MAXIMUS , the name of four
See also:Roman emperors . I . M .
See also:CLoDIUS PUPIENUS MAXIMUS, joint emperor with D . Caelius Calvinus Balbinus during a few months of the
See also:year A.D . 238 . Pupienus was a distinguished soldier, who had been proconsul of
See also:Achaea, and Gallia Narbonensis . At the advanced age of seventy-four, he was chosen by the
See also:senate with Balbinus to resist the
See also:barbarian Maximinus . Their
See also:complete equality is shown by the fact that each assumed the titles of
See also:pontifex maximus and princeps senatus . It was arranged that Pupienus should take the
See also:field against Maximinus, while Balbinus remained at Rome to maintain
See also:order, a task in which he signally failed . A revolt of the
See also:praetorians was not repressed till much
See also:blood had been
See also:shed and a considerable
See also:part of the city reduced to ashes . On his
See also:march, Pupienus, having received the
See also:news that Maximinus had been assassinated by his own troops, returned in
See also:triumph to Rome .
Shortly afterwards, when both emperors were on the point of leaving the city on an expedition—Pupienus against the Persians and Balbinus against the Goths—the praetorians, who had always resented the
See also:appointment of the senatorial emperors and cherished the memory of the soldier-emperor Maximinus, seized the opportunity of revenge . When most of the
See also:people were at the Capitoline
See also:games, they forced their way into the palace, dragged Balbinus and Pupienus through the streets, and put them to
See also:death . See Capitolinus,
See also:Life of Maximus and Balbinus; Herodian vii. to, viii . 6;
See also:Zonaras xii . 16;
See also:Orosius vii . 19;
See also:Eutropius ix . 2;
See also:Zosimus i . 14; Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 26, epit . 26; H . Schiller, Geschichte der rgmischen Kaiserzeit, i . 2; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch . 7 and (for the chronology) appendix 12 (Bury's edition) .
See also:MAGNUS MAXIMUS, a native of Spain, who had accompanied
See also:Theodosius on several expeditions and from 368 held high military
See also:rank in Britain . The disaffected troops havingproclaimed Maximus emperor, he crossed over to Gaul, attacked
See also:Gratian (q.v.), and drove him from
See also:Paris to
See also:Lyons, where he was murdered by a
See also:partisan of Maximus . Theodosius being unable to avenge the death of his colleague, an agreement was made (384 or 385) by which Maximus was recognized as
See also:Augustus and
See also:sole emperor in Gaul, Spain and Britain, while Valentinian II. was to remain unmolested in Italy and Illyricum, Theodosius retaining his
See also:sovereignty in the East . In 387 Maximus crossed the
See also:Alps, Valentinian was speedily put to
See also:flight, while the invader established himself in Milan and for the
See also:time became
See also:master of Italy . Theodosius now took vigorous
See also:measures . Advancing with a powerful army, he twice defeated the troops of Maximus—at Siscia on the Save, and at Poetovio on the
See also:Danube . He then hurried on to
See also:Aquileia., where Maximus had shut himself up, and had him beheaded . Under the name of Maxen Wledig, Maximus appears in the
See also:list of Welsh royal heroes (see R .
See also:Williams , Biog . Dict. of Eminent Welshmen, 1852; " The Dream of Maxen Wledig," in the Mabinogion) . Full account with classical references in H .
See also:Richter, Das westromische Reich, besonders unter den Kaisern Gratian, Valentinian II. and Maximus (1865); see also H . Schiller, Geschichte der rOmischen Kaiserzeit, ii . (1887); Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch . 27;
See also:Tillemont, Hist.
See also:des empereurs, v . See Orosius vii . 42; Zosimus vi . 5;
See also:Sozomen ix . 3; E . A . Freeman, " The Tyrants of Britain, Gaul and Spain, A.D . 406-411," in
See also:Historical Review, i . (1886) .
See also:PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, a member of the higher Roman
See also:nobility, had held several
See also:court and public offices, including those of praefectus Romae (420) and Italiae (439–441 and 445), and
See also:consul (433, 443)• He was one of the intimate associates of Valentinian III., whom he assisted in the palace intrigues which led to the death of Aetius in 454; but an
See also:outrage committed on the wife of Maximus by the emperor turned his friendship into hatred . Maximus was proclaimed emperor immediately after Valentinian's
See also:murder (March 16, 455), but after reigning less than three months, he was murdered by some Burgundian mercenaries as he was fleeing before the troops of Genseric, who, invited by Eudoxia, the widow of Valentinian, had landed at the mouth of the
See also:Tiber (May or
See also:June 455) . See
See also:Procopius, Vand. i . 4; Sidonius Apollinaris, Panegyr . Aviti, ep. ii . 13; the various
See also:Chronicles; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chs . 35, 36; Tillemont, Hist. des empereurs, vi .
MAXIMUS OF SMYRNA
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