same as the nominative, but when definiteness is required the dative is employed instead. The termination ne, with its plural ni, is, as explained in the article GUJARATI, really the oblique form, by origin a locative, of the na or no, employed in Gujarati to form the genitive. The suffix na of the dative plural is derived from the same word. Here it is probably a corruption of the Apabhrarhsa nau or naho. The postposition la is probably a corruption of the Sanskrit labhe, Apabhrarhsa lahi, for the benefit (of). As regards the ablative, we have in old Marathi poetry a form corresponding to gharahu-niya, which explains the derivation. Gharahu is a by-form of the Prakrit synthetic ablative gharau, to which niya, another oblique form of na, is added to define the meaning. The locative termination t is a contraction of the Pr. antd, Skr. antar, within. The genitive gharatsa is really an adjective meaning " belonging to the house," and agrees in gender, number and case with the noun which is possessed. Thus: malyatsa ghoda, the gardener's horse. malyace ghode, the gardener's horses. malyaci ghodi, the gardener's mare. malyacya ghodya, the gardener's mares. malyace ghode, the gardener's horse (neut.). malyaci ghoq, the gardener's horses (neut.). The suffix tsa, ci, ce, is derived from the Sanskrit suffix tyakas, Pr. cad, which is used in much the same sense. In Sanskrit it may be added either to the locative or to the unmodified base of the word to which it is attached, thus, ghOtake-tyakas or ghotaka-tyakas. Similarly in Marathi, while it is usually added to the general oblique base, it may also be added to the unmodified noun, in which case it has a more distinctly adjectival force. The use of tsa has been influenced by the fact that the Sanskrit word krtyas, Pr. kiccad, also takes the same form in Marathi. As explained in the article HINDOSTANI, synonyms of this word are used in other Indo-Aryan languages to form suffixes of the genitive.' Strong adjectives, including genitives, can be declined like substantives, and agree with the qualified noun in gender, number and case. When the substantive is in an oblique case, the adjective is put into the general oblique form without any defining postposition, which is added to the substantive alone. Weak adjectives are not inflected in modern prose, but are inflected in poetry. As in other Maharastri Prakrit. Apabhrarhsa. Marathi. Sing. gharars gharu ghar Nominative. . Dative . . . gharassa (genitive) gharaho (genitive) gharas (dative) Locative ghare gharahi (–hi) ghari, ghara General oblique gharassa (genitive) gharaho (genitive) gharas, ghara Plur. gharairit gharai ghare Nominative Locative . . gharesu gharahi (–hi) ghari General oblique gharana (genitive) gharaha (genitive) ghara Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. Meaning. Ear. Horse. Gardener. Bed. Fireplace. Mare. House. Horse. Pearl. Sing. kan ghoda mall khat ail ghodi ghar ghodee moti Nom liana ghodya malya khate cull ghodi ghara ghodya motya Gen. obi kan ghode` mat _ khata cull ghodya ghare ghod%_ motye Plur. Wind ghodya` malya khata cull ghodya ghara ghodya motya Nom. Gen. obl The usual postpositions are: Instrumental: ne, plural ni, by. Dative: la, plural also nit, to or for. Ablative: hun. in, from. Genitive: tsa, of. Locative:'t, in. We thus get the following complete modern declension of ghar, a house (neut.) : Sing. Plur. Nom. ghar ghare Ace. ghar ghare Instr. gharang gharani Dat. gharas, gharala gharas, gharala, gharana Abl. gharahun,gharun gharahun Gen. gharatsa gharatsa Loc. gharat gharai The pronouns closely follow the Prakrit originals. The origin of all these is discussed in the article HINDOSTANI, and the account need not be repeated here. As usual in these languages, there is no pronoun of the third person, its place being supplied by the demonstratives. The following are the principal pronominal forms: 'Fuller information regarding all the above postpositions will be found in G. A. Grierson's article " On Certain Suffixes in the Modern Indo-Aryan Vernaculars," on pp. 473 seq. of the Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung for 1903. II 674 mi, I, instr. mya, dat. maid, obl. madz; amhi, we, instr. amhi, obl. amhei ; madzha, my, of me; amtsa, our, of us. tic, thou, instr. tu, twa, dat. tula, obl. tudz; tumhi, you, instr. tumhi, obl. tiemha;; tudzha, thy, of thee; tumtsa, your, of you. span, self, obl. ap°na, gen. ap°la. This is also employed as an honorific pronoun of the second person, and, in addition, to mean " we including you." ha, this, fern. hi, neut. he; to, he, that, fern. ti, neut. te; dzo, who, fem. ji, neut. ye. kon, who? /say, what? obl. kasa; koni, any one; kaki, anything. In all these the plural is employed honorifically instead of the singular. Conjugation.