See also:Gospel, where he is described as having been a tax-gatherer or customs-officer (rEXc.,v , X . 3), in the service of the
See also:tetrarch Herod . The circumstances of his
See also:call to become a follower of Jesus, received as he sat in the " customs
See also:house " in one of the towns by the
See also:Sea of Galilee—apparently Capernaum (Mark ii . 1, 13), are briefly related in ix . 9 . We should gather from the parallel narrative in Mark ii . 14, Luke v . 27, that he was at the.
See also:time known as " Levi the son of Alphaeus " (compare
See also:Simon Cephas,
See also:Barnabas) : if so, "
See also:James the son of Alphaeus " may have been his
See also:brother . Possibly "
See also:Matthew " (Yahweh's
See also:gift) was his Christian surname, since two native names, neither being a patronymic, is contrary to Jewish usage . It must be noted, however, that Matthew and Levi were sometimes distinguished in early times, as by
See also:Heracleon (c . 170 A.D.), and more dubiously by
See also:Origen (c . Celsum, 62), also apparently in the
See also:Syriac Didascalia (sec. iii.), V. xiv .
14 . It has generally been supposed, on the strength of Luke'saccount (v . 29), that Matthew gave a feast in Jesus'
See also:honour (like Zacchaeus, Luke xix . 6 seq.) . But Mark (ii . 15), followed by Matthew (ix . 1o), may mean that the
See also:meal in question was one in Jesus' own home at Capernaum (cf. v . 1) . In the lists of the Apostles given in the Synoptic Gospels and in Acts, Matthew ranks third or
See also:fourth in the second
See also:group of four—a
See also:index of his relative importance in the apostolic age . The only other facts related of Matthew on
See also:good authority concern him as Evangelist .
See also:Eusebius (H.E. iii . 24) says that he, like
See also:John, wrote only at the
See also:spur of
See also:necessity .
" For Matthew, afterpreaching to
See also:Hebrews, when about to go also to others, committed to writing in his native
See also:tongue the Gospel that bears his name; and so by his writing supplied, for those whom he was leaving, the loss of his presence." The value of this tradition, which may be based on
See also:Papias, who certainly reported that " Matthew compiled the Oracles (of the
See also:Lord) in
See also:Hebrew," can be estimated only in connexion with the study of the Gospel itself (see below) . No
See also:historical use can be made of the artificial
See also:story, in Sanhedrin 43a, that Matthew was condemned to
See also:death by a Jewish
See also:court (see Laible, Christ in the
See also:Talmud, 71 seq.) . According to the Gnostic Heracleon, quoted by
See also:Clement of Alexandria (Strom. iv . 9), Matthew died a natural death . The tradition as to his ascetic
See also:diet (in Clem . Alex . Paedag. ii . 16) may be due to confusion with Matthias (cf . Mart . Matthaei, i.) . The earliest
See also:legend as to his later labours, one of Syrian origin, places them in the
See also:kingdom, where it represents him as dying a natural death at
See also:Hierapolis (= Mabog on the
See also:Euphrates) . This agrees with his legend as known to
See also:Ambrose and Paulinus of
See also:Nola, and is the most probable in itself .
The legends which make him
See also:work with Andrew among the Anthropophagi near the Black Sea, or again in Ethiopia (
See also:Rufinus, and
See also:Socrates, H.E. i . 19), are due to confusion with Matthias, who from the first was associated in his Acts with Andrew (see M . Bonnet, Acta Apost. apocr., 1898, II. i . 6.i) . Another legend, his Martyrium, makes him labour and suffer in
See also:Mysore . He is commemorated as a
See also:martyr by the Greek Chufch on the 16th of
See also:November, and by the
See also:Roman on the 21St of
See also:September, the scene of his martyrdom being placed in Ethiopia . The Latin Breviary also affirms that his
See also:body was afterwards translated to
See also:Salerno, where it is said to lie in the
See also:church built by Robert Guiscard . In Christian
See also:art (following
See also:Jerome) the Evangelist Matthew is generally symbolized by the "man"in the imagery of Ezek. i. ro, Rev. iv . 7 . For the historical Matthew, see Ency . Bibl. and Zahn, Introd. to New Test., ii . 506 seq., 522 seq .
For his legends, as under MARK . (J . V .
GOSPEL OF ST MATTHEW
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