French revolutionaryEnd of Article: JEAN PAUL MARAT (1743-1793)
See also:leader, eldest
See also:child of
See also:Jean Paul
See also:Marat, a native of Cagliari in
See also:Sardinia, and Louise Cabrol of
See also:Geneva, was
See also:born at Boudry, in the principality of Neuchatel, on the 24th of May 1743 . His
See also:father was a designer, who had abandoned his
See also:country and his religion, and married a Swiss
See also:Protestant . On his
See also:death in 1759 141m-at set out on his travels, and spent two years at
See also:Bordeaux in the study of
See also:medicine, whence he moved to
See also:Paris, where he made use of his knowledge of his two favourite sciences,
See also:optics and
See also:electricity, to subdue an obstinate disease of the eyes . After some years in Paris he went to
See also:Holland, and then on to
See also:London, where he practised his profession . In 1773 he made his first appearance as an author with a Philosophical
See also:Essay on Man . The
See also:book shows a wonderful knowledge of
See also:English, French, German,
See also:Italian and
See also:Spanish philosophers, and directly attacks Helvetius, who had in his De l'esprit declared a know-ledge of science unnecessary for a philosopher . Marat declares that physiology alone can solve the problems of the connexion between soul and
See also:body, and proposes the existence of a
See also:nervous fluid as the true solution . In 1774 he published The Chains of
See also:Slavery, which was intended to influence-constituencies to return popular members, and reject the
See also:king's friends . Its author declared later that it procured him an honorary membership of the patriotic
See also:societies of Carlisle,
See also:Berwick and Newcastle . He remained devoted to his profession, and in 1775 published in London a little Essay on Gleets, and in Amsterdam a French
See also:translation of the first two volumes of his Essay on Man . In this
See also:year he visited
See also:Edinburgh, and on the recommendation of certain Edinburgh physicians was made an M.D. of St Andrews . On his return to London he published an Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a Singular Disease of the Eyes, with a dedication to the Royal Society .
In the same year there appeared the third
See also:volume of the French edition of the Essay on Man, which reached Ferney, and exasperated Voltaire, by its onslaught on Helvetius, into a
See also:sharp attack which only made the
See also:young author more conspicuous . His fame as a
See also:doctor was now
See also:great, and on the 24th of
See also:June 1777, the comte d'
See also:Artois, afterwards
See also:Charles X. of France, made him by brevet physician to his
See also:guards with 2000 livres a year and allowances . Marat was soon in great
See also:request as a
See also:court doctor among the aristocracy; and even
See also:Brissot, in his Memoires, admits his influence in the scientific
See also:world of Paris . The next years were much occupied with scientific
See also:work, especially the study of
See also:light and electricity, on which he presented
See also:memoirs to the
See also:des Sciences, but the academicians were horrified at his temerity in differing from
See also:Newton, and, though acknowledging his
See also:industry, would not receive him among them . His experiments greatly interested Benjamin
See also:Franklin, who used to visit him and Goethe always regarded his rejection by the academy as a glaring instance of scientific despotism . In 178o he had published at Neuchatel a Plan de legislation criminelle, founded on the principles of Beccaria . In
See also:April 1786 he resigned his court
See also:appointment . The results of his leisure were in 1787 a new translation of Newton's Optics, and in 1788 his Memoires academiques, ou nouvelles decouvertes sur la lumiere . His scientific
See also:life was now over, his
See also:political life was to begin; in the notoriety of that political life his great scientific and philosophical knowledge was to be forgotten, the high position he had given up denied, and he himself scoffed at as an ignorant charlatan, who had sold
See also:quack medicines about the streets of Paris, and been glad to
See also:earn a few sous in the stables of the comte d'Artois . In 1788 the notables had met, and advisedthe assembling of the states-general . The elections were the cause of a
See also:flood of
See also:pamphlets, of which one, Offrande a la patrie, was by Marat, and, though now forgotten, dwelt on much the same points as the famous brochure of the
See also:Abbe Sieges: Qu'estce que le tiers etat ? When the states-general met, Marat's
See also:interest was as great as ever, and in June 1789 he published a supplement to his Offrande, followed in
See also:July by La constitution, in which he embodies his idea of a constitution for France, and in
See also:September by his Tableau des vices de la constitution d'Angleterre, which he presented to the
See also:Assembly .
