Online Encyclopedia

MARMOSET

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 746 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MARMOSET, a name derived from Fr. marmouset (meaning " of a gross figure "), and used to designate the small tropical American monkeys classed by naturalists in the family Hapalidae (or Chrysothricidae). Marmosets are not larger than squirrels, and present great variation in colour; all have long tails, and many have the ears tufted. They differ from the other American monkeys in having one pair less of molar teeth in each jaw. The common marmoset, Ha pale (or Chrysothrix) jacchus, is locally Marne and Aube. Pop. (r906), 434,157. Area 3167 sq. m. About one-half consists of Champagne-Pouilleuse, a monotonous and barren plain covering a bed of chalk 1300 ft. in thickness. On the west and on the east it is commanded by two ranges of hills. The highest point in the department (920 ft.) is. in the hill district of Reims, which rises to the south-west of the town of the same name, between the Vesle and the Marne. The lowest level (164 ft.) where the Aisne leaves the department, is not far distant. To the south of the Marne the hills of Reims are continued by the heights of Brie (700 to 800 ft.). All these belong geologically to the basin of Paris. They slope gently towards the west, but command the plain of Champagne-Pouilleuse by a steep descent on the east. On the farther side of the plain are the heights of Argonne (86o ft.) formed of beds of the Lower Chalk, and covered by forests; they unite the calcareous formations of Langres to the schists of Ardennes, and a continuation of them stretches southward into Perthois and the marshy Bocage. The department belongs entirely to the Seine basin, but includes only 13 miles of that river, in the south-west; it there receives the Aube, which flows for ro miles within the department. The principal river is the Marne, which runs through the department for ro5 miles in a great sweep concave to the south-west. The Aisne enters the department at a point 12 miles from its source, and traverses it for 37 miles. Two of its affluents on the left, the Suippes and the Vesle, on which stands Reims, have a longer course from south-east to north-west across the department. Marne has the temperate climate of the region of the Seine; the annual mean temperature is 50° F., the rainfall about 24 in. Oats, wheat, rye and barley among the cereals, lucerne, sainfoin and clover, and potatoes, mangold-wurzels and sugar- -~ beet are the principal agricultural crops. The raising of sheep of a mixed merino breed and of other stock together with bee- ~- ...'x \ % farming are profitable. The vineyards, concentrated chiefly The Alpine Marmot (Arctomys marmotta). I round Reims and Epernay, are of high value; the manufacture I of the sparkling Champagne wines being a highly important (q.v.), the commonest species being A. monax. The so-called I industry, of which 1pernay, Reims and Chalons are the chief prairie-dogs, which are smaller and more slender North American centres. Several. communes supply the more valuable vegetables, rodents with small cheek-pouches, form a separate genus, such as asparagus, onions, &c. The principal orchard fruits are Cynomys; while the term pouched-marmots denotes the various species of souslik (q.v.), Spermophilus (or Citillus), which are common to both hemispheres, and distinguished by the presence of large cheek-pouches (see RODENTIA). (R.L.*)
End of Article: MARMOSET
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