See also:English theologian, was
See also:born at Normanston,
See also:Suffolk, on the 29th of
See also:August, 18o5 . He was the son of a Unitarian
See also:minister, and entered Trinity
See also:College, Cambridge, in 1823, though it was then impossible for any but members of the Established
See also:Church to obtain a degree . Together with
See also:John Sterling (with whom he founded the Apostles'
See also:Club) he migrated to Trinity
See also:Hall, whence he obtained a first class in
See also:law in 1827; he then came to
See also:London, and gave himself to
See also:work, writing a novel, Eustace Conyers, and editing the London Literary
See also:Chronicle until 183o, and also for a
See also:time the
See also:Athenaeum . At this time he was much perplexed as to his religious opinions, and he ultimately found
See also:relief in a decision to take a further university course and to seek
See also:Anglican orders . Entering Exeter College,
See also:Oxford, he took a second class in
See also:classics in 1831 . He was ordained in 1834, and after a short curacy at Bubbenhall in
See also:Warwickshire was appointed
See also:chaplain of
See also:Guy's Hospital, and became thenceforward a sensible factor in the intellectual and social
See also:life of London . From 1839 to 1841
See also:Maurice was editor of the
See also:Magazine . In 1840 he was appointed
See also:professor of English
See also:history and literature in
See also:King's College, and to this
See also:post in 1846 was added the
See also:chair of divinity . In 1845 he was Boyle lecturer and
See also:Warburton lecturer . These chairs he held till 1853 . In that
See also:year he published Theological Essays, wherein were stated opinions which savoured to the
See also:principal, Dr R . W .
Jelf, and to thecouncil, of unsound
See also:theology in regard to eternal punishment . He had previously been called on to clear himself from charges of heterodoxy brought against him in the Quarterly Review (1851), and had been acquitted by a
See also:committee of inquiry . Now again he maintained with
See also:great warmth of conviction that his- views were in close accordance with Scripture and the Anglican
See also:standards, but the council, without specifying any distinct "
See also:heresy " and declining to submit the case to the
See also:judgment of competent theologians, ruled otherwise, and he was deprived of his professorships . He held at the same time the chaplaincy of Lincoln's
See also:Inn, for which he had resigned Guy's (1846-186c), but when he offered to resign this the benchers refused . Nor was he assailed in the incumbency of St .
See also:Peter's, Vere Street, which he held for nine years (1860-1869), and where he drew
See also:round him a circle of thoughtful
See also:people . During the early years of this
See also:period he was engaged in a hot and bitter controversy with H . L . Mansel (afterwards dean of St Paul's), arising out of the latter's
See also:Bampton lecture upon reason and
See also:revelation . During his residence in London Maurice was specially identified with two important movements for education . He helped to found
See also:Queen's College for the education of
See also:women (1848), and the Working Men's College (1854), of which he was the first principal . He strongly advocated the abolition of university tests (18J3), and threw himself with great energy into all that affected the social life of the people .
Certain abortive attempts at co-operation among working men, and the
See also:movement known as Christian
See also:Socialism, were the immediate outcome of his teaching . In 1866 Maurice was appointed professor of moral philosophy at Cambridge, and from 187o to 1872 was incumbent of St
See also:Edward's in that city . He died on the 1st of
See also:April 1872 . He was twice married, first to Anna
See also:Barton, a
See also:sister of John Sterling's wife, secondly to a
See also:half-sister of his friend Archdeacon Hare . His son Major-General
See also:Sir J .
See also:Frederick Maurice (b . 1841), became a distinguished soldier and one of the most prominent military writers of his time . Those who knew Maurice best were deeply impressed with the spirituality of his character . " Whenever he woke in the
See also:night," says his wife, " he was always praying."
