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Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 193 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MEDIEVAL LATIN.—DU Cange, Glossarium, Paris, 1733-1736, fol., 6 vols.; Carpentier, Suppl., Paris, 1766, fol., 4 vols.; ed. Adelung, Halae, 1772–1784, 8vo, 6 vols. ; ed. Henschel, Paris, 184o–185o, 4to, 7 vols. (vol. vii. contains a glossary of Old French) : Brinckmeier, Gotha, 1850–1863, 8vo, 2 vols.: Hildebrand (Glossarium saec. ix.), Gutting. 1854, 4to: Diefenbach, Glossarium, Frankf. 1857, 4to: Id. Gloss. novum, ib. 1867, 4to. ECCLESIASTICAL.—Magri, Messina, 1644, 4to; 8th ed. Venezia, 1732; Latin translation, Magri Hierolexicon, Romae, 1677, fol. ; 6th ed. Bologna, 1765, 4to, 2 vols. Romance Languages. Romance Languages generally.—Diez, Bonn, 1853,"8vo; 2nd ed. ib. 1861–1862, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 3rd ed. ib. 1869–187o, 8vo, 2 vols. ; transl. by Donkin, 1864, 8vo. French.—Ranconet, Thresor, ed. Nicot, Paris, 1606, fol. ; ib. 1618, 4to: Richelet, Geneve, 168o, fol., 2 vols.; ed. Gattel, Paris, 184o, 8vo, 2 vols. The French Academy, after five years' consideration, began their dictionary, on the 7th of February 1639, by examining the letter A, which took them nine months to go through. The word Academie was for some time omitted by oversight. They decided, on the 8th of March 1638, not to cite authorities, and they have since always claimed the right of making their own examples. Olivier justifies them by saying that for eighty years all the best writers belonged to their body, and they could not be expected to cite each other. Their design was to raise the language to its last perfection, and to open a road to reach the highest eloquence. Antoine Furetiere, one of their members, compiled a dictionary which he says cost him forty years' labour for ten hours a day, and the manuscript filled fifteen chests. He gave words of all kinds, especially technical, names of persons and places, and phrases. As a specimen, he published his Essai, Paris, 1684, 4.t0; Amst. 1685, I2mo. The Academy charged him with using the materials they had prepared for their dictionary, and expelled him, on the 22nd of January 1685, for plagiarism. He died on the 14th of May 1688, in the midst of the consequent controversy and law suit. His complete work was published, with a preface by Bayle, La Haye and Rotterdam, 169o, fol., 3 vols. ; again edited by Basnage de Beauval, 1701; La Haye, 1707, fol., 4 vols. From the edition of 1701 the very popular so-called Dictionnaire de Trevoux, Trevoux, 1704, fol., 2 vols., was made by the Jesuits, who excluded everything that seemed to favour the Calvinism of Basnage. The last of its manyeditions is Paris, 1771, fol., 8 vols. The Academy's dictionary waa first printed Paris, 1694, fol., 2 vols. They began the revision in 1700; second edition 1718, fol., 2 vols.; 3rd, 1740, fol., 2 vols.; 6th, 1835, 