MARY (1457-1482) , duchess of
See also:Burgundy, only
See also:child of
See also:Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, and his wife Isabella of Bourbon, was
See also:born on the 13th of
See also:February 1457 . As heiress of the
See also:rich Burgundian domains her
See also:hand was eagerly sought by a number of princes . When her
See also:father fell upon the
See also:field of
See also:Nancy, on the 5th of"
See also:January 1477, Mary was not yet twenty years of age .
See also:Louis` XI. of France seized the opportunity afforded by his
See also:rival's defeat and
See also:death to take possession of the duchy of Burgundy as a
See also:fief lapsed to the French
See also:crown, and also of Franche Comte,
See also:Picardy and
See also:Artois . He was anxious that Mary should marry the Dauphin Charles and thus secure the
See also:inheritance of the
See also:Netherlands for his descendants . Mary, however, distrusted Louis; declined the French
See also:alliance, and turned to her Netherland subjects for help . She obtained the help only at the price of
See also:great concessions . On the 11th of February 1477 she was compelled to sign a
See also:charter of rights, known as " the Great
See also:Privilege," by which the provinces and towns of the Netherlands recovered all the
See also:local and communal rights which had been abolished by the arbitrary decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create in the Low Countries a centralized state . Mary had to undertake not to declare war, make peace, or raise taxes without the consent of the States, and not to employ any but natives in official posts . Such was the hatred of the
See also:people to the old regime that two influential councillors of Charles the Bold, the Chancellor Hugonet and the Sire d'Humbercourt, having been discovered in
See also:correspondence with the French
See also:king, were executed at
See also:Ghent despite the tears and entreaties of the youthful duchess . Mary now made her choice among the many suitors for her hand, and selected the archduke Maximilian of
See also:Austria, afterwards the emperor Maximilian I., and the
See also:marriage took place at Ghent on the 18th of
See also:August 1477 . Affairs now went more smoothly in the Netherlands, the French aggression was checked, and
See also:internal peace was in a large measure restored, when the duchess met her death by a fall from her
See also:horse on the 27th of
See also:March 1482 .
See also:children had been the issue of her marriage, and her elder son,
See also:Philip, succeeded to her dominions under the guardianship of his father . See E . Munch, Maria von Burgund, nebst d . Leben v . Margaretha v .
See also:York (2 vols.,
See also:Leipzig, 1832), and the Cambridge Mod . Hist . (vol. i., c. xii., bibliography, 1903) .
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