MAYFLOWER , thevessel which carried from Southampton, England, to Plymouth, Massachusetts, the Pilgrims who established the first permanent colony in New England . It was of about 18o tons
See also:burden, and in
See also:company with the " Speedwell " sailed from Southampton on the 5th of
See also:August 1620, the two having on
See also:board 120 Pilgrims . After two trials the " Speedwell " was pronounced unseaworthy, and the " Mayflower " sailed alone from Plymouth, England, on the 6th of
See also:September with the too (or 102) passengers, some 41 of whom on the 11th of
See also:November (o.s.) signed the famous " Mayflower Compact " in
See also:Provincetown Harbor, and a small party of whom, including
See also:Bradford, sent to choose a place for settlement, landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 11th of
See also:December (21st N.S.), an event which is celebrated, as Forefathers'
See also:Day, on the 22nd of December . A " General Society of May-flower Descendants " was organized in 1894 by lineal descendants of passengers of the " Mayflower " to " preserve their memory, their records, their
See also:history, and all facts
See also:relating to them, their ancestors and their posterity." Every lineal descendant, over eighteen years of age, of any passenger of the " May-flower " is eligible to membership . Branch
See also:societies have since been organized in several of the states and in the
See also:District of
See also:Columbia, and a triennial congress is held in Plymouth . See Azel
See also:Ames, The May-Flower and Her
See also:Log (Boston, 1901);
See also:Blanche McManus, The Voyage of the Mayflower (New
See also:York, 1897) ; The General Society of Mayflower: Meetings,
See also:Officers and Members, arranged in State Societies, Ancestors and their Descendants (New York, 1901) . Also the articles PLYMOUTH, Mass . ; MASSACHUSETTS, History;
See also:PILGRIM; and PROVINCETOWN, Mass . MAY-FLY . The Mayflies belong to the Ephemeridae, a remarkable
See also:family of winged
See also:insects, included by
See also:Linnaeus in his
See also:order Neuroptera, which derive their scientific name from Eci iaepos, in allusion to their very
See also:short lives . In some
See also:species it is possible that- they have scarcely more than one day's' existence, but others are far longer lived, though the extreme limit is probably rarely more than a week . The family has very sharply defined characters, which
See also:separate its members at once from all other neuropterous (or pseudo-neuropterous) groups .
These insects are universally aquatic in their preparatory states . The eggs are dropped into the
See also:water by the
See also:female in large masses, resembling, in some species, bunches of grapes in
See also:miniature . Probably several months elapse before the
See also:young larvae are excluded . The sub-aquatic
See also:condition lasts a consider-able
See also:time: in Cloeon, a genus of small and delicate species,
See also:Sir J . Lubbock (
See also:Lord Avebury) proved it to extend over more than six months; but in larger and more robust genera (e.g . Palingenia) there appears reason to believe that the greater
See also:part of three years is occupied in preparatory conditions . The larva is elongate and campodeiform . The
See also:head is rather large, and is furnished at first with five
See also:simple eyes of nearly equal
See also:size; but as it increases in size the homologues of the facetted eyes of the imago become larger, whereas those
See also:equivalent to the ocelli remain small . The antennae are long and
See also:thread-like, composed at first of few
See also:joints, but the number of these latter apparently in-creases at each
See also:moult . The mouth parts are well
See also:developed, consisting of an upper
See also:lip, powerful mandibles, maxillae with three-jointed palpi, and a deeply quadrifid labium or
See also:lower lip with three-jointed labial palpi . Distinct and conspicuous maxillulae are associated with the
See also:tongue or hypopharynx . There are three distinct and largethoracic segments, whereof the prothorax is narrower than the others; the legs are much shorter and stouter than in the winged
See also:insect, with monomerous tarsi terminated by a single claw .
See also:abdomen consists of ten segments, the tenth furnished with long and slender multi-articulate tails, which appear to be only two in number at first, but an intermediate one gradually develops itself (though this latter is often lost in the winged insect) . Respiration is effected by means of
See also:external gills placed along both sides of the dorsum of the abdomen and hinder segments of the thorax . These vary in
See also:form: in some species they are entire plates, in others they are cut up into numerous divisions, in all cases traversed by numerous tracheal ramifications . According to the researches of Lubbock and of E . Joly, the very young larvae have no breathing
See also:organs, and respiration is effected through the skin . Lubbock traced at least twenty moults in Cloeon ; at about the tenth rudiments of the wing-cases began to appear . These gradually become larger, and when so the creature may be said to have entered its " nymph " stage; but there is no condition analogous to the pupa-stage of insects with
See also:complete metamorphoses . There may be said to be three or four different modes of
See also:life in these larvae: some are fossorial, and form tubes in the mud or
See also:clay in which they live; others are found on or beneath stones; while others again swim and crawl freely among water
See also:plants . It is probable that some are carnivorous, either attacking other larvae or subsisting on more minute forms of animal life; but others perhaps feed more exclusively on
See also:vegetable matters of a low type, such as diatoms . The most aberrant type of larva is that of the genus Prosopistoma, which was originally described as an entomostracous crustacean on account of the presence of a large carapace overlapping the greater part of the
See also:body . The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large
See also:respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water . Species of this genus occur in
See also:Europe, Africa and
See also:Madagascar .