2 vols. 4to, reprinted 1855; Supplement, by F. Raymond, 1836, 4to; Complement, 1842, 4to, reprinted 1856; Dictionnaire historigue, Paris, 1858–1865, 4t0, 2 parts (A to Actu), 795 pages. published by the Institut : Dochez, Paris, 1859,4to : Bescherelle, ib. i 844, 4t0, 2 vols. ; 5th ed. Paris, 1857, 4to, 2 vols. ; 1865; 1887: Landais, Paris, 1835; 12th ed. ib. 1854, 4to, 2 vols.: Littre, Paris, 1863–1873, 4t0, 4 vols. 7118 pages: Supplement, Paris, 1877, 4t0: Godefroy (with dialects from 9th to 15th cent.), Paris, 1881–1895, and Complement: I-Iatzfield, Darmesteter, and Thomas, Paris, 1890—1900: Larive and Fleury, (mots et choses, illustri), Paris, 1884–1891. ENGLISH.—Palsgrave, Lesclaircissement de la langue francoyse, London, 1530, 4t0, 2 parts; 1852: Hollyband, London, 1533, 4to: Cotgrave, ib. 1611, fol.: Boyer, La Haye, 1702, 4to, 2 vols. ; 37th ed. Paris, 1851, 8vo, 2 vols. : Fleming and Tibbins, Paris, 1846–1849 4to, 2 Vols.; ib. 1854, 4t0, 2 vols. ; ib. 1870-1872, 4tO, 2 vols.: Tarver, London, 1853–1854, 8vo, 2 vols.; 1867–1872: Bellows, Gloucester, 1873, 16mo; ib. 1876. IDEOLOGICAL, Or ANALOGICAL.—Robertson, Paris, 1859, 8vo : Boissiere, Paris, 1862, 8vo. ETYMOLOGY.—Lebon, Paris, 1571, 8vo: Menage, O. 1650, 4t0. Pougens projected a Tresor des origines, his extracts for which, filling nearly Too volumes folio, are in the library of the Institut. He published a specimen, Paris, 1819, 4tO. After his death, Archeologie frangaise, Paris, 1821, 8vo, 2 vols., was compiled from his MSS., which were much used by Littre: Scheler, Bruxelles, 1862, 8vo; 1873: Brachet, 2nd ed. Paris, 187o, I2mo; English trans. Kitchin, Oxf. 1866, 8vo. GREEK WORDS.—Trippault, Orleans, 158o, 8vo: Morin, Paris, 1809, 8vo. GERMAN WORDS.—Atzler, Cothen, 1867, 8vo. ORIENTAL WORDS.—Pihan, Paris, 1847, 8vo; 1866: Devic, ib. 1876, 8vo. NEOLOGY.—Desfontaines, 3rd ed. Amst. 1728, I2mo: Mercier, Paris, 180T, 8vo, 2 vols.: Richard, ib. 1842, 8vo; 2nd ed. 1845. POETIC.—Diet. des rimes (by La Noue), Geneve, 1596, 8vo; Cologny, 1624, 8vo: Carpentier, Le Gradus francais, Paris, 1825, 8vo, 2 vols. EROTIC.—De Landes, Bruxelles, 1861, I2mo. ORAToRY.—Demandre and Fontenai, Paris, 1802, 8vo: Planche, ib. 1819–182o, 8vo, 3 VOIs. PRONUNCIATION.—Feline, ib. 1857, 8vo. DOUBLE FORMS.—Brachet, ib. 1871, 8vo. EPITHETS.—Daire, ib. 1817, 8vo. VERBs.—Bescherelle, ib. 1855, 8vo, 2 vols.: 3rd ed. 1858. PARTICIPLES.—Id., ib. 1861, I2mo. DIFFICULTIES.—Boiste, London, 1828, I2mo: Laveaux, Paris, 1872, 8vo, 843 pages. SYNONYMS.—Boinvilliers, Paris, 1826,_ 8vo: Lafaye, ib. 1858, 8vo; 1861; 1869: Guizot, ib. 1809, 8vo; 6th ed. 1863; 1873. HoMoNYMs.—Zlatagorski (Germ., Russian, Eng.), Leipzig, 1862, 8vo, 664 pages. IMITATIVE WoRDs.—Nodier, Onomatopees, ib. 1828, 8vo. TECHNOLOGY.—D'Hautel, ib. 18o8, 8vo, 2Vols.: Desgranges, ib. 1821, 8vo: Tolhausen (Fr., Eng., Germ.), Leipz. 1873, 8vo, 3 vols. FAULTS OF ExPRESsION.—Roland, Gap, 1823, 8vo: Blondin, Paris, 1823, 8vo. PARTICULAR AUTHORS.