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Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 12 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MEDALS AS WAR DECORATIONS Although the striking of medals to commemorate important events is a practice of considerable antiquity, yet the custom of using the medal as a decoration, and especially as a decoration to do honour to those who have rendered service to the state of art at a small outlay. in time of war, is comparatively modern. It has been supposed that the circular ornaments on the Roman standards had medals in their centres, but there is no evidence to show that this was the case, and the standards shown on the column of Trajan appear only to haveF had plain bosses in their centres. It is true that the Chinese are said to have used military medals during the Han dynasty (1st century A.D.), but, as far as the West is concerned, we have to come to the 16th century before we find the custom of wearing medals as decorations of honour a recognized institution. The wearing of decorative medals was common in England in the reign of Henry VIII., but the first medals commemorating a particular event that were evidently intended as a personal decoration, and were in all probability (though there is no absolute proof) bestowed as reward for military services rendered to the Crown, are the " Armada " medals of Queen Elizabeth, r588-1589. Of these there are two. The earliest, generally styled the " Ark in flood " medal, is a large oval medal of silver (2 by 1.75 in.), and bears on the obverse a profile bust of the queen surrounded by the inscription, ELIZABETH D. G. ANGLIAE. F. ET HI. REG. On the reverse is an ark on waves, with above the rays of the sun, and around the legend, SAEVAS TRANQVILLA PER VNDAS. This medal dates from 1588, and in the following year there was given another medal, a little larger (2.3 by 2.1 in.) and struck in gold, silver and copper. The obverse of this second medal bore a full-face bust of Elizabeth, with the legend, characteristic both of the monarch and the period, DITIOR IN TOTO NON ALTER CIRCULUS ORBE. The reverse has an island around which ships are sailing and sea-monsters swimming, and on the island there are houses, a flourishing bay-tree, standing uninjured by a storm of wind, and lightning emerging from heavy clouds above. The island is inscribed NON IPSA PERICVLA TANGVNT. These medals are of special interest as demonstrating thus early the existence of a doctrine of sea-power. In fact, in the medals of James I. (1603-1625), none of which have a distinct reference to war services, the " ark in flood " design was again reproduced on the reverse, this time with the legend slightly altered, viz. STET SALVVS IN VNDIS. Other European nationalities were also about this period conferring decorative medals as a reward for war services, as for example, the " Medal to Volunteers " issued in Holland in 1622-1.623 and the " Military Medal of Gustavus Adolphus " issued in Sweden in 163o. Here it may be noted that in following the history of medals as used as a decoration to reward military services, only those of British origin need be dealt with in detail, since Great Britain has utilized them in a much greater degree than any other nationality. The countless minor wars of the 19th century, waged by the forces of the Crown of every class, navy, army and auxiliary, have no equivalent in the history of other states, even in that of France, the United States and Russia. The great wars of the 19th century were divided by long intervals of peace, and the result is that with most of the great military powers the issue of campaign medals has been on a small scale, and in the main decorations have taken the form of " Orders " (see KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY: Orders), or purely personal decorations for some meritorious or exemplary service. During the reign of Charles I. (1625-1649), we come across numerous medals and badges; a considerable number of these were undoubtedly associated with, and given, even systematically given, as rewards for war services; for a royal warrant " given at our Court of Oxford, the eighteenth day of May, 1643," which directed " Sir William Parkhurst, Knight, and Thomas Bushell, Esquire, Wardens of our Mint, to provide from time to time certain Badges of silver, containing our Royal image, and that of our dearest son, Prince Charles, to be delivered to wear on the breast of every man'who shall be certified under the hands of their Commanders-in-Chief to have done us faithfulwas in any way intended to reward special valour. In those days " forlorn-hopes " were not volunteers for some desperate enterprise, as to-day, but a tactical advanced guard which naturally varied, both in numbers and arm of the service, according to ground and circumstances. That a very free distribution of the award was contemplated is evident from the fact that " soldiers " alone were specified as recipients and that a clause was inserted in the warrant strictly forbidding the sale of the medal. This letter ran: " And we do, therefore, • most straitly command, that no soldier at any time do sell, nor any of our subjects presume to buy, or wear, any of these said Badges, other than they to whom we shall give the same, and that under such pain and punishment as our Council of War shall think fit to inflict, if any shall presume to offend against this our Royal command." As there are in existence several medals of this period which bear the effigies of both the king and Prince Charles, it is uncertain which in particular was used for the " forlorn-hope " award. Very probably it is one, an oval silver-gilt medal (1.7 by 1.3 in.) which bears on the obverse a three-quarters (r.) bust of Charles I., and on the reverse a profile (1.) bust of Prince Charles (see Mayo, Medals and Decorations of the British Army and Navy, vol. 1. No. 16, Plate 5, No. 3). During the Commonwealth (1649-1660), parliament was lavish in the award of medals in recognition of war services, and for the first time we find statutory provision made for their bestowal as naval awards, in the shape of acts of parliament passed Feb. 22, 1648 and April 7, 1649 (cap. 12, 1648 and cap. 21, 1649), and Orders in Council of May 8 and Nov. 19 and 21, 1649, and Dec. 20, 1652. There is no doubt whatever that there was a " Medal of the Parliament " for sea service issued in 164.9. This medal, oval (.95 by •85 in.) and struck in gold and silver, had on the obverse an anchor, from the stock of which are suspended two shields, one bearing the cross of St George, and the other the Irish harp. The motto is MERVISTI. On the anchor stock, T. S' The reverse has on it the House of Commons with the Speaker in the chair. This medal is referred to in a minute of the Council of State of Nov. 15, 1649: " (5) That the Formes of the medalls which are now brought in to be given to the severall Mariners who have done good service this last Sutter be approved off, viz': the Armes of the Colton wealth on one side with Meruisti written above it, and the picture of the House of Cornons on the other." That there was a " Medal of the Parliament " for land service as well, is proved by the following extract from the Journals of the House of Commons (vii. 6, 7) : " Resolved, That a Chain of Gold, with the Medal of the Parliament, to the Value of One Hundred Pounds, be sent to Colonel Mackworth, Governor of Shrewsbury, as a mark of the Parliament's Favour, and good acceptance of his fidelity: And that the Council of State do take care for the providing the same, and sending it forth-with." This order was duly carried out, as is shown in the minutes of the Council of State, June 2 and July 30, 1652, but there is no trace to-day of either medal or chain. It is not unlikely that this medal is one figured at page 117 of Evelyn's Numismata (the engraving, unnumbered, is placed betwee"n. Nos. 39 and 40, and there is no allusion to it in the text), which has On the obverse a representation of the parliament, and on the reverse a bust of the Protector with a camp and troops in the background. The most splendid of all the naval awards of this period were those given for the three victories over the Dutch in 1653, namely: 1 Thomas Simon, master and chief graver of the mint. Most of the medals of this period were his work, and they are considered to be amongst the best specimens of the medallic art that have been produced in the country. service in the Forlorn-hope." From the foregoing it must not be deduced that this medal 1. The fight of Feb. 18/2o, when Blake, 'Deane and Monk defeated Van Tromp and De Ruyter, the battle beginning off Portland and ending near Calais; (2) the fight of June 2 and 3, off the Essex coast, when Monk, Deane (killed), Penn and Blake, again defeated Van Tromp and De Ruyter; (3) the fight of 31st of July off the Texel, in which Monk, Penn and Lawson beat Van Tromp in what was the decisive action of the war. The authorization for these awards will be found recorded in the Journals of the House of Commons (vii. 296, 297), under date Aug. 8, 1653. The medals, all oval, and in gold, were given in three sizes, as described below: A (2.2 by 2 in.). Only four of these medals were issued, to Admirals Blake and Monk, each with a gold chain of the value of £300, and to Vice-Admiral Penn and Rear-Admiral Lawson, each with a gold chain of the value of £ioo. On the obverse is an anchor, from the stock of which are suspended three shields, bearing respectively St George's cross, the saltire of 4 Andrew, and the Irish harp, the whole encircled by the cable of the anchor. On the reverse is depicted a naval battle with, in the foreground, a sinking ship. Both obverse and reverse have broad, and very handsome, borders of naval trophies, and on the obverse side this border has imposed upon it the arms of Holland and Zeeland. Of these four medals three are known to be in existence. One, lent by the warden and fellows of Wadham College, Oxford (Blake, it may be noted, was a member of Wadham College) was exhibited at the Royal Naval Exhibition of 1891. A second is in the royal collection at Windsor Castle. The third, with its chain, is in the possession of the family of Stuart of Tempsford House, Bedfordshire. This latter medal is known to have been the one given to Vice-Admiral Penn, an ancestor of the Stuart family. The one at Windsor is presumably Blake's, as Tancred states " the medal given to Blake was purchased for William IV. at the price of 150 guineas (Tancred, Historical Records of Medals, p. 30). The medal at Wadham was formerly in Captain Hamilton's collection. He purchased it at a low figure, but secrecy was kept as to the owner, and the original chain that was with it went into the melting-pot: there is therefore nothing to show whether it was Monk's or Lawson's, as the chain would have done. It was sold at Sotheby's in May 1882 for £305. B (2 by 1.8 in.). Four of these medals were issued, each with a gold chain of the value of £40, to the " Flag Officers," i.e. to the flag captains who commanded