When the aquatic insect has reached its full growth it emerges from the water or seeks its
See also:surface; the thorax splits down the back and the winged form appears . But this is not yet perfect, although it has all the form of a perfect insect and is capable of
See also:flight; it is what is variously termed a " pseud-imago," " sub-imago " or "
See also:pro-imago." Contrary to the habits of all other insects, there yet remains a pellicle that has to be
See also:shed, covering every part of the body . This final moult is effected soon after the insect's appearance in the winged form; the creature seeks a temporary resting-place, the pellicle splits down the back, and the now perfect insect comes forth, often differing very greatly in
See also:colours and markings from the condition in which it was only a few moments before . If the observer takes up a suitable position near water, his coat is often seen to be covered with the
See also:cast sub-imaginal skins of these insects, which had chosen him as a convenient
See also:object upon which to undergo their final
See also:change . In some few genera of very low type it appears probable that, at any
See also:rate in the female, this final change is never effected and that the creature
See also:dies a sub-imago . The winged insect differs considerably in form from its sub-aquatic condition . The head is smaller, often occupied almost entirely above in the male by the very large eyes, which in some species are curiously
See also:double in that sex, one portion being pillared, and forming what is termed a "
See also:turban," the mouth parts are aborted, for the creature is now incapable of taking nutriment either solid or fluid; the antennae are mere short bristles, consisting of two rather large basal joints and a multi-articulate thread . The prothorax is much narrowed, whereas the other segments (especially the mesothorax) are greatly enlarged; the legs long and slender, the anterior pair often very much longer in the male than in the female; the tarsi four- or five-jointed; but in some genera (e.g . Oligoneuria and
See also:allies) the legs are aborted, and the creatures are driven helplessly about by the
See also:wind . The wings are carried erect : the anterior pair large, with numerous
See also:longitudinal nervures, and usually abundant trans-
See also:verse reticulation; the posterior pair very much smaller, often lanceolate, and frequently wanting absolutely . The abdomen consists of ten segments; at the end are either two or three long multi-articulate tails; in the male the ninth joint bears forcipated appendages; in the female the oviducts terminate at the junction of the seventh and eighth ventral segments . The
See also:independent opening of the genital ducts and the
See also:absence of an ectodermal vagina and ejaculatory duct are remarkable archaic features of these insects, as has been pointed out by J .
A . Palmeri . The sexual
See also:act takes place in the air, and is of very short duration, but is apparently repeated several times, at any rate in some cases . Ephemeridae are found all over the
See also:world, even up to high
See also:northern latitudes . F . J . Pictet, A . E .
See also:Eaton and others have given us valuable
See also:works or monographs on the family; but the subject still remains little understood, partly owing to the
See also:great difficulty of preserving such delicate insects; and it appears probable they can only be satisfactorily investigated as moist preparations . The number of described species is less than 200, spread over many genera . From the earliest times
See also:attention has been
See also:drawn to the enormous abundance of species of the family in certain localities . Johann Anton Scopoli, writing in the 18th century, speaks of them as so abundant in one place in
See also:Carniola that in
See also:June twenty cart-loads were carried away for manure !
See also:virgo, which, though not found in England, occurs in many parts of Europe (and is
See also:common at
See also:Paris), emerges from the water soon after sunset, and continues for several
See also:hours in such myriads as to resemble
See also:snow showers, putting out
See also:lights, and causing inconvenience to man, and annoyance to horses by entering their nostrils . In other parts of the world they have been recorded in multitudes that obscured passers-by on the other side of the street . And similar records might be multiplied almost to any extent . In Britain, although they are often very abundant, we have scarcely anything analogous .
See also:Fish, as is well known, devour them greedily, and enjoy a veritable feast during the short
See also:period in which any particular species appears . By anglers the common
See also:English species of Ephemera (vulgata and danica, but more especially the latter, which is more abundant) is known as the " may-fly," but the terms "
See also:green drake " and "
See also:bastard drake " are applied to conditions of the same species . Useful information on this point will be found in Ronalds's Fly-
See also:Fisher's Entomology, edited by Westwood . Ephemeridae belong to a very
See also:ancient type of insects, and fossil imprints of allied forms occur even in the Devonian and Carboniferous formations . There is much to be said in favour of the view entertained by some entomologists that the structural and developmental characteristics of may-flies are sufficiently
See also:peculiar to
See also:warrant the formation for them of a
See also:special order of insects, for which the names Agnatha, Plectoptera and Ephemeroptera have been proposed . (See HEXAPODA, NEUROPTERA.) (R . McL.; G . H .
JULIUS ROBERT MAYER (1814-1878)
MAYHEM (for derivation see MAIMING)
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