—In Prakrit (q.v.) the complicated system of Sanskrit conjugation had already disappeared, and all verbs fell into two classes, the first, or a-, conjugation, and the second, or a-, conjugation, in which the e represents the aye of the Sanskrit tenth conjugation and of causal and denominative verbs. Marathi follows Prakrit in this respect and has two conjugations. The first, corresponding to the Prakrit a-class, as a rule consists of intransitive verbs, and the second, corresponding to the e- or causal class, of transitive verbs, but there are numerous exceptions. Verbs whose roots end in vowels or in h belong partly to one and partly to the other conjugation. These conjugations differ only in the present and past participles and in the tenses formed from them. Here, in the first conjugation an a, and in the second conjugation an i, is inserted between the base and the termination. The only original Prakrit tenses which have survived in Marathi are the present and the imperative. The present has lost its original meaning and is now a habitual past. It is also the base of the Marathi future. These three tenses, the habitual past, the imperative and the future, are conjugated as follows. They should be compared with the corresponding forms in the article PRAKRIT. The verb selected is the root uth, rise, of the first conjugation. Person. Habitual past Imperative. Future. (old present), Let me rise. I shall rise. I used to rise. Sing. Plural. Sing. Plural. Sing. Plural. I uthe uthu uthzk uthk uthen uthu 2 uthes utha uth litho uth°/il uthal 3 uthe uthat utho uthot uthel uth°til As in Rajasthani, Bihari and the Indo-Aryan language of Nepal (see PAHARI), the future is formed by adding 1, or in the first person singular n, to the old present. In the second person singular the 1 has been added to a form derived from the Pr. utthasi, which is also the origin of the old present tithes. Some scholars, however, see in uthasi a derivation of the Prakrit future utthihisi, thou shalt arise, and a confusion of the Prakrit present and future is quite possible. The remaining tenses are modern forms derived from the participles. The verbal nouns, participles and infinitives are as follows Prakrit Marathi Marathi (First First Second Conjugation). Conjugation. Conjugation. Verbal Noun . . utthaniash uth°ne, the act mar°ne, the act Infinitive . utthium of rising. of killing. uthu, to rise. mark, to kill. Present Participle u(thanto, uthat, Ora, marit, marila, Past Participle utthantao rising. killing. utthiallao uth°la, risen. marila, killed. Future Participle utthanaado uth°nor, about mar°nar,about Active to rise. to kill. Future Participle utthiavvao uthawa, about marawd, about Passive to be risen. to be killed. Conjunctive Par- utthiu uthun, having marlin, having ticiple risen. killed. The only form that requires notice is that of the conjunctive participle. It is derived from the Apabhrarhsa form utthiu, to which the dative suffix n (old Marathi ni, niya) has been added. Various tenses are formed by adding personal suffixes to the present, past or future passive participle. When the subject of the verb is in the nominative the tense so formed agrees with it in gender, number and person. We may note four such tenses: a present, uth°to, I rise; a past, uth°lo, I rose; past conditional, uth°to, had I risen; and a subjunctive, uthawa, I should rise. In the present, the terminations are relics of the verb substantive, and in the other tenses of the personal pronouns. In these latter, as there is no pronoun of the third person, the third persons have no termination, but are subject: simply the unmodified participle. We thus get the present and the past conjugated as follows, with a masculine subject: Present, I rise. Past, I rose. I Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. 