See also:Kingsley called him " the most beautiful human soul whom
See also:God has ever allowed me to meet with." As regards his intellectual attainments we may set
See also:Julius Hare's
See also:verdict " the greatest mind since
See also:Plato " over against
See also:Ruskin's " by nature
See also:puzzle-headed and indeed wrong-headed." Such contradictory impressions bespeak a life made up of contradictory elements . Maurice was a man ofpeace, yet his life was spent in a series of conflicts; of deep humility, yet so polemical that he often seemed biased; of large charity, yet bitter in his attack upon the religious
See also:press of his time; a loyal churchman who detested the
See also:label " Broad," yet poured out
See also:criticism upon the leaders of the Church . With an intense capacity for visualizing the unseen, and a kindly dignity, he combined a large sense of
See also:humour . While most of the " Broad Churchmen " were influenced by ethical and emotional considerations in their repudiation of the
See also:dogma of
See also:everlasting torment, he was swayed by purely intellectual and theological arguments, and in questions of a more general liberty he often opposed the proposed Liberal theologians, though he as often took their side if he saw them hard pressed .
He had a wide metaphysical and philosophical knowledge which he applied to the history of theology . He was a strenuous
See also:advocate of ecclesiastical
See also:control in elementary education, and an opponent of the new school of higher biblical criticism, though so far an evolutionist as to believe in growth and development as applied to the history of nations . As a preacher, his
See also:message was apparently
See also:simple; his two great convictions were the fatherhood of God, and that all religious systems which had any stability lasted because of a portion of truth which had to be disentangled from the error differentiating them from the doctrines of the Church of England as understood by himself . His love to God as his
See also:Father was a passionate adoration which filled his whole heart . The prophetic, even apocalyptic, note of his preaching was particularly impressive . He prophesied in London as Isaiah prophesied to the little towns of
See also:Palestine and
See also:Syria, " often with dark foreboding, but seeing through all unrest and convulsion the working out of a sure divine purpose." Both at King's College and at Cambridge Maurice gathered round him a
See also:band of
See also:earnest students, to whom he directly taught much that was valuable
See also:drawn from wide stores of his own
See also:reading, wide rather than deep, for he never was, strictly speaking, a learned man . Still more did he encourage the
See also:habit of inquiry and
See also:research, more valuable than his
See also:direct teaching . In his Socratic power of convincing his pupils of their
See also:ignorance he did more than perhaps any other man of his time to awaken in those who came under his sway the
See also:desire for knowledge and the
See also:process of
See also:independent thought . As a social reformer, Maurice was before his time, and gave his eager support to schemes for which the
See also:world was not ready . From an early period of his life in London the
See also:condition of the poor pressed upon him with consuming force; the enormous magnitude of the social questions involved was a
See also:burden which he could hardly bear . For many years he was the clergyman whom working men of all opinions seemed to
See also:trust even if their faith in other religious men and all religious systems had faded, and he had a marvellous power of attracting the zealot and the outcast . His
See also:works cover nearly 40 volumes, often obscure, often tautological, and with no great distinction of
See also:style .
But their high purpose and philosophical outlook give his writings a permanentplace in the history of the thought of his time . The following are the more important works—some of them were rewritten and in a measure recast, and the date given is not necessarily that of the first appearance of the
See also:book, but of its more
See also:complete and abiding
See also:form: Eustace
See also:Conway, or the
See also:Brother and Sister, a novel (1834) ; The
See also:Kingdom of Christ (1842) ; ;
See also:Day and Other Sermons (1843) ; The Unity of the New Testament (1844) ; The
See also:Epistle to the
See also:Hebrews (1846) ; The Religions of the World (1847) ; Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the
See also:Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848) ; The Church a
See also:Family (185o); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and
See also:Kings of the Old Testament (185,3); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The
See also:Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857) ; The Commandments as
See also:Instruments of
See also:National Reformation (1866) ; On the
See also:Gospel of St Luke (1868) ; The
See also:Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The
See also:Lord's Prayer, a
See also:Manual (187o) . The greater
See also:part of these works were first delivered as sermons or lectures . Maurice also contributed many pre-faces and introductions to the works of friends, as to Archdeacon Hare's Charges, Kingsley's
See also:Saint's Tragedy, &c . See Life by his son (2 vols., London, 1884), and a monograph by C . F . G . Masterman (1907) in "
See also:Leader of the Church " series; W . E .
See also:Collins in Typical English Churchmen, pp . 327-360 (1902), and T .
See also:Hughes in The Friendship of Books (1873) .
ST MAURICE [or MAURITIUS] (d. c. 286)
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