MAXWELL , the name of a Scottish
See also:family, members of which have held the titles of
See also:earl of
See also:Morton, earl of Nithsdale,
See also:Lord Maxwell, and Lord Herries . The name is taken probably from Maccuswell, or Maxwell, near
See also:Kelso, whither the family migrated from England about 1roo .
See also:Herbert Maxwell won
See also:great fame by defending his
See also:castle of Carlaverock against
See also:Edward I. in 1300; another Sir Herbert was made a lord of the Scottish parliament before 1445; and his great-
See also:John, 3rd Lord Maxwell, was killed at
See also:Flodden in 1513 . John's son Robert, the 4th lord (d . 1546), was a member of the royal council under
See also:James V.; he was also an extraordinary lord of session, high
See also:admiral, and
See also:warden of the west
See also:marches, and was taken prisoner by the
See also:English at the rout of Solway
See also:Moss in 1542 . Robert's grandson John, 7th Lord Maxwell (1553-1593), was the second son of Robert, the 5th lord (d . 1552), and his wife Beatrix, daughter of James
See also:Douglas, 3rd earl of Merton . After the execution of the
See also:regent Morton, the 4th earl, in 1581 this earldom was bestowed upon Maxwell, but in 1586 the
See also:attainder of the
See also:late earl was reversed and he was deprived of his new title . He had helped in 1585 to drive the royal favourite James
See also:Stewart, earl of Arran, from power, and he made active preparations to assist the invading Spaniards in 1588 . His son John, the 8th lord (c . 1586-1613), was at
See also:feud with the Johnstones, who had killed his
See also:father in a skirmish, and with the Douglases over the earldom of Morton, which he regarded as his
See also:inheritance . After a
See also:life of exceptional and continuous lawlessness he escaped from Scotland and in his
See also:absence was sentenced to
See also:death; having returned to his native
See also:country he was seized and was beheaded in
See also:Edinburgh .
In 1618 John's
See also:brother and
See also:heir Robert (d . 1646) was restored to the lordship of Maxwell, and in 162o was created earl of Nithsdale, surrendering at this
See also:time his claim to the earldom of Morton . He and his son Robert, afterwards the and earl, fought tinder Montrose for
See also:Charles I. during the
See also:Civil War . Robert died without sons in
See also:October 1667, when a
See also:cousin John Maxwell, 7th Lord Herries (d . 1677), became third earl .
See also:William, 5th earl of Nithsdale (1676-1744), a grandson of the third earl, was like his ancestor a
See also:Roman Catholic and was attached to the cause of the exiled
See also:house of
See also:Stuart . In 1715 he joined the Jacobite insurgents, being taken prisoner at the
See also:battle of Preston and sentenced to death . He escaped, however, from the Tower of
See also:London through the courage and devotion of his wife Winifred (d . 1749), daughter of William Herbert, 1st
See also:marquess of
See also:Powis . He was attainted in 1716 and his titles became
See also:extinct, but his estates passed to his son William (d . 1776), whose descendant, William
See also:Constable-Maxwell, regained the title of Lord Herries in 1858 . The countess of Nithsdale wrote an account of her
See also:escape, which is published in vol. i. of the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland .
A few words may be added about other prominent members of the Maxwell family . John Maxwell (c . 1590–1647),archbishop of
See also:Tuam, was a Scottish ecclesiastic who took a leading
See also:part in helping Archbishop Laud in his futile attempt to restore the
See also:liturgy in Scotland . He was
See also:bishop of
See also:Ross from 1633 until 1638, when he was deposed by the General
See also:Assembly; then
See also:crossing over to
See also:Ireland he was bishop of
See also:Killala and Achonry from 164o to 1645, and arch-bishop of Tuam from 1645 until his death . James Maxwell of Kirkconnell (c . 1708–1762), the Jacobite, wrote the Narrative of Charles
See also:Prince of
See also:Wales's Expedition to Scotland in 1745, which was printed for the
See also:Club in 1841 . Robert Maxwell (1695–1765) was the author of Select Transactions of the Society of Improvers and was a great benefactor to Scottish
See also:agriculture . Sir
See also:Murray Maxwell (1775-1831), a
See also:naval officer, gained much fame by his conduct when his
See also:ship the " Alceste " was wrecked in Gaspar Strait in 1817 . William
See also:Hamilton Maxwell (1792–1850), the Irish novelist, wrote, in addition to several novels, a Life of the Duke of Wellington (1839–1841 and again 1883), and a
See also:History of the Irish
See also:Rebellion in 1795 (1845 and 1891) . Sir Herbert Maxwell, 7th
See also:bart . (b . 1845), member of parliament for Wigtownshire from 188o to 1906, and
See also:president of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, became well known as a writer, his
See also:works including Life and Times of the Right Hon .
W . H .
See also:Smith (18S3) ; Life of the Duke of Wellington (1899) The House of Douglas (1902); Robert the
See also:Bruce (1897) and A Duke of Britain (1895) .
ST MAXIMUS (c. 58o-662)
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831–1879)
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