The latter alone deserves remark . The Assembly was at this
See also:time full of anglomaniacs, who desired to establish in France a constitution similar to that of England . Marat had seen that England was at this time being ruled by an oligarchy using the forms of liberty, which, while pretending to represent the country, was really being gradually mastered by the royal power . His heart was now all in politics; and he decided to start a paper . At first appeared a single number of the Moniteur patriote, followed on the 12th of September by the first number of the Publiciste parisien, which on the 16th of September took the title of L'Ami du peuple and which he edited, with some interruptions, until the 21st of September 1792 . The life of Marat now becomes
See also:part of the
See also:history of the French Revolution . From the beginning to the end he stood alone . He was never attached to any party; the
See also:tone of his mind was to suspect whoever was in power . About his paper, the incarnation of himself, the first thing to be said is that the man always meant what he said; no poverty, no misery or persecution, could keep him quiet; he was perpetually crying, " Nous sommes trahis." Whoever suspected any one had only to denounce him to the Ami du peuple, and the denounced was never let alone till he was proved innocent or guilty . Marat began by attacking the most powerful bodies in Paris—the Constituent Assembly, the ministers, the
See also:corps municipal, and the court of the
See also:Chatelet . Denounced and arrested, he was imprisoned from the 8th of
See also:October to the 5th of
See also:November 1789 . A second time, owing to his violent
See also:campaign against
See also:Lafayette, he narrowly escaped arrest and had to flee to London (
See also:Jan .
1790) . There he wrote his Denonciation contre
See also:Necker, and in May dared to return to Paris and continue the Ami du peuple . He was embittered by persecution, and continued his vehement attacks against all in power, and at last, after the
See also:day of the Champs du
See also:Mars (July 17, 1790), against the king himself . All this time he was in hiding in cellars and sewers, where he was attacked by a horrible skin disease, tended only by the woman Simonne Evrard, who remained true to him . The end of the Constituent Assembly he heard of with joy and with bright hopes for the future, soon dashed by the behaviour of the Legislative Assembly . When almost despairing, in
See also:December 1791, he fled once more to London, where he wrote his Ecole du citoyen . In April 1792, summoned again by the
See also:Club, he returned to Paris, and published No . 627 of the Ami . The war was now the question, and Marat saw clearly that it was to serve the purposes of the Royalists and the Girondins, who thought of themselves alone . Again denounced, Marat had to remain in hiding until the loth of
See also:August . The early days of the war being unsuccessful, the proclamation of the duke of
See also:Brunswick excited all
See also:hearts; who could go to save France on the frontiers and leave Paris in the hands of his enemies ? Marat, like
See also:Danton, foresaw the massacres of September .
After the events of the loth of August he took his seat at thecommune, and demanded a tribunal to try the Royalists in prison . No tribunal was formed, and the massacres in the prisons were the inevitable result . In the elections to the
See also:Convention, Marat was elected seventh out of the twenty-four deputies for Paris, and for the first time took his seat in an assembly of the nation . At the declaration of the republic, he closed his Ami du peuple, and commenced, on the 25th, a new paper, the Journal de la republique fran4aise, which was to contain his sentiments as its predecessor had done, and to be always on the
See also:watch . In the Assembly Marat had no party; he would always suspect and oppose the powerful, refuse power for himself . After the
See also:battle of Valmy, Dumouriez was the greatest man in France; he could almost have restored the
See also:monarchy; yet Marat did not fear to denounce him in placards as a traitor . His unpopularity in the Assembly was extreme, yet he insisted on speaking on the question of the king's trial, declared it unfair to accuse
See also:Louis for anything anterior to his acceptance of the constitution, and though implacable towards the king, as the one man who must die for the
See also:good, he would not allow Malesherbes, the king's counsel, to be attacked in his paper, and speaks of him as a "
See also:sage et respectable vieillard." The king dead, the months from
See also:January to May 1793 were spent in an unrelenting struggle between Marat and the Girondins . Marat despised the ruling party because they had suffered nothing for the republic, because they talked too much of their feelings and their
See also:antique virtue, because they had for their own virtues plunged the country into war; while the Girondins hated Marat as representative of that rough red republicanism which would not yield itself to a
See also:Roman republic, with themselves for tribunes, orators and generals . The Girondins conquered at first in the Convention, and ordered that Marat should be tried before the Revolutionary Tribunal . But their victory ruined them, for on the 24th of April Marat was acquitted, and returned to the Convention with the people at his back . The fall of the Girondins on the 31st of May was a
See also:triumph for Marat . But it was his last .