2 3 uthato uth°to uth°lo utk°lo uth°tos uth°t¢ uth°las uth°ld uth°to uth°tat uth°la whale The feminine and neuter forms differ from the above: thus, Whores, thou (fern.) risest; uth°lis, thou (fern.) didst rise; and so on for the other persons and for the neuter. It will be observed that, in the case of transitive verbs, while the present participle is active, the past and future passive participles are passive in meaning. The same is the case with the future passive participle of the intransitive verb. In tenses, therefore, formed from these participles the sentence must be construed passively. The subject must be put into the instrumental case, and the participle inflected to agree with the object. If the object is not expressed, or, as is sometimes the case, is expressed in the guise of a kind of ethic dative, the participle is construed impersonally, and is employed in the neuter form. Thus (present tense) mul°ga (nom. masc.) pothi vacito, the boy reads a book, but (past tense) mul°gyane (instrumental polhs" (nom. fern.) vacili (fern.) the boy read a book, literally, by-theboy a-book was-read; or mul°gyane pothila (dative) vacili (neuter), the boy read the book, literally, by-the-boy, with-reference-tothe-book, it-(impersonal)-was-read. Similarly in the subjunctive formed from the future passive participle, mul°gyane pothi vacdwi, the boy should read a book (by-the-boy a-book is-to-be-read) or mul°gyane pothila vacawe, the boy should read the book [by-the-boy with-reference-to-the-book, it (impersonal)-is-to-be-read]. As an example of the subjunctive of an intransitive verb, we have twd uthawe, by-thee it-is-to-be-risen, thou shouldst rise. As in intransitive verbs the passive sense is not so strong, in their case the tense may also be used actively, as in to uthawas, thou shouldst rise, lit., thou (art) to-be-risen. It will be noted that when a participle is used passively it takes no personal suffix. We have seen that the present tense is formed by compounding the present participle with the verb substantive. Further tenses are similarly made by suffixing, without compounding, various tenses of the verb substantive to the various participles. Thus mi uthat (the, I am rising; mi uthat hat0, I was rising; mya uthave hate (impersonal construction), I should have risen. In the case of tenses formed from the past participle, the auxiliary is appended, not to the participle, but to the past tense, as in mi uth°lo dire, I have risen; mya marila "(the (personal passive construction) or mya marile ahee impersonal passive construction), I have killed. Similarly mi uth°lo hoto (active construction), I had risen. The usual forms of the present and past of the verb substantive are: Present, I am. Past, I was (masc). Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. I (the ahe hots hOt5 2 ahes alt- loos hot$ 3 dire ah et Kota hate The past changes for gender, but the present is immutable in this respect. Ahe is usually considered to be a descendant of the Sanskrit asmi, I am,' while hoto is derived from the Pr. homtao, the present participle of what corresponds to the Skr. root bhu, become. A potential passive and a causal are formed by adding av to the root of a simple verb. The former follows the first, or intransitive, and the latter the second or transitive conjugation. The potential passive of a neuter verb is necessarily construed impersonally. The causal verb denotes indirect agency; thus, kar°ni, to do, karav°ne, to cause a person to do; tyacya-kadun mya to karavile, I caused him to do that, literally, by-means-of-him by-me that was-caused-to-bedone. The potential, being passive, has the subject in the dative (cf. Latin mihi est ludendum) or in the instrumental of the genitive, as in maid (dative), or majhyane (instr. of meidzha, of me), uth'vati, I can rise, literally, for-me, or by-my-(action), rising-can-be-done. So, Ramdla, or Ramacyane, pothi vac°vali, Ram could read a book (by R. a book could be read). Several verbs are irregular. These must be learnt from the grammars. Here we may mention hone, to become, past participle dzhala; yene, to come, past participle ala; and dzane, to go, past participle geld. There are also numerous compound verbs. One of these, making a passive, is formed by conjugating the verb dzane, to go, with the past participle of the principal verb. Thus, marila dzato, he is being killed, literally, he goes killed. I See, however, Hoernle, Comparative Grammar, p. 364. Literature.