—Corneille: Godefroy, ib. 1862, 8vo, 2 vols.: Marty-Laveaux, ib. 1868, 8vo, 2 vols. La Fontaine: Lorin, ib. 1852, 8vo. Malherbe: Regnier, ib. 1869, 8vo. Moliere: Genin, ib. 1846, 8vo: Marty-Laveaux, ib. 8vo. Racine: Marty-Laveaux, ib. 1873, 8vo, 2 vols. M"" de Sevigne: Sommer, ib. 1867, 8vo, 2 vols. OLD FRENCH.—La Curne de St Palaye prepared a dictionary, of which he only published Projet d'un glossaire, Paris, 1756, 4to. His MSS. in many volumes are In the National Library, and were much used by Littre. They were printed by L. Favre, and fasciculi 21–30 (tom. iii.), Niort, 4to, 484 pages, were published in February 1877. Lacombe (vieux langage), Paris, 1766, 2 vols. 4t0: Kelham (Norman and Old French), London, 1779, 8vo: Roquefort (langue romane), Paris, 1808, 8vo; Supplement, ib. 1820, 8vo: Pougens, Archeologie, ib. 1821, 8vo, 2 vols.: Burguy, Berlin, 1851–1856, 8vo, 3 vols.: Laborde (Notice des emaux . du Louvre, part u.), Paris, 1853, 8vo, 564 pages:I Gachet (rhymed chronicles), Bruxelles, 1859, 4to: Le Hericher (Norman, English and French), Paris, 1862, 3 vols. 8vo: Hippeau (12th and 13th centuries), Paris, 1875, 8vo. DIALEcTs.—Jaubert (central), Paris, 1856–1857, 8vo, 2 vols.: Baumgarten (north and centre), Coblentz, 1870, 8vo: Azais, Idiomes romans du midi, Montpellier, 1877. Austrasian: Francois. Metz, 1773, 8vo. Auvergne: Mege, Riom, 1861, 12mo. Bearn: Lespi, Pau, 1858, 8vo. Beaucaire: Bonnet (Bouguiren), Nismes, 184o, 8vo. Pays de Bray: Decorde, Neufchatel, 1852, 8vo. Burgundy: Mignard, Dijon, 187o, 8vo. Pays de Castres: Couzinie, Castres, 185o, 4to. Dauphine: Champollion-Figeac, Paris, 1809, 8vo: Jules, Valence, 1835, 8vo; Paris, 184o, 4to. Dep. of Doubs: Tissot (Patois des Fourg, arr. de Pontarlier) Besancon, 1865, 8vo. Forez: Gras, Paris, 1864, 8vo; Neolas, Lyon, 1865, 8vo. Franche Comte: Maisonforte, 2nd ed. Besancon, 1753, 8vo. Gascony: Desgrouais (Gasconismes corriges), Toulouse, 1766, 8vo; 1769; 1812, 12m0, 2 vols. ; 1825, 8vo, 2 vols. Dep. of Gers: Cenac-Montaut, Paris, 1863, 8vo. Geneva: Humbert, Geneve, 182o, 8vo. Languedoc: Odde, Tolose, 1578, 8vo: Doujat, Toulouse, 1638, 8vo: De S.[auvages], Nismes, 1756, 2 vols. ; 1785; Alais, 182o: Azais, Beziers, 1876, &c., •8vo: Hombres, Alais, 1872, 4to: Thomas (Greek words) Montpellier, 1843, 4to. Liege: Forir, Liege, 1866, 8vo, vol i. 455 pages. Lille: Vermesse, Lille, 1861, I2mo: Debuire du Buc ib., 1867, 8vo. Limousin: Beronie, ed. Vialle (Correze), Tulle, 1823, 4t0. I This volume was issued with a new title-page as Glossaire du moyen age, Paris, 1872. Lyonnais, Forez, Beaujolais: Onofrio, Lyon, 1864, 8vo. Haut Maine: R [aoul] de M. [ontesson], Paris, 1857; 1859, 503 pages. Mentone: Andrews, Nice, 1877, 12m0. Dep. de la Meuse: Cordier, Paris, 1853, 8vo. Norman: Edelestand and Alfred Dumeril, Caen, 1849, 8vo: Dubois, ib. 1857, 8vo: Le Hericher (Philologie topographique), Caen, 1863, 4t0: Id. (elements scandinaves), Avranches, 