the four flag-ships. The obverse and reverse of this medal are, with the exception of the borders, precisely as in (A). The borders on both sides are a little narrower than those of (A), and of laurel instead of trophies. One of these medals—that given to Captain William Haddock, who was probably Monk's flag-captain in the " Van-guard," in the February fight, as he had been in that ship in the previous year, and who commanded the " Hannibal," (44) in the June battle—is now (1909) in the possession of Mr C. D. Holworthy, who is maternally descended from Captain Haddock. C (1.6 by r•4 in.). This medal is precisely the same as (B). but has no border of any kind, and also was issued without the gold chains. It was in all probability one that was issued in some numbers to the captains and other senior officers of the fleet. Some of these medals have in the plate of the reverse an inscription: FOR EMINENT SERVICE IN SAVING Y TRIUMPH FIERED IN FIGHT WH Y DVCH IN JULY 1653. The medal so inscribed was given only to those who served in the " Triumph," and commemorates a special service. Blake, incapacitated by wounds received in the fight of February, took no part in this action, but his historic flag-ship; the " Triumph," formed part of the fleets and early in the battle was fired by the Dutch fire-ships. Many of the crew threw themselves overboard in a panic, but those who remained on board succeeded by the most indomitable and heroic efforts in subduing the flames, and so saving the vessel. But undoubtedly the most interesting of all the medals of the Commonwealth period, is that known as the " Dunbar Medal," authorized by parliament, Sept. Io, 165o, in a resolution of which the following is an extract: "Ordered, that it be referred to the Committee of the Army, to consider what Medals may be prepared, both for Officers and Soldiers, that were in this Service in Scotland; and set the Proportions and Values of them, and their number; and present the Estimate of them to the House. (Journals of the House of Commons, vi. 464-465.) So came into being, what, in a degree, may be regarded as the prototype of the " war medal " as we know it to-day, for the " Dunbar Medal" is the very earliest that we know was issued to all ranks alike, to the humblest soldiers as well as to the commander-in-chief. It differed however in one very material point from the war medal of to-day—in that it was issued in two sizes, and in several different metals. There is no evidence to show what was the method that governed the issue of this medal; but the medal itself undoubtedly varied in size or metal, or both, according to the rank of the recipient. Of the two sizes in which the medal was issued the smaller, r by •85 in. was apparently intended for seniors in the respective grades, for it was struck in gold, silver and copper. The larger, 1.35 by I.15 in. was struck in silver, copper and lead (see Mayo. op. cit. i. 20-21).1 On the obverse of both issues of the " Dunbar Medal " is a left profile bust of Oliver Cromwell, with, in the distance, a battle. The reverse of the larger medal has the parliament assembled in one House with the Speaker; and, on the left, a member standing addressing the chair. The reverse of the smaller medal is the same as that of the larger, except that the member addressing the House is omitted. Cromwell himself expressed a wish to the " Committee of the Army, at London," in a letter dated the 4th of February 1650/51, that his likeness, to procure which accurately the,committee had sent Mr Simon to Scotland, should not appear on the medal. He writes: " If my poor opinion may not be rejected by~ you, I have to offer to which I think the most noble end, to witt, The Commemoracon of that great Mercie att Dunbar, and the Gratuitie to the Army, which might be better expressed upon the Medall, by engraving, as on the one side the Parliament which I hear was intended and will do singularly well, so on the other side an Army, with this inscription over the head of it, The Lord of Hosts which was our Word that day. Wherefore, if I may beg it as a favour from you, I most earnestly beseech you, if I may do it without offence, that it may be soe. And if you think not fitt to have it as I offer, you may alter it as you see cause; only I doe think I may truly say, it will be very thankfully acknowledged by me, if you will spare the having my Effigies in it." In spite of this request Cromwell's " Effigies " is made the prominent feature of the obverse of the medal, to which the representation of the " Army " is entirely subordinated. His wish that the " word " for the day should be commemorated is, however, observed in the legend on the obverse, as is also, on the reverse, his suggestion that on one side of the medal there should be a representation of the parliament. During the reign of Charles II. the issue of medals was numerous, and though we have it on the authority of Evelyn that many of these were bestowed as " gratuities of respect," yet many were given as naval awards; and, for the first time, there appears official authorization for the conferring of particular awards on those who had succeeded in the very hazardous service of destroying an enemy's vessel by the use of fire-ships. In what are probably the earliest " Fighting Instructions " issued—those of Sir William Penn, in 1653, and again in an abridged form in 1655—no allusion to these awards is made, but that the custom of rewarding this special service prevailed, there is a piece of strong indirect evidence to show, in the shape of an amusing letter from a certain Captain Cranwill, of " ye Hare Pinke," to the Admiralty Committee, dated Feb. 4, 1655: 1 An excellent reproduction of this medal, both obverse and re-verse, is given in Plate 8, figs. 4 and 5, of the same work, and on Plate 9 will be found equally well reproduced facsimiles of the three medals for " Victories over the Dutch, 1653," figs. 1, 2 and 3 and of the " Medal of the Parliament, for Sea Service, 1649," fig. r. " As for ye Pay yor Honrs were please to order mee for my service in ye Hare Pinke, I return most humble thankes, and am ready to serve yor Honrs and my Country for ye future For though ye Hare be mewsed in ye sand yet Cranwell at your mercy still doth stand A fire Ship now doth hee Crave, And the Fox fain would he Have, then has hee had both Fox and Hare, then Spanish Admirall stand you cleare, For Cranwell means ye Chaine of goold to ware; Sett penn to paper it is done, for Cranwell still will be your man," all of which goes to show that it had not been unusual to bestow gold chains, with or without medals, on the captains of fire-ships. By the " Fighting Instructions" issued loth of April, 1665, by James, duke of York, lord high admiral, it was provided as follows. In the case of the destruction of an enemy's vessel of forty guns or more, each person remaining on board the fire-ship till the service was performed was to receive £10, " on board ye Admirall imediately after ye service done," and the captain a gold medal and " shuth other future encouragement by preferment and commande as shall be fitt both to reward him and induce others to perform ye like Service." If it was a flag-ship that was fired " ye Recompense in money shall be doubled to each man performing itt, and ye medall to ye Commander shall be shuth as shall particularly ezpress ye Eminensye of ye Service, and his with ye other officers preferement shalbe suitable to ye meritt of itt." This was followed by an " Oder of the King in Council " dated Whitehall 12th of January 1669-1670, in which the lord high admiral is authorized " to distribute a Medall and Chaine to such Captaines of Fire Shipps as in the last Dutch Warr have burnt any Man of Warr, as also to any of them that shall perform any such service in the present Warr with Algiers. Which Medalls and Chaines are to be of the price of Thirty Pounds each or thereabouts " To complete the story of fire-ship awards, it may here be noted (though out of chronological order) that in 1703 revised " Fighting Instructions " were issued by Admiral Sir George Rocke, in which it was provided that the captain was to have his choice between a gratuity of £loo, or a gold medal and chain of that value. Lastly an order of the king in council, dated, St James's, 16th of December, 1742, ordered that all lieutenants of fire-ships (which originally carried, no officers of this rank) should be entitled to a gratuity of £5o " in all cases where the Captain is entituled to the Reward of boo." Though probably others were conferred, so thorough an investigator as the late John Horsley Mayo, for many years assistant military secretary at the India office, who had special opportunities of access to official records,, traced but three authenticated fire-ship awards. Those were: (r) to Captain John Guy, who blew up his fire-ship the " Vesuvius " under the walls of St Maio in 1693; (2) to Captain Smith Callis who, with his fire-ship the " Duke," in 1742, destroyed five Spanish galleys which had put into St Tropez, to the eastward of Marseilles; (3) to Captain James Wooldridge, who commanded the British fire-ships in Aix Roads on the 11th of April 18(29, when four French sail of the line were burnt. This latter is believed to be the last award of the kind that was issued. Fire-ships awards are of special interest as affording a precedent, in future naval wars, for the award of special decorations for torpedo services. It is in this reign also that we first find a case of medals being granted by the Honourable East India Company. The earliest of these would appear to have been a gold medal of the value of £20, conferred on Sir George Oxinden, president at Surat, 1622-1669, in 1668, for considerable civil and military services. Surat was then and until 1687, when Bombay took its place, the seat of government of the Western Presidency, and the most eminent of Sir George's services was the defence of the Company's treasures and possessions at that place against Sivajee and the Mahrattas in 1664. It is not known what has become of this medal, but there is indirect evidence toshow that it was a circular medal, three inches in diameter. On the obverse the " Arms of the Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies, with creast, supporters, and mottoes," and around the legend NON MINOR EST VIRTVS QUAM QVAERERE PARTA TVERI. The reverse was probably blank to admit of an inscription. This award was the forerunner of many given by the H.E.I. Co., several of which were " general distributions " of the very highest interest, which will be dealt with together later on. The awards made in the reigns of James II., William and Mary, William III., Anne, George I., George II., may be very briefly dealt with. Almost without an exception they were either naval or conferred by the Hon. East India Company, and with only perhaps one or two exceptions, they were " personal " as distinct from " general " awards. Of the very few medals awarded by James II., one was an undoubted military award, though curiously enough the recipient was a bishop. This