—As elsewhere in India, the modern vernacular literature of the Maratha country arose under the influence of the religious reformation inaugurated by Ramanuja early in the 12th century. He and his followers taught devotion to a personal deity instead of the pantheism hitherto prevalent. The earliest writer of whom we have any record is Namdev (13th century), whose hymns in honour of Vithoba, a personal form of Vishnu, have travelled far beyond the home of their writer, and are even found in the Sikh Al di Granth. Dnyanoba, a younger contemporary, wrote a paraphrase of the Sanskrit Bhagavad Gita, which is still much admired. Passing over several intermediate writers we come to the period of the warrior Sivaji, the opponent of Aurangzeb. He was a disciple of Ramdas (16o8-1681), who exercised great influence over him, and whose Dasbodh, a work on religious duty, is a classic. Contemporary with Ramdas and Sivaji was Tukaram (1608–1649), a Salta by caste, and yet the greatest writer in the language. He began life as a petty shopkeeper, and being unsuccessful both in his business and in his family relations, he abandoned the world and became a wandering ascetic. His Abhangs or " unbroken " hymns, probably so called from their indefinite length and loose, flowing metre, are famous in the country of his birth. They are fervent, but though abounding in excellent morality, do not rise to any great height as poetry. Other Marathi poets who may be mentioned are Sridhar (1678–1728), the most copious of all, who translated the Bhagavata Purana, and the learned Mayura or Moropant (1729–1794), whose works smell too much of the lamp to satisfy European standards of criticism. Mahipati (1715–1790) was an imitator of Tukaram, but his chief importance rests on the fact that he collected the popular traditions about national saints, and was thus the author of the Acta sanctorum of the Marathas. Lavanis, or erotic lyrics, by various writers, are popular, but are often more passionate than decent. Another branch of Marathi literature is composed of Pawadas or war-ballads, mostly by nameless poets, which are sung everywhere throughout the country. There is a small prose literature, consisting of narratives of historical events (the so-called Bakhars), moral maxims and popular tales. In the 19th century the facilities of the printing press are responsible for a great mass of published matter. Most of the best works have been written in English by learned natives, upon whom the methods of European scholarship have exercised more influence than elsewhere in India, and have given rise to a happy combination of western science with Oriental lore. No vernacular authors of outstanding merit have appeared during the last century. Konkani once had a literature of its own, which is said to have been destroyed by the Inquisition at Goa. Temples and manuscripts were burnt wholesale. Under Roman Catholic auspices a new literature arose, the earliest writer being an Englishman, Thomas Stephens (Thomaz Estevao), who came to Goa in 1579, wrote the first Konkani grammar, and died there in 1619. Amongst other works, he was the author of a Konkani paraphrase of the New Testament in metrical form, which has been several times reprinted and is still a favourite work with the native Christians. Since his time there has grown up a considerable body of Christian literature from the pens of Portuguese missionaries and native converts. AUTxoRITIES.—Marathi is fortunate in possessing the best dictionary of any modern Indian language, J. T. Molesworth's (2nd ed., Bombay, 1857). Navalkar's (3rd ed., Bombay, 1894) is the best grammar. The earliest students of Marathi were the Portuguese, who were familiar only with the language as spoken on the coast, i.e. with the standard dialect of the northern Konkan and with Konkani. They have since devoted themselves to these two forms of speech. For the former, reference may be made to the Grammatica da lingua Concani no dialecto do norte, by J. F. da Cunha Rivara (Goa, 1858). For Konkani proper, see A. F. X. Maffei's Grammar (Mangalore, 1882) and Dictionaries (ibid., 1883). These are in English. Monsenhor S. R. Dalgado is the author of a Konkan-Portuguese Dictionary (Bombay, 1893). For further information regarding Marathi in general, see the list of authorities under INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES. For accounts of Marathi literature, see the preface to Molesworth's Dictionary; also J. Murray Mitchell's " The Chief Marathi Poets " in Transactions of the Congress of Orientalists, London, 1892, 1. 282 sqq., and ch. viii. of M. G. Ranade's Rise of the Maratha Power (Bombay, 1900). For Konkani literature, see J. Gerson da Cunha's " Materials for the History of Oriental Studies among the Portuguese," in the Pro- ceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Orientalists, ii. 179 sqq. (Florence, 1881). A full account of Marathi, given in great detail, will be found in vol. vii. of the Linguistic Survey of India (Calcutta, 1905). (G. A. GR.)
End of Article: MARATHI (properly Marathi)
JEAN PAUL MARAT (1743-1793)

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.