ST MARK , the traditional author of the second ,
See also:Gospel . His name occurs in several books of the New Testament, and doubtless refers in all cases to the same
See also:person, though this has been questioned . In the Acts of the Apostles (xii . 12) we read of "
See also:John, whose surname was Mark," and gather that
See also:Peter was a
See also:familiar visitor at the
See also:house of his
See also:mother Mary, which was a centre of Christian
See also:life in Jerusalem . That he was, as his
See also:Roman surname would suggest, a Hellenist, follows from the fact that he was also
See also:cousin ("
See also:nephew " is a later sense of
See also:ave/itbr, see J . B . Lightfoot on Col. iv. to) of
See also:Barnabas, who belonged to Cyprus . When Barnabas and Paul returned from their
See also:relief visit to
See also:Judaea (c . A.D . 46), Mark accompanied them (xii . 25) . Possibly he had shown in connexion with their relief
See also:work that
See also:practical capacity which seems to have been his distinctive excellence (cf .
2 Tim. iv . II) . When, notlong after, they started on a joint
See also:mission beyond
See also:Syria, Mark went as their assistant, undertaking the minor
See also:personal duties connected with travel, as well as with their work proper (xiii . 5) . As soon, however, as their plans
See also:developed, after leaving Cyprus and on arrival at
See also:Perga in
See also:Pamphylia (see PAUL,), Mark withdrew, probably on some
See also:matter of principle, and returned to Jerusalem (xiii . 13) . When, then, Paul proposed, after the Jerusalem council of Acts xv., to revisit with Barnabas the scenes of their joint labours, he naturally demurred to taking Mark with them again, feeling that he could not be relied on should fresh openings demand a new policy . But Barnabas stood by his younger kinsman and " took Mark and sailed away to Cyprus" (xv . 38 seq.) . Barnabas does not reappear, unless we
See also:trust the tradition which makes him an evangelist in Alexandria (Clem . Hom . 9 seq., cf. the attribution to him of the Alexandrine
See also:Epistle of Barnabas) .
When Mark appears once more, it is in Paul's
See also:company at Rome, as a
See also:fellow-worker joining in
See also:salutations to Christians at
See also:Colossae (Col. iv . 1o; Philem . 24) . We gather, too, that his restoration to Paul's confidence took place some
See also:time earlier, as the
See also:Colossians had already been bidden by oral
See also:message or
See also:letter to welcome him if he should visit them . This points to a reconciliation during Paul's last sojourn in Jerusalem or Caesarea . Not long after Col. iv. lo Mark seems to have been sent by Paul to some place in the province of
See also:Asia, lying on the route between Ephesus and Rome . For in 2 Tim. iv . 11 Paul bids Timothy, " Pick up Mark and bring him with thee, for he is useful to me for ministering." Once more Mark's name occurs in the New Testament, this time with yet another
See also:leader, Peter, the friend of his earliest Christian years in Jerusalem, to whom he attached himself after the deaths of Barnabas and Paul . Peter's words, " Mark, my son," show how close was the spiritual tie between the older and the younger man (I Pet. v . 13); and as he is writing from Rome ("
See also:Babylon," since Paul's
See also:death and the
See also:change of policy it implied), this forms a
See also:link between the New Testament and early tradition, which speaks of Mark as an Evangelist writing his Gospel under the influence of Peter's preaching (in Rome) . This is the essence of the tradition preserved from " the elders of former days " by
See also:Clement of Alexandria (in Eus. ii . 15, vi .
14), a tradition probably based on
See also:Papias's record (cf . Eus. iii . 39) of the explanation given by " the Elder " (John) as to the contrast in
See also:form between Mark's
See also:memoirs of Peter's discourses and the Gospel of
See also:Matthew (see GOSPELS; PAPIAS), but defining the place where these memoirs were written as Rome . That he acted to some degree as Peter's interpreter or dragoman (Epµf7veur), owing to the apostle's imperfect mastery of Greek, is held by some but denied by others (e.g. by Zahn) . His role throughout his career was servus servorum dei; and the fact that he was this successively to Barnabas, Paul and Peter,
See also:helps to show the essential harmony of their message . The
See also:identification of the author of the second Gospel with Mark, which we owe to tradition, enables us to fill in our. picture of him a little further . Thus it is possible that Mark was himself the youth (veaviorKor) to whom his Gospel refers as
See also:present at Jesus's arrest (xiv . 51 seq.; cf. his detailed knowledge as to the place of the last supper, 13 seq.) . It is probably as evangelist, and not in his own person, that he became known as " he of the stunted extremities " (rcoXo(3o&6urv\os, " curt-fingered "), a title first found in Hippolytus (Haer. vii . 30), in a context which makes its metaphorical reference to his Gospel
See also:pretty evident.' It was too as evangelist that he became personally a subject of later
See also:interest, and of speculative legends due to this, e.g. he was one of the Seventy (first found in Adamantius,
See also:Dial. de recta fide, 4th century), he was the founder of the Alexandrine
See also:Church (recorded as a tradition by
See also:Eusebius, ii . 16) and its first
See also:bishop (id. ii . 2), and was author of the
See also:local type of
See also:liturgy (cf. the Acts of Mark, ch. vii., not earlier than the end of the 4th century) .