was Peter Mew, who had been made bishop of Bath and Wells in 1672, was translated to Winchester 1684, " and next year was commanded by the king, in compliance with the re-quest of the gentry of Somerset, to go against Monmouth, and did eminent service at the battle of Sedgmoor, where he managed the artillery; for which he was rewarded with a rich medal " (Hutchins's History of Dorset, 3rd ed., vol. iv. p. 149). The possible exceptions in the way of a `` general " distribution of a medal during the reigns under review are the cases of the medals struck after the battles of La Hogue, 1692, and Culloden, 1746. By an act of parliament passed in 1692 (4 Gul. and Mar. c. 25), it was enacted that a tenth part of the prize money taken by the navy should be set apart " for Medalls and other Rewards for Officers, Mariners, and Seamen in their Majesties Service at Sea who shall be found to have done any signal or extraordinary service." (Later a Royal Declaration of Queen Anne, the 1st of June 1702, provided that all medal and monetary awards " shall be also paid out of Her Majesties Shares of Prizes.") This is the first case in naval records authorizing the issue of medals to men as well as to officers, and the conferring of the La Hogue " medal was the first case in which the enactment was carried into effect, at any rate as far as admirals and officers are concerned. Seamen and soldiers had a more substantial reward, for the queen sent £30,000 to be distributed amongst them, whilst gold and silver medals were struck for the admirals and officers. The medal, which was circular, 1.95 in, in diameter, had on the obverse the busts conjoined of William and Mary, r., with around GVL' ET MAR D G M B F ET H REX ET REGINA. On the reverse was a representation of the fight, showing the French flag-ship, " Le Soleil Royal," in flames, with above the legend, NOX NVLLA SECVTA EST, and, in the exergue, PVGN NAV INT ANG ET FR 21 MAY 1692. As regards the medal struck after Culloden, fought on the 16th of April 1746, and in which the adherents of the young Pretender were completely routed, there is nothing even to show that it was issued even by the authority of the government, though it was undoubtedly worn, and (if a contemporary portrait is to be relied upon, that of an ancestor of Mr W. Chandos-Pole of Radbourne Hall in Derbyshire) around the neck attached to a crimson ribbon with a green edge. There is no doubt it was struck in gold, silver and copper, but how it was awarded there is no proof, probably only to officers. The obverse had an r., bust of the duke of Cumberland, with above CUMBER-LAND, below YEO f (Richard Yeo fecit), and, on the reverse, an Apollo, laureate, leaning upon his bow and pointing to a dragon wounded by his arrow. The reverse legend was ACTUM EST ILICET PERIIT, and, in the exergue PROEL COLOD AP XVI MDCCXLVI. The medal is a strikingly handsome one, with an ornamental border and ring for suspension, oval, 1.75 by 1.45 in., but very few specimens are known to exist. Those in gold were probably only given to officers commanding regiments and a very fine specimen of these, originally conferred on Brigadier-General Fleming (at one time in command of the 36th Foot) is now in the collection of Major-General Lord Cheylesmore. In his monograph, Naval and Military Medals, Lnrd Cheylesmore mentions another " Culloden " medal in his collection, " a slightly larger one in white metal, which leads one to suppose that it was given in inferior metal to the more junior branches, probably officers; but whether this was the case or no I am unable authoritatively to state." However, one thing is fairly certain, that the issue of the " Culloden " medal was in no sense " general," as we now understand the term, nor as were the issues for " Dunbar " or the issues of the Honourable East India Company, which will next be dealt with. No medal awards were made to either the naval or military services for the Seven Years' War, and the American War of Independence. In fact George III. had been more than thirty years on the throne when the first medal award by the Crown was given, in the shape of the navy gold medals, first issued in 1794. It will however be more convenient to deal later with these medals and the army gold medals and crosses given for services in the long and arduous struggle of 1793–1815, and to describe here in sequence those medals which were issued by the Honourable East India Company, the issue of which was, with certain limitations, " general," thus reverting to the precedent first established in the " Dunbar " award; namely an issue to all ranks. They are nine in number, and are described below in the chronological order of the military operations for which they were awarded. I. The " DECCAN " medal. Authorized, first in 1784, and again 1785. Obverse: Figure of Britannia seated on a military trophy, with her right hand holding a wreath of laurel and extended towards a fortress over which the British flag flies. Reverse: Persian inscriptions—In centre, " Presented by the Calcutta Government in memory of good service and intrepid valour, A.D. 1784, A.H. 1199;" around, " Like this coin may it endure in the world, and the exertions of those lion-hearted Englishmen of great name, victorious from Hindostan to the Deccan, become exalted." This medal was issued in two sizes, diameters 1.6 and 1.25 in. The larger medal was struck both in gold and silver, the smaller in silver only, and both were worn round the neck suspended from a yellow cord. This medal was awarded to two large detachments of the Bengal army, denominated the " Bombay Detachment "(authorized 1784), and the " Carnatic Detachment " (authorized 1785), which respectively fought in the west of India and Guzerat, 1778–84, and in the south of India, I78o-84. The medal was not given to any Europeans, only to natives; the larger medal in gold to Subadars, and in silver to Jemadars; the smaller silver medal to non-commissioned officers and sepoys. By a minute of council, dated the 15th of July 1784, a further boon was granted to the " Bombay Detachment," inasmuch as it exempted all Hindus of that detachment from payment of the duties levied by the authorities on pilgrims to Coya in Behar. As the large majority of the troops were high caste Hindus, and Coya was, and is the Mecca of Hinduism, this favour must have been much appreciated by the recipients of the medal. This is the earliest Anglo-Indian example of a medal issued alike to all ranks. 2. The " MYSORE " medal. Authorized, 1793. Obverse: A sepoy holding in his right hand the British colours, in his left an enemy's standard reversed, whilst his left foot rests on a dismounted cannon. A fortified town is in the background. Reverse: Within a wreath; " For Services in Mysore, A.D. 191–1792." Between wreath and rim is an inscription in Persian: A memorial of devoted services to the English government at the war of Mysore. Christian Era, 1791–1792, equivalent to the Mahomedan Era, 1205–1206.". Like the " Deccan ' this medal was in two sizes, diameters F7 in. and 1'5 in., the larger being struck both in gold and silver, the smaller in silver only, and both were worn suspended from the neck by a yellow cord. The medal was awarded for the operations against Tippoo Sultan, and was bestowed on the " Native Officers and Sepoys of the Infantry and Cavalry, and on the Artillery Lascars, who either marched by land, or proceeded by sea to the Carnatic and returned to Bengal. The large gold medals were given to Subadars, the large silver to " Jemadars and Serangs," the small silver medals to " Havildars, Naicks, Tindals, Sepoys and Lascars." The award therefore, followed precisely the precedent set in the " Deccan " medal. One of the very rare gold specimens of this medal is in the collection of Captain Whitaker, late 5th Fusiliers, whose collection, and that of Lord Cheylesmore, are probably the two finest that have as yet been brought together. 3. The " CEYLON " medal. Authorized, 1807. Obverse: An English inscription: " For Services on the Island of Ceylon, A.D. 1795-6." Reverse: et Persian inscription: " This Medal was presented to commemorate good services in Ceylon during the years of the Hegira 12o9-Io." This medal was issued in only one size, 2 in. diameter, and was awarded to a small force of Bengal native artillery which formed a fraction of a large body of British and native troops (the rest did not receive the medal) which captured Ceylonfrom the Dutch in 1795-96. It is the only instance of a war medal that has merely a verbal design on both obverse and reverse, and moreover it sets a precedent that was destined to be followed only too often in that it was only granted twelve years after the services that had earned it had been rendered. Only 123 medals were struck, two in gold for native officers, and 121 in silver for other ranks. Like the two preceding, it was worn from the neck suspended from a yellow cord. 4 The "SERINGAPATAM "medal. Authorized, 1799, for services in Lord Harris's campaign of that year, and the storm of Seringapatam. Obverse: A representation of the storming of the breach at Seringapatam, with the meridian sun denoting the time of the storm. In the exergue is a Persian inscription: " The Fort of Seringapatam, the gift of God, the 4th May 1799." Reverse: A British lion overcoming a tiger, the emblem of Tippoo Sultan. Above is a standard, with, in the innermost part of the hoist immediately contiguous to the staff, the Union badge, and, in the fly, an Arabic legend signifying " The Lion of God is the Conqueror." In the exergue: IV. MAY, MDCCXCIX. (the date of the assault). It was in one size, 1.9 in. but of five different kinds. Although the medal was authorized in 1799, it was 18oi before orders, for the preparation of 30 gold medals, 185 silver-gilt, 85o silver, 5000 copper bronzed, and 45,000 pure tin, were given, the artist being C. H. Kuchler, and the medals made by Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham. It was 18o8 before they came out to India for distribution, and it was not till 1815 that the Company's European officers had the prince regent's sanction to wearing them on public occasions. For the first time the issue was absolutely " general," to Europeans as well as natives, to Crown troops as well as to those of the H.E.I. Co., but it was not till 1851, when the First India G.S. Medal was awarded, that official sanction was given to their being worn by Europeans in uniform. The medal was given in gold to general officers, in silver-gilt to field officers, in silver to captains and subalterns, in copper bronzed to non-commissioned officers, and in pure grain tin to privates and sepoys. With regard to this medal there is an incident that is worth recording. The bulk of the troops engaged at Seringapatam were Crown forces, or belonged to the Madras and Bombay presidencies; the only Bengal troops taking part being five battalions of infantry, and artillery detachments. On their return to Bengal no steps were taken with regard to medals till 1807, when medals copied from the Soho Mint one, but 1.8 in. only in diameter, were made at the Calcutta Mint. Following the Bengal precedents as set in the " Deccan," " Mysore " and " Ceylon " medals, the medals were struck in gold for officers, and in silver for the other ranks. A Bengal native officer therefore wore just the same medal as a general officer of any of the other forces, and similarly a Bengal sepoy wore the same medal as a British captain or subaltern of the Crown. The Bengal medal can easily be distinguished from the others, for in the reverse the artist s initials C.H.K. are rendered "C.MI.H." Some officers, amongst them Lord Harris himself and his second-in-command Sir David Baird, wore the medal with the red, blue-bordered ribbon, which is the same as that worn with the Army Gold Medal (see below) and was in fact the only authorized military ribbon then in use; but though no ribbon was issued with the medal, recipients were given to understand that the ribbon would be of a deep maize colour and watered, the shading on the ribbon symbolizing the stripes in the fur of the tiger, Tippoo Sultan's favourite emblem. The duke of Wellington's medal (silver gilt), has the maize (or yellow as it is often termed) ribbon, and the medal was undoubtedly more generally worn with this ribbon than with. the red and blue one. There are also apparently occasional instances of it having been worn with a plain red ribbon. 