See also:Roman Catholic
See also:Church . The various orders for the celebration of Mass are dealt with under
See also:LITURGY; a detailed account of the Roman
See also:order is given under
See also:MISSAL; and the general development of the eucharistic service, including the Mass, is described in the article EUCHARIST . The
See also:present article is confined (I) to the
See also:consideration of certain
See also:special meanings which have become attached to the word Mass and are the subject of somewhat acute controversy, (2) to the Mass in
See also:music . The origin of the word missa, as applied to the Eucharist, is obscure . The first to discuss the
See also:matter is Isidore of Seville (Etym. vi . 19), who mentions an " evening
See also:office " (officium vespertinum), a "
See also:morning office " (officium matutinum), and an office called missa . Of the latter he says: " Missa tempore sacrificii est, quando catechumeni foras mittuntur, clamante levita ` si quis catechumenus remansit, exeat foras.' Et inde missa,' quia sacramentis altaris interesse non possunt, qui nondum regenerati sunt " (" The missa is at the
See also:time of the sacrifice, when the catechumens are sent out, the deacon crying, ` If any
See also:catechumen remain, let him go forth.' " Hence missa, because those who are as yet unregenerate—i.e. unbaptized—may not be present at the sacraments of the
See also:altar) . This derivation of the word Mass, which would connect it with the special
See also:formula of dismissal still preserved in the Roman liturgy—Ile, missa estonce generally accepted, is now disputed . It is pointed out that the word missa long continued to be applied to any church service, and more particularly to the lections (see Du Cange for numerous examples), and it is held that such services received their name of missal from the
See also:form of dismissal with which it was customary to conclude them; thus, in the 4th century Pilgrimage of Etheria (Silvia) the word missa is used indiscriminately of the Eucharist, other services, and the ceremony of dismissal . F . Kattenbusch (Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. s . " Messe ") ingeniously, but with little evidence, suggests that the word may have had a
See also:double origin and meaning: (1) in the sense of dimissio, " dismissal "; (2) in that of commissio, " commission," " official
See also:duty," i.e. the exact Latin
See also:equivalent of the Greek Xerrovpyta (see LITURGY), and hence the conflicting use of the
See also:term .
It is, however, far more probable that it was a general term that gradually became crystallized as applying to that service in which the dismissal represented a more solemn
See also:function . In the narrower sense of " Mass " it is first found in St
See also:Ambrose (Ep . 20, 4, ed . Ballerini): " Missam facere coepi . Dum offero ... " which evidently identifies the missa with the sacrifice . It continued, however, to be used loosely, though its tendency to become proper only to the
See also:principal Christian service is clear from a passage in the 12th
See also:homily of Caesarius,
See also:bishop of Arles (d . 542) : " If you will diligently attend, you will recognize that missae are not celebrated when the divine readings are recited in the church, but when gifts are offered and the
See also:Body and
See also:Blood of the
See also:Lord are consecrated." The
See also:complete service (missa ad integrum), the bishop goes on to say, cannot be had at home by
See also:reading and prayer, but only in the
See also:house of
See also:God, where, besides the Eucharist, " the divine word is preached and the blessing is given to the
See also:people." Whatever its origin, the word Mass had by the time of the Reformation been long applied only to the Eucharist; and, though in itself a perfectly colourless term, and used as such during the earlier stages of the 16th century controversies concerning the Eucharist, it soon became identified with that sacrificial aspect of the
See also:sacrament of the altar which it was the chief
See also:object of the Reformers to overthrow . In England, so
See also:late as the first Prayer-
See also:book of
See also:Edward VI., it remained one of the official designations of the Eucharist, which is there described as " The Supper of the Lorde and
See also:holy Communion, commonly called the Masse." This, however, like the service itself, represented a compromise which the more extreme reformers would not tolerate, and in the second Prayer-book, together with such language in the
See also:canon as might imply the
See also:doctrine of
See also:transubstantiation and of the sacrifice, the word Mass also disappears . That this abolition of the word Mass, as implying the offering of Christ's Body and Blood by the
See also:priest for the living and the dead was deliberate is clear from the language of those who were chiefly responsible for the
See also:change . Bishops
See also:Ridley and
See also:Latimer, the two most conspicuous champions of " the new religion," denounced " the Mass " with unmeasured violence; Latimer said of "
See also:Mistress Missa " that " the devil hath brought her in again "; Ridley said: " I do not take the Mass as it is at this
See also:day for the communion of the Church, but for a popish
See also:device," &c . (
See also:Works, ed .
See also:Soc., pp . 121, 120), and again: " In the
See also:stead of the Lord's holy table they give the people, with much solemn disguising, a thing which they
See also:call their mass; but in deed and in truth it is a very masking and mockery of the true Supper of the Lord, or rather I may call it a crafty juggling, whereby these false thieves and jugglers have bewitched the minds of the
See also:simple people . . . unto pernicious idolatory " (ib. p . 409) . This language is reflected in the 31st of the Articles of Religion of the Chinch of England: " Wherefore the sacrifices of Masses, in which it was commonly said that the Priest did offer Christ for the
See also:quick and the dead, to have remission of
See also:pain and
See also:guilt, were blasphemous fables and dangerous deceits." Clearly the word Mass had ceased to be a colourless term generally applicable to the eucharistic service; it was, in fact, not only proscribed officially, but in the
See also:common language of
See also:English people it passedentirely out of use except in the sense in which it is defined in
See also:Dictionary, i.e. that of the "Service of the Romish Church at the celebration of the Eucharist." In connexion with the Catholic reaction in the Church of England, which had its origin in the "
See also:Movement " of the 19th century, efforts have been made by some of the
See also:clergy to reintroduce the term " Mass " for the Holy Communion in the English Church . See Du Cange, Glossarium, s.v . " Missa "; F . Kattenbusch in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie (ed . 1903), s.v . " Messe, dogmengeschichtlich "; for the facts as to the use of the word " Mass " at the time of the Reformation see the article by J . H .
See also:Round in the Nineteenth Century for May 1897 .
(W . A .
GASTON CAMILLE CHARLES MASPERO (1846– )
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