As to his last days and death nothing is really known . It is possible—even probable, if we accept the theory that he had already 2 been there with Barnabas—that Alexandria was his finalsphere of work, as the earliest tradition on the point implies (the Latin Prologue, and Eusebius as above, probably after
See also:Africanus in the early 3rd century), and as was widely assumed in the 4th century . That he died and was buried there is first stated by
See also:Jerome (De vir.
See also:ill . 8), to which his Acts adds the
See also:glory of martyrdom (cf . Ps.-Hippolytus, De LXX Apostolic) .
See also:Medieval Legends . The majority of medieval writers on the subject state that Mark was a Levite; but this is probably no more than an inference from his supposed relationship to Barnabas . The Alexandrian tradition seems to have been that he was of Cyrenaean origin ; and Severus, a writer of the loth century, adds to this the statement that his
See also:father's name was
See also:Aristobulus, who, with his wife Mary, was driven from the Pentapolis to Jerusalem by an invasion of barbarians ' The divergent lines of the later attempts at a literal interpretation—e.g. he amputated his thumb in
See also:order to.
See also:escape the Levitical priesthood (Latin Prologue), or it was a natural defect (
See also:Cod . Tolet.)—suggest that all they had to start from was the epithet itself . 2 Nicephorus Callistus, Hist . Eccl. ii . 43, assumes this in his picturesque account of Mark's preaching in a quarter of the city which seems to have contained the
See also:tomb of the early bishops of Alexandria (cf. his Acts) .
(Severus Aschimon inRenaudot, Hist.
See also:patriarch. alex., p . 2) . In the apocryphal Acts of Barnabas, which profess to be written by him, he speaks of himself as having been formerly a servant of
See also:Cyrillus, the high
See also:priest of
See also:Zeus, and as having been baptized at
See also:Iconium . The presbyter John, whom Papias quotes, says distinctly that " he neither heard the
See also:Lord nor accompanied Him ' (Eusebius, loc. cit.) ; and this
See also:positive statement is fatal to the tradition, which does not appear until about two
See also:hundred and fifty years afterwards, that he was one of the seventy disciples (
See also:Epiphanius, pseudo-
See also:Origen De recta in Deum fide, and the author of the
See also:Chronicle) . Various other results of the tendency to fill up
See also:blank names in the gospel
See also:history must be set aside on the same ground; it was, for example, believed that Mark was one of the disciples who " went back " because of the " hard saying " (pseudo-Hippolyt., De LXX Apostolis in Cod . Barocc .
See also:Migne, Patrol. graec. x.955); there was an Alexandrian tradition that he was one of the servants at the miracle of
See also:Cana of Galilee, that he was the " man bearing a
See also:pitcher of
See also:water " in whose house the last supper was prepared, and that he was also the owner of the house in which the disciples met on the evening of the resurrection (Renaudot, loc. cit.); and even in
See also:modern times there has been the conjecture that he was the " certain
See also:young man " who " fled naked " from
See also:Gethsemane, Mark xiv . 51, 52 (
See also:Olshausen) . A tradition which was widely diffused, and which is not in itself improbable, was that he afterwards preached the gospel and presided over the church at Alexandria (the earliest extant testimony is that of Eusebius, H . E. ii . 16, 1; ii . 24; for the fully-developed
See also:legend of later times see Symeon Metaphrastes, Vita S .
Marci, and Eutychius Origines ecclesiae Alexandrinae) . There was another, though perhaps not incompatible, tradition that he preached the gospel and presided over the church at
See also:Aquileia in
See also:North Italy . The earliest testimony in favour of this tradition is the vague statement of
See also:Gregory of Nazianzus that Mark preached in Italy, but its existence in the 7th century is shown by the fact that in A.D . 629
See also:Heraclius sent the patriarchal
See also:chair from Alexandria to
See also:Grado, to which city the patriarchate of Aquileia had been then transferred (Chron. patriarch . Gradens., in Ughelli, Italia sacra, tom. v. p . 1086; for other references to the general tradition see De Rubeis, Monum.