5. The " EGYPT " medal. Authorized, 1802. Obverse: A Sepoy holding the Union Flag in his right hand; in the background a camp. In exergue, in Persian: " This medal has been presented in commemoration of the defeat of the French Army in Egypt by the victorious and brave English Army." Reverse: A British ship sailing towards the coast of Egypt. In the background, an obelisk and four pyramids. In the exergue, MDCCCI. This medal- was only awarded to native officers and men of the small force of Bengal and Bombay troops which formed part of the expeditionary force from India, that co-operated in Sir Ralph Abercromby's descent on Egypt in 1801 (see BAIRD, SIR DAVID). This was another case of a belated issue (181 I for the Bengal troops and two years later for the Bombay troops). The medal was issued in only one size, 1.9 in. in diameter. For the Bengal troops 776 medals were struck, I6 in gold for commissioned officers, 76o in silver for other ranks. The Bombay government obtained the approval of the court of directors for the issue of the medal to their troops in 1803, but apparently did nothing till 1812, when they asked the Calcutta Mint for a copy of the medal to enable them to prepare similar ones. The Bombay Mint would not however appear to have been equal to the occasion, for the sample was returned to Calcutta with the request that 1439 medals might be struck there. This was accordingly done, but all of these medals were made of silver, and so the medal went to the Bombay troops in all ranks alike. As in the case of the " Deccan " medal, Hindu sepoys, who had volunteered for Egypt, were exempted from the duties levied on pilgrims. This medal was worn suspended from the neck by a yellow cord. 6. The " RODRIGUES, BOURBON AND MAURITIUS " medal. Authorized, 1811. Obverse: A sepoy, holding in his right hand the British flag, in his left a musket with bayonet fixed, stands with his left foot trampling a French eagle and standard; beside the figure a cannon, and, in the background the sea and ships. Reverse: Within a wreath, in Persian: " This medal was conferred in cornmemoration of the bravery and devotion exhibited by the Sepoys of the English Company in the capture of the Islands of Rodrigues, Bourbon, and Mauritius, in the year of the Hegira 1226." In the circumference, in English: RODRIGUES VI. JULY MDCCCIX: BOURBON VIII. JULY AND ISLE OF FRANCE III. DEC. MDCCCX. This medal was awarded to the native troops of the Bengal Presidency that formed part of the combined naval and military forces that effected the reduction of these islands in 18o9-to. The government of Bengal also suggested " for the consideration of the governments of Fort St George and Bombay, that corresponding Medals shall be conferred on the native troops from those Establishments;" but those governments do not appear to have complied with the suggestion, a distinct injustice to the Madras and Bombay troops employed. The medals, struck at the Calcutta Mint for the Bengal troops, were 1.9 in. in diameter, and in gold and silver, 45 gold for native officers, 2156 silver for all other ranks. They were worn as was customary in so many cases with yellow silk cord suspended from the neck. 7. The JAVA " medal. Authorized, 1812. Obverse: A representation of the storming of Fort Cornelis. On a flag-staff the British flag is shown flying above a Dutch one, and over all is the word Cornelis. Reverse: In Persian: " This medal was conferred in commemoration of the bravery and courage exhibited by the Sepoys of the English Company in the capture of Java, 1228, Hegira." In circumference, in English: " JAVA CONQUERED XXVI. AUGUST MDCCCXI." This medal was awarded to the native troops of the Honourable East India Company (all Bengal), which took part in the expedition under Lieut.-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty which effected the capture of Java from the Dutch in 1811. The medal, 1.9 in. in diameter, was struck in gold and silver, 133 in the former metal for native officers, and 6519 in silver for other ranks, and was worn in the usual manner with a yellow silk cord. 8. The " NEPAL " medal. Authorized, 1816. Obverse: Hills crowned with stockades. In right foreground the colours and bayonets of an attacking force, to the left a cannon. Reverse: In Persian : " This Medal was conferred by the Nawab Governor-General Bahadur in testimony of the energy, good service, skill and intrepidity, which were displayed in the Hills in the years of the Hegira 1229 and 1230." This was awarded to the native troops of the East India Company who took part in the arduous operations in Nepal in 1814-16. This medal, 2 in. in diameter, marks a very interesting new departure, for it was struck only in silver, and given to all ranks precisely alike, whether the recipient was commissioned or not. It was worn from the usual yellow silk cord. 9. The " BURMAH " medal. Authorized, 1826. Obverse: Representation of the storming of the great pagoda at Rangoon; on the left, a palm tree under which the general and staff, and the river with steamer and boats of the Irrawaddy flotilla joining in the attack. In exergue, in Persian: " The Standard of the victorious Army of England upon Ava." Reverse: The White Elephant of Burma crouching in submission before the British Lion; behind the lion, the British flag flying broad, behind the elephant, the Burma flag drooping and between the two flags palm trees. In the exergue, in Persian: " The elephant of Ava submits to the lion of England, year 1826." This, one of the most beautiful of all war medals, was designed by W. Daniell, R.A., and executed by W. Wyon; and was awarded to all the Company's native troops, that participated in the First Burmese War, 1824-26. The medal, 1.5 in. diameter, was issued in gold to native officers, in silver to other ranks. In all there were struck; for Bengal troops, 308 gold, 13,108 silver; and for those of Madras, 450 gold and 20,025 silver. Of the Madras medals how-ever nearly half were still unclaimed in 1840. It is with this medal that we first find, as regards Indian medals, definite instructions as to the use of a ribbon, and the manner in which medals should be worn. In 1831, it was officially ordered that the colour should be red with blue edges—it was in fact precisely similar to the Waterloo ribbon (for which see Plate I.)—and the instructions were that the medal " be worn perfectly square upon the centre of the left breast, the upper edge of the ribbon being even with the first button for ranks wearing Sword Belts only, and even with the second button for ranks wearing Cross Belts." Like the Waterloo medal also, it was mounted on a steel clip and ring, and the medals were struck at the Royal Mint instead of, as heretofore, in India.' i Most of the authorities on medals, including Mr Thomas Carter and Captain Tancred, style as the reverse of the medal what above is styled the obverse and vice versa. We, however, prefer to agree with the description of the medal as given by Mayo and for this reason. The side of the medal which is described above as the obverse depicts a chief incident of the war; the allegorical representation on the other side is after all but the pictorial equivalent of a verbal inscription, and so is properly the reverse of the medal. This closes the list of the Indian medals, which, with the exception of that for Seringapatam, were issued only to the native troops of the Honourable East India Company. All are now very rare and very highly valued by collectors. As has already been stated, the first war medals awarded by the Crown in the reign of George III., were the navy gold medals, instituted on the occasion of Lord Howe's great victory over the French fleet on the 1st of June 1794. On the 26th of that month the king and queen visited Portsmouth, and, on the deck of the " Queen Charlotte," Lord Howe's flag-ship, presented the victorious admiral with a diamond-hilted sword of the value of three thousand guineas. Gold chains, from which the medals were afterwards to be suspended, were also conferred on Admiral Lord Howe; Vice-Admirals Graves and Sir Alexander Hood; Rear-Admirals Gardner, Bowyer and Pasley; and Captain of the Fleet Sir Roger Curtis. At the same time the king announced his intention of conferring gold medals on each of the officers named, and similar, but smaller medals on the captains. The medals were delivered in 1796, the Admiralty ordering " The Admirals to wear the Medal suspended by a ribband round their necks. The Captains to wear the Medal suspended to a ribband, but fastened through the third or fourth button-hole on the left side. The colour of the ribband, blue and white." The ribbon, which is white with broad blue borders (see Plate I.), did not of course supersede the gold chain in the case of those officers on whom chains had been conferred. They wore their chain with the ribbon, and the medal of Admiral Bowyer (now in, the collection of Lord Cheylesmore) is so suspended. The same splendid and intensely interesting medal was later conferred for various fleet and ship actions deemed worthy of special acknowledgment; and so came into being the first " regulation " medal for naval officers. The two medals are, with but one slight distinction, identical in design, the larger being 2, and the smaller 1.3, in. in diameter. The design is: Obverse: The fore part of an antique galley, on the prow of which rests a figure of Victory who is placing a wreath on the head of Britannia who stands on the deck of the galley, her right foot resting upon a helmet, her left hand holding a spear. Behind Britannia is a " union " shield, charged with the Cross of St George and the Saltire of St Andrew. (Ireland had not then been added to the Union). Reverse: Within a wreath of oak and laurel, the name of the recipient, the event for which the medal was conferred, and the date. (In the smaller medal the wreath is omitted.) In all, eighteen actions were recognized by this medal, the complete list of which is as follows:-.