The skin disease he had contracted in the subterranean haunts was rapidly closing his life; he could only ease his
See also:pain by sitting in a warm bath, where he wrote his journal, and accused the Girondins, who were trying to raise France against Paris . Sitting thus on the 13th of July he heard in the evening a young woman begging to be admitted to see him, saying that she brought
See also:news from
See also:Caen, where the escaped Girondins were trying to rouse
See also:Normandy . He ordered her to be admitted, asked her the names of the deputies then at Caen, and, after writing their names, said, " They shall be soon guillotined," when the young girl, whose name was
See also:Corday (q.v.), stabbed him to the heart . His death caused a great commotion at Paris . The Convention attended his funeral, and placed his bust in the
See also:hall where it held its sessions . Louis
See also:David painted " Marat Assassinated," and a veritable cult was rendered to the Friend of the People, whose ashes were transferred to the
See also:Pantheon with great pomp on the 21st of September 1794—to be
See also:cast out again in virtue of the decree of the 8th of
See also:February 1795 . Marat's name was long an
See also:object of execration on account of his insistence on the death
See also:penalty . He stands in history as a bloodthirsty
See also:monster, yet in judging him one must remember the persecutions he endured and the terrible disease from which he suffered . Besides the
See also:works mentioned above, Marat wrote: Recherches physiques sur l'electricite, &c . (1782); Recherches sur l'electricite medicale (1783); Notions elementaires d'optique (1764); Lettres de l'observateur Bon
See also:Sens a M. de M . . sur la fatale catastrophe des infortunes Pilatre de Rozier et Romain,
See also:les aeronautes et l'aerostation i1785); Observations de M. l'
See also:amateur Avec a M. l'abbe Sans . . &c., i 785) ; Eloge de Montesquieu (1785), published 1883 by M. de Bresetz ; Les Charlatans modernes, ou lettres sur le charlatanisme academique (179i); Les Aventures du comte Potowski (published in 1847 by Paul Lacroix, the " bibliophile Jacob ") ; Lettres polonaises (unpublished) .
Marat's works were published by A .Vermorel, tEuvres de J . P . Marat, l'ami du peuple, recueillies et annolees (1869) . Two of his tracts, (1) On Gleets, (2) A Disease of the Eyes, were reprinted, ed . J . B .
See also:Bailey, in 1891 . See A . Vermorel, Jean Paul Marat (188o) ;
See also:Francois Chevremont, Marat: esprit politique, accomp. de sa
See also:vie (2 vols., 1880) ; Auguste Cabanas, Marat inconnu (1891); A . Bougeart, Marat, l'ami du peuple (2 vols., 1865) ; M .
See also:Tourneux, Bibliographie de l'histoire de Paris pendant la revolution franyaise (vol. ii., 1894; vol. iv., 1906), and E .
B . Bax, J . P . Marat (1900) . The Correspondance de Marat has been edited with notes by C . Villay (1908) . (R .
MARASH (anc. Germanicia-Marasion)
MARATHI (properly Marathi)
Could anybody confirm J.P.Marat as the 'French Visionary', referred to on the reverse of the 1980s album cover of 'cafe bleu', by the Style Council? cheers
In the bibliography about Marat, please add: Jean-Paul Marat, Œuvres Politiques 1789-1793 (ten volumes - 9.000 pages) Edition princeps by Jacques De Cock and Charlotte Goëtz - Editions Pôle Nord, Brussels, 1989-1995 Marat en famille. La Saga des Mara(t) by Charlotte Goëtz - Volumes 7 and 8 of "Chantiers Marat", Editions Pôle Nord, Brussels, 2001 "Plume de Marat" and "Plume sur Marat" - A general bibliography - by Charlotte Goëtz - Volumes 9 and 10 of "Chantiers Marat", Editions Pôle Nord, Brussels, 2006.
Please, go to www.marat-jean-paul. In Repères and their Origines, there are a lot of informations to correct the text. By example, Marat's mother died in 1782, not in 1759.
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