See also:eccles. aquileien., c . 1; Acta sanctorum, ad
See also:xxv.) . It was through this tradition that Mark became connected with Venice, whither the patriarchate was further transferred from Grado; an early Venetian legend, which is represented in the Cappella Zen in the
See also:basilica of St Mark, antedates thi connexion by picturing the evangelist as having been stranded on the Rialto, while it was still an uninhabited
See also:island, and as having had the future greatness of the city revealed to him (Danduli, Chron. iv . 1, ap .
See also:Muratori, Rer. ital. script. xii . 14) . The earliest traditions appear to imply that he died a natural death (Eusebius, Jerome, and even Isidore of Seville) ; but the Martyrologies claim him as a
See also:martyr, though they do not agree as to the manner of his martyrdom .
According to the pseudo-Hippolytus he was burned; but Symeon Metaphrastes and the Paschal Chronicle represent him to have been dragged over rough stones until he died . But, however that may be, his tomb appears to have been venerated at Alexandria, and there was a
See also:firm belief at Venice in the
See also:middle ages that his remains had been translated thither in the 9th century (the fact of the
See also:translation is denied even by
See also:Tillemont ; the weakness of the evidence in support of the tradition is apparent even in Molini's vigorous defence of it,
See also:lib. ii. c . 2; the minute account which the same writer gives, lib., ii. c. n 1, of the
See also:discovery of the supposed actual bones of the evangelist in A.D . 1811, is interesting) . There was another though less widely accepted tradition, that the remains soon after their translation to Venice were retranslated to the abbey of
See also:Reichenau on Lake
See also:Constance; a circumstantial account of this retranslation is given in the
See also:treatise Ex miraculis S . Marci, in
See also:Pertz, Mon. hilt. german. script., torn. iv. p . 449 . It may be added that the Venetians prided themselves on possessing, not only the
See also:body of St Mark, but also the autograph of his Gospel; this autograph, however, proved on examination to be only
See also:part of a 6th-century
See also:book of the Gospels, the
See also:remainder of which was published by
See also:Bianchini as the Evangeliarium forojuliense; the Venetian part of this MS. was found some years ago to have been wholly destroyed by
See also:damp . It has been at various times supposed that Mark wrote other
See also:works besides the Gospel . Several books of the New Testament have been attributed to him: viz. the Epistle to the
See also:Hebrews (Spanheim, Op. miscell. ii . 240), the Epistle of
See also:Jude (cf .
See also:Holtzmann, Die synoptischen Evangelien, p .
373), theApocalypse (
See also:Hitzig, Ueber Johannes
See also:Marcus, Zurich, 1843) . The apocryphal Acta Barnabae purport to have been written by him . There is a liturgy which bears his name, and which exists in two forms; the one form was found in a MS. of the 12th century in
See also:Calabria, and is, according to Renaudot, the foundation of the three liturgies of St
See also:Basil, St Gregory Nazianzen and St Cyril; the other is that which is used by the Maronite and Jacobite Syrians . Both forms have been published by Renaudot, Liturg.
See also:oriental. collect, i . 127, and ii . 176, and in Neale's History of the
See also:Holy Eastern Church; but neither has any substantial claim to belong to the ante-Nicene
See also:period of Christian literature . The
See also:symbol by which Mark is designated in Christian
See also:art is usually that of a lion . Each of the " four living creatures " of Ezekiel and the Apocalypse has been attributed to each of the four evangelistsin turn; Augustine and Bede think that Mark is designated by the " man ";
See also:Theophylact and others think that he is designated by the eagle;
See also:Anastasius Sinaita makes his symbol the ox; but medieval art acquiesced in the opinion of Jerome that he was indicated by the lion . Most of the martyrologies and calendars assign April 25 as the
See also:day on which he should be commemorated ; but the Martyr . Hieron. gives the 23rd of
See also:September, and some Greek martyrologies give the i nth of
See also:January . This unusual variation probably arises from early differences of opinion as to whether there was one Mark or more than one . See
See also:Canon Molini of Venice, De vita et lipsanis S .
Marci Evangelistae, edited, after the author's death, by S . Pieralisi, the librarian of the
See also:Barberini library (1864) ; R . A . Lipsius, Die apokryphen Apostelgesch. and Apostellegenden (1883
See also:foil). vol. ii. part 2, pp . 321-353 .
GOSPEL OF ST MARK
SIR WILLIAM MARKBY (1829- )
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.