- The " Glorious First of June " (7 large and 18 small medals) ; St Vincent (Feb. 14, 1787) (6 large and 15 small medals) ; Camperdown Oct. II, 1797) (2 large, 15 small medals); The Nile (Aug. 1, 1798) (I large and 14 small medals) ; Re-capture of the frigate " Hermione " from the Spaniards by the boats of H.M.S. " Surprise " at Porto Cavallo (Oct. 25, 1799) (I small medal); Trafalgar (Oct. 21, 1805) (3 large and 27 small medals); Action off Ferrol (Nov. 4, 1805) (4 small medals); Action off St Domingo (Feb. 5, 1806) (3 large and .7 small medals) ; Capture of Cura9oa Jan. i, 1807) (4 small medals) ; Capture of the Turkish frigate Badere Zaffer" by H.M.S. " Seahorse " (July 6, 1808) (1 small medal) ; Capture of the French frigate Thetis " by H.M.S. " Amethyst " (Nov. lo, 1808) (I small medal); Capture of the French frigate " Furieuse " by H.M. ship-sloop " Bonne Citoyenne July 6, 1809 (, small medal) ; Capture of the Island of Banda Neira (Aug. 9, 18ro) (1 small medal); Captain W. Hoste's action off Lissa (March 13, 18,1) (4 small medals) ; Capture of the French 74-gun ship " Rivoli " by H.M.S. " Victorious " (Feb. 22, 1812) (I small medal) ; The " Chesapeake " and " Shannon " (,June 1, 1813) , (1 small medal) ; Capture of the French frigate " Rtoile " by H.M.S. Hebrus " (March 27, 1814) (I small medal) ; Capture of the American frigate " President " by H.M.S. Endymion " (Jan. 15, 1815) (I small medal). In all 22 large medals, and 117 small, were awarded; but this does not say that all who were entitled to the medal received it. This is most notably the case with regard to the " Glorious First of June." When the issue was made, in 1796, the medals were given only to those flag officers who had received gold chains, and to such captains as were specially mentioned in Lord Howe's despatch of the 21st of June, despite the fact that the admiral specially put it on record that the selection therein made, " should not be construed to the disadvantage of the other commanders, who may have been equally deserving of the approbation of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, although I am not enabled to make a particular, statement of their merits." For this reason the medal was never awarded to Rear _Admiral B. Caldwell, fifth in command on the great day, to his flag-captain, Captain G. B. Westcott, and to seven other captains of line of battle ships engaged. One captain however, who was not mentioned in despatches, succeeded in gaining the medal, by a tour de force eminently characteristic of the superb breed of naval officers that the great wars had brought into being. This was Collingwood, who had been flag-captain to Bowyer in the " Barfleur." When Collingwood was awarded the medal for St Vincent, where he commanded the " Excellent," he flatly refused to receive it unless that for the First of June was also conferred upon him, which was done. For St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar, all flag officers and captains engaged received the medal. At the Nile, Troubridge's ship, the " Culloden," grounded in entering the bay, and so, strictly speaking, he was never engaged in the action; but the king specially included him in the award, " for his services both before and since, and for the great and wonderful exertions he' made at the time of the action, in saving and getting off his ship." For Camperdown, one captain, afterwards found guilty by court-martial of failure in duty, did not receive the medal. Several posthumous awards of the smaller medals were made to the relatives of officers who were either killed in action or died of wounds. These were: on the first of June, Captains Hutt (" Queen "), Montagu (" Montagu "), Harvey (" Brunswick ") ; at Camperdown, Captain Burgess ( Ardent "); at the Nile, Captain Westcott( Majestic "); at Trafalgar, Captains Duff (" Mars ") and Cooke (" Bellerophon "). Captain Westcott was doubly unfortunate, for he was one of the First of June captains who should have received the medal but did not. Captain Miller of the " Theseus " also did not receive his medal for the Nile, for, though not killed in the action, he perished at Acre in an accidental powder explosion the May following, the medal arriving after his death, and being returned to the Admiralty. In only two cases were large medals conferred on officers below flag rank, these being Sir R. Curtis, captain of the fleet to Lord Howe on the First of June, and Nelson, who only flew a commodore's broad pendant at St Vincent. Following this latter precedent Sir R. Strachan should have had the large medal for the action of the 4th of November 1805, for he also was a commodore, but it was denied him for what seems quite an inadequate reason, namely that he was junior in rank to Captain Hervey of the " Temeraire," who was the senior of the Trafalgar captains. Hervey was promoted to rear-admiral for Trafalgar on the 9th of November, and Strachan to the same rank on the following day. The small medal too was conferred in only three cases on officers below the rank of post captain. These were Commander Mounsey of the " Bonne Citoyenne," for the capture of the " Furieuse " and Lieuts. Pilfold and Stockham, who at Trafalgar commanded respectively the " Ajax " and the " Thunderer," the captains of those two ships being at the time of the action in England giving evidence at the court-martial of Sir Robert Calder. In all, of the eighteen awards of the Navy Gold Medal, eight were for fleet actions (one of which was between squadrons of frigates), seven for single ship actions, one between line of battleships, six in which frigates were engaged, two for shore operations (in both cases the taking of islands from the Dutch), and lastly the re-capture of the " Hermione " by the " Surprise." This last mentioned award is one particularly memorable, not only because it was the first time that the medal was awarded to a frigate captain, but also because it is the only case in which the medal was awarded for boat service pure and simple. Nelson's two great victories, the Nile and Trafalgar, also earned a medal for all ranks that participated in them, but these awards were not made by the Crown but by the generosity of two private individuals, though of course with the king's approval and permission. The first of these is " Davison's Nile Medal," which Mr Alexander Davison, Nelson's prize agent and a valued friend, caused to be struck at a cost of near £200o, and one of which was presented to every officer and man engaged at the Nile. The medal, 1.85 in. in diameter, was given in gold to Nelson and his captains, in silver to lieutenants and officers of corresponding rank, in copper gilt to warrant and petty officers, and in copper bronze to seamen and marines: Obverse: Hope, standing on a rock in the sea, holding in her right hand an olive branch, and supporting with her left side a shield on which is the bust of Nelson surrounded by the legend : " EUROPE'S HOPE AND BRITAIN'S GLORY." Behind the figure and shield is an anchor, whilst around all is inscribed : " REAR-ADMIRAL LORD NELSON OF THE NILE." Reverse: The French fleet at anchor in Aboukir Bay, the British fleet advancing to the attack: a setting sun denotes the time of the action. Around: " ALMIGHTY GOD HAS BLESSED HIS MATESTY'S ARMS "; and, in exergue: " VICTORY OF THE NILE AUGUST 11798." In the reverse the engraver when sinking the die forgot to transpose the position of the objects, and so the sun is made-to set in.the east instead of in the west, and the land which is shown on the right should properly be on the left. Davison's Nile medal was struck at the Soho Mint, Birmingham, by Boulton, and it was this that probably inspired the latter to present a medal to all who took part in the battle of . Trafalgar." Boulton's Trafalgar Medal " was `I.9 in. in diameter, and gives in gold to the three admirals, in silver to captains and first-lieuten ants, and in pewter to other ranks. In a very considerable numbero cases the pewter medals were either returned,- or thrown overboard the recipients being disgusted at what they deemed the paltrines of the reward. Obverse: A bust of Lord Nelson in uniform witl around: HORATIO, VISCOUNT NELSON, K.B. DUKE 01 BRONTE, &c. Reverse: A representation of the battle, wit! around on a scroll: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY. In exergue: TRAFALGAR OCTa. 21 1805. Both the Davison and the Boulton medals were worn sus pended from a. blue ribbon. These are the only two cases it which officers and men of the navy and army have accepted and worn medals presented by a private individual. The Gold Medal given by- George III. to the superior officers it command at the battle of Maida, in Sicily, on the 4th of July 18o6, is an award of special interest, for not only was it the first military award made by the Crown during the reign, but it was moreover the prototype of the superb army gold medals and crosses which were so widely distributed during the years thatfollowed. A general order of the duke of York, commander-in-chief, dated Horse Guards, 22nd of February 18o8, awarded a gold medal for Maida to Sir John Stuart, K.B., his three brigadiers, and nine other officers. Subsequently four other officers received it, so in all seventeen officers received the award. It was prescribed that the medal " should be worn suspended by a Ribband of the colour of the Sash, with a- blue edge, from a button of the coat on the left side." It was in fact to be worn in the same way as the small Navy Gold Medal, and as this grant established blue and white as the specific navy ribbon, so did the Maida award establish red with a blue border as the regulation military ribbon. The Maida ribbon is in fact precisely the same as the Waterloo ribbon shown in Plate I. The Maida medal was 1.5 in. in diameter and struck in gold only. It was issued precisely alike, quite irrespective of rank, to each of its seventeen recipients. - Obverse: Head of George III., laureated and facing left, with below the legend: GEORGIUS TERTIUS REX. Reverse: Britannia casting a spear with her right- hand, and on her left arm the Union shield, above, and approaching her is a Flying Victory holding out a wreath. In front of Britannia in four lines, is MAI/ DA/IVL IV/MDCCCVI/; behind her the triquetra or trinacria,the symbol of the Island of Sicily. In the exergue are crossed spears. Two and a half years after the Maida award the king authorized the " Army Gold Medal," the first grant of which was notified by the commander-in-chief, in a Horse Guards general order dated the 9th of September 181o. This authorized the bestowal of the medal on 107 senior officers mentioned by name. The battles commemorated were Roleia, Vimiera (18o8), the cavalry actions of Sahagun and Benevente (18o8), Corunna and Talavera (1809). The Army Gold Medal so awarded was in two sizes, large, 2.1 in. in diameter, for general officers, small, I.3 in. in diameter, for officers of lower rank: and the regulations provided that it should be worn from a red ribbon edged with blue, the larger round the neck, the smaller on the left breast from a button-hole of the uniform. The ribbon was the same width, 14 for both ribbons, and precisely the same later on for the Gold Cross. Both large and small medals were of identical design, in fact there was no difference, either in medals or in ribbons, except in size and the style in which they were worn Obverse: Britannia seated on a globe, holding in her right hand a laurel wreath, and in her left, which rests upon a Union shield resting against the globe, a palm leaf ; at her feet to her right, a lido. Reverse: A wreath of laurel, encircling the name of the battle or operations for which the medal was granted. In the following years subsequent orders similar to the original grant extended the award of the Army Gold Medal, until eventually -twenty-four distinct awards were made, commemorating twenty-six actions, or series of operations, which took place not only in the Peninsula, but also in North America, and both the East and the West Indies. The Peninsula medals were for Roleia and Vimiera, Sahagun and Benevente, Corunna, Talavera, Busaco, Barrosa, Fuentes d'Onor, Albuera, Ciudad Rodrigo (1812), Badajoz (1814. Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, St Sebastian, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse. The West Indies medals were for Martinique (Feb. 1809) and Gaudaloupe (Jan.–Feb. 181o), the North American for Fort Detroit (Aug. 16, 1812), Chateauguay (Oct. 26, 1813) and Chrystler's Farm (Nov. it, 1813), and there was, lastly, a medal awarded for Java (Aug.–Sept. t8i r). From the above it will be seen that as time went on many officers became entitled to two, three and even more medals, and as this was found inconvenient, the method of granting the award was very materially amended as notified by the commander-in-chief, in a general order, dated Horse Guards, October 7, 1813. This order formulated regulations which were as follows: 1. That one medal only was to be borne by each officer recommended for the distinction. 2. That for a second and a third action a gold clasp was to be attached to the ribbon from which the medal was suspended inscribed with the name of the action. 3. When a fourth distinction was earned, the medal and two clasps were to be replaced by a Gold Cross having the four actions for which it was awarded inscribed upon it, one upon each arm. 4. On every occasion the recipient was awarded the decoration after the fourth a Gold Clasp worn on the ribband was added to the Cross. The regulations further laid down that only officers should be recommended who had been " personally and particularly engaged " on the occasion, and that officers were to be named by " special selection and report of the Commander of the Forces upon the spot, as having merited the distinction by conspicuous service Further, the Commander of the Forces was restricted in his selection to General Officers, C.Os. of Brigades, C.Os. of Artillery or Engineers, and certain staff officers holding field rank, and Commanding Officers of Units, and Officers succeeding to such command during an engagement.' It was also ordered that awards earned by deceased officers should be transmitted " to their respective families." The Gold Cross that was, under these regulations, instituted is as follows: A Maltese Cross, I z inches square, with an ornamental border; in the centre, a lion, facing right; in each limb of the cross the name of one of the actions for which it was conferred. The back of the cross is the same as the front. The cross was precisely the same irrespective of whether it replaced a large or a small medal. The clasps were all of the same pattern, whether worn with the cross, the large gold medal, or the small gold medal. They are 2 in. in length by z in. in width, and bear, within a border of laurel, the name of the action for which they were conferred. At the close of the war in the Peninsula the issue of this handsome and much coveted decoration was discontinued, the enlargement of the Order of the Bath (January 1815) affording another method of reward which the Crown deemed more appropriate. On the occasion of this extension all officers who had obtained the cross with one clasp, i.e. who had been decorated for five or more actions, were made Knights Commander of the Bath. In all 847 awards of this superb decoration were made. The medal alone went to 469 officers, whilst 143 received it with one clasp, and 72 with two clasps. The cross was issued' singly in 61 cases, with one clasp in 46, with two in 18, with three in 17, with four in 8, and with five clasps in 7 cases. The cross with six clasps was gained by Sir Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde), Sir Alexander Dickson (d. 184o) and Sir George Murray (d. 1846). Two officers, Viscount Beresford and Sir Denis Pack (d. 1823) received it with seven clasps. The duke of Wellington's had nine, the decoration thus commemorating fourteen out of the twenty-six battles, sieges or operations for which the Gold Medals, Cross and Clasps were awarded. On the limbs of this cross are, ROLEIA AND VIMIERA, TALAVERA, BUSACO, FUENTES DE ONOR. The clasps are for CIUDAD RODRIGO, BADAJOZ, SALAMANCA, VITTORIA, PYRENEES, NIVELLE, NIVE, ORTHES and TOULOUSE. Not until ' Captain Sayers of the royal navy, who commanded the " Leda " 36, and landed in command of the 500 seamen who erected and manned the batteries for the attack of Fort Cornelis, received the small medal for Java. This is the only case of the Army Gold Medal having been conferred on a naval officer.9 after the close of the Great War, however, do we meet with the real prototype of the war medal as we know it to-day; for the Waterloo Medal of 1815 is the first actual " general " medal that was ever issued, because it was issued precisely alike to all ranks. In the twelve cases in which we have seen that a medal was given to all ranks, the medals differed either in size or in metal, or in both, according to the rank of the recipient, and in eight out of the nine issued by the Hon. East India Company the award was withheld from the British officers and men employed. Again in none of the cases quoted were the awards made by the Crown. The " Dunbar " medal was awarded by the Commonwealth parliament. The men of the Nile and Trafalgar wore their medals through the generosity of private individuals. In the other nine cases the award was made by the directors of the Hon. East India Company. It was with the issue of the Waterloo Medal that all this was changed and for this well-merited and much prized boon the Services owe all gratitude to the duke of Wellington. Writing from Orville on June 28, 1815, to H.R.H. the duke of York, he says: " I would likewise beg leave to suggest to your Royal Highness (the then Commander-in-chief) the expediency of giving to the non-commissioned officers and soldiers engaged in the battle of Waterloo, a medal. I am convinced it would have the best effect in the army; and, if that battle should settle our concerns, they will well deserve it." Again, writing from Paris, Sept. 17, 1815, to Lord Bathurst, then war secretary: " I have long intended to write to you about the medal for Water-loo. I recommend that we should all have the same medal, hung to the same ribband as that now used with the medals." (i.e. the army gold medals and crosses). It is also fair to point out that in his place in the House of Commons, and on the day after the duke's letter to the commander-in-chief had been penned, William Watkins Wynn urged that medals should be given to the survivors of Waterloo, and that they should be the same for both officers and men, " so that they who had been fellows in danger might bear the same badge of honour." And so came into being that type of " general " medal, which beginning with Waterloo has continued down to the present. The description of these later medals, and the points of interest about them, will now be given as fully as exigencies of space will allow. 1. Waterloo, 1815.–Awarded by the Prince Regent, 1816. Obverse: Bust of the Prince Regent. Leg. GEORGE P. REGENT. Reverse: Figure of Victory seated; in her right hand, a palm branch; in her left, an olive branch. Above, WELLINGTON; below, WATERLOO, JUNE 18, 1815, Ribbon: Crimson with blue borders (Place I.). Clasps: Nil. The notification of this award was made in a memorandum by H.R.H. the commander-in-chief, dated Horse Guards, March to, 1816, and it is worth noting that the prince regent commanded that the ribbon " shall never be worn but with the medal suspended to it." The medal was conferred on all the British troops, including the King's German Legion, present on the 16th June at Quatre Bras, on the 17th in the fighting that took place during the retirement through Genappe to Waterloo, and on the 18th at Waterloo. It was also given to four regiments, 2nd Batt. 35th, 1st Batt. 54th, 2nd Batt. 59th, and 1st Batt. 91st Regiments of Foot, which formed Sir Charles Colville's Brigade, which was detached. The reverse of this medal would appear to have been copied from the Greek Coin of Elis, about 450 B.C., a specimen of which is in the British Museum. The medals most prized by collectors are those of the 1st, 2nd, and 6th Dragoons (the " Union Brigade "), and the 28th and 42nd Regiments of Foot, as those regiments suffered very severely and consequently fewer survivors received the medal than in other corps. 2. Ghuznee, 1839.–Awarded by the Government of India, 1842. Obverse: The Gateway of the Fortress. Below, GHUZNEE. Reverse: In centre a space for name of recipient; above, 23rd Jul'; below, a mural crown with underneath it 1839; the whole within a wreath of laurel. Ribbon: Particoloured, crimson and green (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. This medal originated with Shah Soojah, whose part the Indian government took in the Afghan troubles of the time. His downfall and death having taken place before the medals were ready, the actual award was made by the Government of India. It was origin-ally ordered (Bengal Military Proceedings, May 27, 1842; Nos. 151 and 152) that the ribbon should be green and yellow, and it was undoubtedly so worn by some recipients; but there is no official record to show why the colours were altered to green and crimson, The medal was awarded to all troops both of the Crown and of the GHUZNEE CABUL 1842 all within a laurel wreath; above, a crown. Company that were actually present at the siege and capture of the fortress, July 21, 22, and 23, 1839. 3. Syria, 1840.—Awarded by the Sultan of Turkey, 1841. Obverse : A fortress on which the Turkish flag is flying, and above six stars; below, in Turkish, " The People of Syria; and the Citadel of Acre, A.H. 1258." Reverse: Cypher of the Sultan, within a laurel wreath. Ribbon: Red with white edges. Clasps: Nil. The St Jean d'Acre medal, as it is commonly called, was awarded to the officers and men of the British fleet that were engaged in the operations off the coast of Syria, against Mehemet Ali, which culminated in the bombardment and capture of St Jean d'Acre; Nov. 3, 1840. The medal, 18 in. in diameter, is purely a naval medal therefore, although a few artillery and engineer officers doing duty in the fleet received it. It was given in gold to officers of flag rank and captains (or field officers), in silver to quarter-deck and warrant officers, and in copper to other ranks. This is the only instance of there being a difference made according to the rank of the recipient since the " Burma " medal. 4. China, 1840–42 (1st Medal); China, 1857-60 (2nd Medal). —Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1842, 1861. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria, diademed, I. Leg. VICTORIA REGINA. Reverse: Naval and military trophy, with behind a palm tree, and in front a shield of the Royal Arms. Above, ARMIS EXPOSCERE PACEM. In exergue, CHINA 1842.1 Ribbon: Red with yellow borders (Plate I.). Clasps: 1st medal, nil; 2nd medal, six—CHINA 1842; FATSHAN 1857'; CANTON 1857; TAKU FORTS 18582; TAKU FORTS 1860; PEKIN 186o. The first China medal was awarded to all the naval and military forces, both of the Crown and of die Hon. East India Company, that took part in the first China War, 1840-42. Another medal was struck, and is to be found in proof, but it was never issued as it was deemed it might give offence to China. Of this the obverse is the same as that described above; but the reverse had, under the same motto, the British lion trampling upon the Chinese dragon, and in the exergue, NANKING 1842. The second China medal was similarly awarded to both the naval and military forces, British and Indian, that took part in the second China war, 1857-60. To those, however, who were already in possession of the first China medal the second medal was not awarded, they receiving a clasp CHINA 1842 to go on their original medal, together of course with the clasps to which their services in the second war had entitled them. The second medal was in fact not a new decoration but a re-issue. The first China medal was the first to be issued with the effigy of Queen Victoria upon it. The first medal with clasps for the second China war is very rare, and in almost every case would probably be found to be a naval medal. Of the second medal only one was issued with all the five new clasps. This was to a Royal Marine Artillery-man, and it is now in the Cheylesmore collection. Medals specially valued by collectors are those given to the 1st Dragoon Guards with the two clasps TAKU FORTS 186o and PEKIN 1860, as only two squadrons of the regiment were present. In a G.O. by Lord Ellen-borough, governor-general of India, dated Simla, Oct. 14, 1842, it was intimated that the Government of India would present to the Indian Army a medal, the design of which was indicated in the order, but this idea was of course abandoned when the queen intimated her intention of making the award. 5. Jellalabad, 1842.—Awarded by the Government of India, 1842. First medal–Obverse: A mural crown; above, JELLALABAD. Reverse: VII April 1842. Second medal—Obverse: Head of QueenVictoria as in China medal, but legend, VICTORIA VINDEX. Reverse: Figure of Victory flying, in her right hand two wreaths, in her left the British flag. Beneath, the town of Jellalabad. Above, JELLALABAD VII APRIL: in exergue, MDCCCXLII. Ribbon (both medals): Military ribbon of India (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. In a G.O., dated Allahabad, April 30, 1842, Lord Ellenborough announced that the Government of India would present a medal to the Company's troops, and with the consent of Her Majesty, to those of the Crown, that held Jellalabad, under Sir Robert Sale (Nov. 12, 1842—April 7, 1842). The queen's consent to her troops (13th Foot, now Somersetshire Light Infantry) receiving the medal was granted in August. The governor-general being dissatisfied with the first medal, made at the Calcutta Mint, the second (generally known as the " Flying Victory ") was ordered in England, and it was notified that on their arrival the first medals, all of which had been distributed, could be exchanged for the second. The new issue was ready by March 13, 1845, but the recipients apparently preferred the original medals, for very few were exchanged. Both are very rare, for only 2596 medals were issued. The " military ribbon of India " is a tri-colour composed of the three primary colours shading into one another. It was designed by Lord Ellenborough, and is intended to symbolize an Oriental sunrise. 6. Afghanistan, 1842 (1st Afghan).—Awarded by Government of India. 1842. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First China Medal, Reverse: No. 1. CANDAHAR 1842 within a laurel wreath; above, a crown. No. 2. GHUZNEE CABUL each within a laurel wreath; above, a crown; below, 1842. No. 3. CANDAHAR 1 The second medal has no date. ' Royal Navy and Royal Marines only. No. 4. CABLJL 1842 within a laurel wreath ; above, a crown. Ribbon: Military ribbon of India (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. The authority for this medal is a G.O. of the governor-general dated October 4, 1842. It was awarded to all troops, both of the Crown and the Hon. East India Company, who took part in the operations in Afghanistan in 1842, that is to say the second phase of the First Afghan War. The medal, with reverses 1, 2 and 3, was awarded to those troops that were with Major-General Sir William Nott in Candahar, and took part in the operations around that place, re-captured Ghuznee, and then joined hands with the column under Major-General Pollock at Cabul. The medal with reverse 4 was awarded to the column which advanced from Peshawur on Cabul, being joined en route by the victorious garrison at Jellalabad. This is the first of the four occasions on which the reverse of a medal has been used to denote the actual part taken in the operations by the recipient, in the manner that is now done by clasps. Of these medals the one with the No. I reverse is the rarest, as its issue was confined to the small portion of his army that Major-General Nott left behind him in Candahar. The medal with the No. 2 reverse is also rare, as its distribution was very limited. 7. Kelat-i-Ghilzie, 1842.—Awarded by Government of India, 1842. Obverse: A shield inscribed KELAT I GHILZIE encircled by a laurel wreath, and surmounted by a mural crown. Reverse. A military trophy, beneath, on a tablet, INVICTA MDCCCXLII. Ribbon: Military ribbon of India (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. The authority for this medal is the same as that for the First Afghan Medal, and the medal itself was awarded to the troops of the Hon. East India Company, which defended this hill fortress for several months, and finally, before they were eventually relieved from Candahar utterly routed and drove off a force of four thousand men. As the medal was given only to 950 in all (forty being European artillerymen, the remainder native troops), it is naturally very scarce. 8. Sinde, 1843.—Awarded by Queen Victoria to the forces of the Crown, and by the Government of India to the troops of the Company. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First China Medal. Reverse: 1. MEEANEE 1843. 2. HYDERABAD 1843. 3. MEEANEE HYDERABAD 1843. In each case the inscription is surrounded by a laurel wreath, and surmounted by a crown. Ribbon : Military ribbon of India (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. The award of a medal for Sir Charles Napier's conquest of Sinde was first notified, as far as the troops of the Crown were concerned, by a letter from Lord Stanley, then war secretary, to the president of the India Board, dated July 18, 1843, and it is worth noting that this is the only instance of any medals for Indian service being paid for by the Crown. The notification of a similar award by the Government of India to their own troops, followed in a G.O. by the governor-general, dated September 22, 1843. The award was confined to those who had been present at either Meeanee or Hyderabad, and the medals were issued according as to which actions the recipient had been present, no one of course receiving more than one medal for the campaign. In addition to the land forces of the Hon. East India Company, the medal was also given to the naval officers and crews of the Company's flotilla on the Indus. The only Crown regiment that received this medal was the 22nd Foot. 9. Gwalior, 1843 (" Maharajpoor and " Punniar " Stars).—Awarded by the Government of India, 1844. This decoration took the form of a bronze star of six points, 2 in. in diameter. Obverse: In centre a silver star, I t in. in diameter, around the centre of which is a circle in which is inscribed either MAHARAJPOOR 1843 or PUNNIAR 1843, and in centre of circle the date 29th DECR. Reverse: Plain for name and regiment, or corps, of recipient. Ribbon: Military ribbon of India (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. The award of a medal to the troops of the Crown and the Hon. East India Company engaged in the Gwalior Campaign of 1843 was first notified in governor-general's G.O., dated Camp, Gwalior Residency, January 4, 1844; and the queen's permission for it to be worn by Crown troops given June 26, 1844. The force moved in two columns, the main and larger under Sir Hugh (Viscount) Gough, the smaller under Major-General Gray. Each force fought an action on the same day, December 29, 1843, the former at Maharajpoor, the latter at Punniar, and the star was inscribed according to which action the recipient was engaged. The stars were manufactured from the metal of the captured guns. The star given to Sir Hugh Gough had in the centre a silver elephant in lieu of a silver star, and it was originally intended that all should be the same, but the silver star was substituted for reasons of economy. As there were fewer troops at Punniar that star is of course the more uncommon. 10. Sutlej, 1845–46 (1st Sikh War).—Awarded by Government of India, 1845. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First China Medal. Reverse: Figure of Victory, standing, with in right hand outstretched a wreath, in left a palm branch ; at her feet a trophy of captured Sikh weapons and armour. In exergue, name and year of the first battle of the war in which recipient was engaged. These inscriptions are four, viz. MOODKEE 1845, FEROZESHUHUR 1845, ALIWAL 1846, SOBRAON 1846. Ribbon: Blue with. crimson borders (Plate I.). Clasps: FEROZESHUHIR, ALIWAL, SOBRAON. This award, given to all the troops, both Crown and Hon. East India Company engaged in the First Sikh War, was first notified in governor-general's G.O., dated Camp, Ferozepore, December 25, 1845, the queen's consent for Crown troops to receive the medal being given six months later. As there was a considerable number of troops engaged in this campaign, the medal is not a very rare one, but a very rare combination is the medal with Ferozeshuhur in the exergue and the clasp for Aliwal, as only half a company of native artillery was present in these two battles and in no other. This is a specially noticeable medal, for it is the first time that " clasps " were issued with a " general " medal, the precedent followed being that of the Army Gold Medal. For every action after his first battle, which was inscribed on the medal itself, the recipient received a clasp. Thus a medal with " Moodkee " in the exergue might carry one, two or three clasps; a " Sobraon " medal could have no clasps. This and the " Punjab " medal, to be described later, are generally considered to be the two finest pieces of medal work by W. Wyon, R.A. 11. Navy General Service, 1793–1840.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1847. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First China Medal; under head, 1848. Reverse: Britannia seated on a sea horse; in her right, hand, a trident; in her left, a laurel branch. Ribbon: White, with dark blue borders (Plate I.). Clasps: 231 clasps in all were granted, of which 55 were for " Boat Service." An Admiralty memorandum dated June 1, 1847, notified the grant of this award to commemorate the services of the fleet " during the wars commencing in 1793 and ending in 1815," and this practically confined the award to those operations for which the Navy Gold Medal (see ante) had been conferred. Subsequently, however, a board of admirals was appointed to consider claims, and on their recommendation an Admiralty memorandum dated June 7, 1848, extended the grant. Clasps were to be given for: (1) All Gold Medal actions or operations. (2) All actions in which first lieutenants or commanders were promoted, as had been customary after important and meritorious engagements. (3) All " Boat Service " operations in which the officer conducting the operations was promoted. (4) For, in co-operation with the land forces, the siege and capture of Martinique, 1809, Guadaloupe, 181o, Java, 1811, and St Sebastian, 1813, for all of which operations the Army Gold Medal had been awarded; and (5) The Bombardment of Algiers, 1816; the Battle of Navarino, 1827; and operations on the coast of Syria, 184o. Although the medal is purely a naval one, yet it was conferred on a few soldiers who had done duty in the fleet in actions or operations, for which the medal was granted. Forty military-officers in all received the Navy G.S. medal, one, Captain Caleb Chute, 69th Foot, with two clasps, viz. " 14th March, 1795 " and " St Vincent." It is very difficult to compile an absolutely accurate list of all the clasps issued, for in several cases more than one clasp was given for the same action, and there were moreover nine or ten clasps allowed for which no claims appear to have been made good. The combination of the clasps is endless, but it is curious to note that medals with more than one, or two clasps are rare; with four or five clasps, very rare; and the highest number of clasps issued with any one medal is six. Amongst very rare clasps the following may be mentioned. One survivor only, Lieut. Baugh, the officer in command, was alive to claim the clasp " Rapid, 24th April, ,8o8." Only two claims were proved for "Surly, 24th April, 181o"; six for "Castor, 17th June, 1809" ; seven for "Amazon, 13th January, 1797"; eight for "Confiance, 14th January, 1809"; and ten for " Acheron, 3rd February, 1805." Of " Boat Service " clasps only three were claimed for " 20th December, 1799 "; four for " 9th June, 1799 "; and eight for " loth July, 1799." (All " Boat Service " clasps are inscribed " Boat Service with the day and month on the left, and the year on the right.) In all nearly thirty thousand claims were proved for the medal. 12. Army General Service, 1793–1814.–Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1847. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First China Medal; under head, 1848. Reverse: Queen Victoria on a dais is placing a wreath on the head of the duke of Wellington, who kneels on his left knee before her, holding in his right hand the baton of a Field Marshal; at the side of the dais is a lion dormant. Legend: TO THE BRITISH ARMY. In exergue: 1793–1814. Ribbon: Crimson with blue borders (Plate I.). Clasps: EGYPT, MAIDA, ROLEIA, VIMIERA, SAHAGUN,1 BENEVENTE 1 SAHAGUNBENEVENTE,I CORUNNA, MARTINIQUE,' TALAVERA, GUADALOUPE,z BUSACO, BARROSA, FUENTES D'ONOR, ALBUHERA, JAVA,2 CIUDAD RODRIGO, BADAJOZ, SALAMANCA, FORT DETROIT, CHATEAUGUAY, CHRYSTLER'S FARM, VITTORIA, PYRENEES, ST SEBASTIAN? NIVELLE, NIVE, ORTHES, TOULOUSE. This medal, frequently erroneously termed the " Peninsular War " medal, was awarded to the survivors of the military forces of the Crown that had taken part in the Peninsular War, and in contemporaneous operations in other parts of the world; it was also given with the clasp " Java " to the European troops of the Hon. East India Company; with the clasps " Martinique " and " Guadaloupe " to certain local West Indian Corps; and with the clasps " Fort ' Whether in one or both actions, only one clasp awarded. 2 A similar clasp was given with the Navy G.S. medal. Detroit," " Chateauguay," and " Chrystler's Farm," to some Canadian militia and local levies, as well as to some Indian auxiliaries. The award of the medal, and all the clasps except " Egypt," bear date June I, 1847, but the clasp " Egypt " was not granted till February 12, 185o. Although the medal is supposed to commemorate services "during the wars commencing in 1793, and ending in 1814," the earliest operations for which the medal was awarded did not take place until 1801. No medal was issued without a clasp, and as will be seen the medal was awarded only for those actions or operations for which the Army Gold Medals (including that for Maida) had been awarded; and in addition for the operations in Egypt in 18o1. The combination of clasps is endless but only two medals were issued with fifteen clasps, though several survivors proved their claim to fourteen clasps. In fact medals with seven, eight or nine clasps are not common, those with ten, or more, distinctly rare. For example, taking only medals issued to officers (including those of the King's German Legion), three were issued with 14 clasps, three with 13, nine with 12, twelve with I I, thirty-six with 1o, fifty-eight with 9, ninety with 8, and one hundred and four-teen with 7. By far the rarest of all clasps is " Benevente," as according to the War Office lists only three would appear to have been issued, viz, to Captain Evelegh, R.H.A., Pte. G. Barrett, loth Hussars, and Pte. M. Gilmour, 18th Hussars, although a medal with this clasp having every appearance of being genuine and issued to Pte. William Lyne, 7th Hussars, was in the collection of Colonel Murray of Polmaise. Sahagun also is a very rare clasp, as it was received only by fifteen men of the 15th Hussars and a few others. The three North American clasps are also very rare, especially Chateauguay. Leaving out awards to Indian warriors, the statistics regarding the issue of the North American clasps are approximately as follows. At Chateauguay some 300 men fought, and 132 survivors proved for the clasp, of which all except three of the Royal Artillery were Canadians. For Chrystler's Farm, the next rarest clasp, out of about 800 engaged 176 claims were proved: viz. 79 of the 89th Foot, 59 Canadians, 44 of the 49th Foot, and 4 Royal Artillery, At Fort Detroit, 1330 men were engaged, and those .who proved for the clasp included 210 Canadians, 52 of the 41st Foot, 5 Royal Artillery, and one man of the 41st Foot (who also got the clasp for Chrystler's Farm). One man proved for all three clasps, another for " Fort Detroit " and " Chateauguay," a third for " Chateauguay " and Chrystler's Farm." The former medal is said to be in the cabinet of a New York collector. Two " regulars " also proved for the medal with clasps for " Fort Detroit " and " Chrystler's Farm," the one belonging to the Royal Artillery, the other to the 49th Foot. The medal of the former sold at the Greg sale, in 1887, for 25 1os. 13. Punjab, 1848–49 (2nd Sikh War).—Awarded by Government of India, 1849. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as in First China Medal. Reverse: Sikh chiefs delivering up their arms to Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert, near Rawal Pindi, March 14, 1849. Above, TO THE ARMY OF THE PUNJAB. In exergue, MDCCCXLIX. Ribbon: Blue with yellow stripes at side (Plate I.). Clasps: MOOLTAN, CHILIANWALA, GOOJERAT. The award of this medal was first notified by a G.O. of the governor-general, dated Camp, Ferozepore, April 2, 1849. The medal is one of special interest, for it establishes the principle that now rules, viz. that every one participating in a campaign (including for the first time civilians) was entitled to receive the medal, apart from those who received the medal together with a clasp for a specific action. The medal in fact was granted to every officer and soldier who has been employed within the Punjab in this campaign to the date of the occupation of Peshawur." In other words it was granted to all who had served " during this campaign within the territories of Maharajah Duleep Sing," irrespective of whether they had qualified for any of the clasps. A very large number of medals was therefore issued without clasps. Another interesting point about this award is that after its grant it was laid down that in future no medals were to be issued by the Government of India without the consent of the Crown. As a matter of fact the Government of India was for the future only concerned in the grant of the two medals that followed, namely the First and Second India General Service Medals. No medals were issued with more than two of the three clasps, the combination being either "Mooltan" and "Goojerat" or "Chilianwala" and " Goojerat." Very rare medals are those of the 24th Foot with the clasp for " Chilianwala," as in that action they lost more than half their strength, their casualties amounting to 497, of whom 250 were killed or died of wounds. Another rare medal is that given without a clasp to the officers and men of the Indian Marine 'that manned the Indus Flotilla; and more rare still is the same medal with the " Mooltan " clasp which was given to a naval brigade landed from the same flotilla. 14. India, 1799–1826 (1st India G.S., officially styled " India, 1851 ").—Awarded by the Government of India, 1851. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as in First China Medal. Reverse: Victory seated, in her right hand a laurel branch, in her left a wreath; on the ground beside her a lotus flower, and in the left background a palm tree and trophy of Eastern arms. Above, TO THE ARMY OF INDIA. In exergue, 1799–1826. Ribbon: Sky blue (Plate I.). Clasps: ALLIGHUR, BATTLE ' OF DELHI, ASSYE, ASSEERGHUR, LASWARREE, ARGAUM, GAWILGHUR, DEFENCE OF DELHI, BATTLE OF DEIG, CAPTURE OP
End of Article: MEDALS AS WAR
MEDAL (Fr. medaille, from Lat. metallum)
MEDEA (Gr. Mi/Seta)

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