7861, 12m0: Metivier (Guernsey), London, 187o, 8vo: Vasnier (arrond de Pont Audemer), Rouen, 1861, 8vo: Delboulle (Vallee d'Yeres), Le Havre, 1876. Picardy: Corblet, Amiens, 1851, 8vo. Poitou, Saintonge, Aunis: Favre, Niort, 1867, 8vo. Poitou: Beauchet-Filleau, Paris, 1864, 8vo: Levrier, Niort, 1867, 8vo: Lalanne, Poitiers, 1868, 8vo. Saintonge: Boucherie, Angouleme, 1865, 8vo: Jonain, Royan, 1867, 8vo. Savoy: Pont (Terratzu de la Tarantaise), Chambery, 1869, 8vo. La Suisse Romande: Bride!, Lausanne, 1866, 8vo. Dep. of Tarn: Gary, Castro, 1845, 8vo. Dep. of Vaucluse: Barjavel, Carpentras, 1849, 8vo. Walloon (Rouchi) : ambresier, Liege, 1787, 8vo: Grandgagnage, ib. 1845-1850, 8vo. 2 vols.: Chavee, Paris, 1857, 18mo: Vermesse, Doudi, 1867, 8vo. Sigart (Montois), Bruxelles, 1870, 8vo. SLANG.—Oudin, Curiositez Francaises, Paris, 164o, 8vo: Bandeau de Saumaise (Precieuses, Langue de Ruelles), Paris, 166o, Irmo; ed. Livet, ib. 1856: Le Roux, Dict. Comique, Amst. 1788, and 6 other editions: Careme Prenant [i.e. Taumaise], (argot reforme), Paris, 1829, 8vo: Larchey excentricitees du langage), Paris, 186o, I2mo; 5th ed. 1865: Delvau (langue verte, Parisian), Paris, 1867, 8vo: Larchey, Paris, 1873, 4t0, 236 pages. Provencal.—Pallas, Avignon, 1723, 4to: Bastero, La Crusca Provenzale, Roma, 1724, fol. vol. i. only: Raynouard, Paris, 1836-1844, 8vo, 6 vols.: Garcin, Draguignand, 1841, 8vo, 2 vols. : Honnorat, Digne, 1846-1849, 4t0, 4 vols. 107,201 words: Id., Vocab. fr. prov., ib. 1848, 12mo, 1174 pages. Spanish.—Covarruvias Orosco, Madrid, 1611, fol.; ib. 1673-1674 fol. 2 vols.; Academia Espanola, Madrid, 1726-1739, fol. 6 vols.; 8th ed. 1837: Caballero, Madrid, 1849, fol. ; 8th ed. ib. 186o, 40, 2 vols. : Cuesta, ib. 1872, fol. 2 vols.: Campano, Paris, 1876, 18mo, Io15 pages. Cuervo, 1886-1894; Monlau, 1881 ; Zerola, Toro y Gomes, and Isaza, 1895; Serrano (encyclopaedic) 1876-1881. ENGLISH.—Percivall, London, 1591, 4t0: Pineda, London, 1740, fol.: Connelly and Higgins, Madrid, 1797-1798, 4t0, 4 vols.: Neuman and Baretti, 9th ed. London, 1831, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 1874. FRENCH.—Oudin, Paris, 1607, 4to, 1660; Gattel, Lyon, 1803, 4to, 2 vols.: Dominguez, Madrid, 1846, 8vo, 6 vols.: Blanc, Paris, 1862, 8vo, 2 vols. GERMAN.—Wagener, Hamb. 1801-1805, 8vo, 4 vols.: Seckendorp, ib. 1823, 8vo, 3 vols.: Franceson, 3rd ed. Leipzig, 1862, 8vo, 2 vols. ITALIAN.—Franciosini, Venezia, 1735, 8vo, 2 vols. ; Cormon y Manni, Leon, 1843, 16mo, 2 vols.: Romero, Madrid, 1844, 4to. SYNONYMs.—Diccionario de Sinonimos, Paris, 1853, 4to. ETYMOLOGY.—Aldrete, Madrid, 1682, fol.: Monlau y Roca, ib. 1856, I2mo; Barcia, 1881-1883. ARABIC WoRDs.—Hammer Purgstall, Wien, 1855, 8vo: Dozy and Engelmann, 2d ed. Leiden, 1869, 8vo. ANCIENT.—Sanchez, Paris, 1842, 8vo. RHYMING.—Garcia de Rengifo (consonancias) Sa]mantica, 1592, 4to; 1876. DON QUIXOTE.—Beneke (German), Leipzig, 1800, 16mo; 4th ed. Berlin, 1841, 16mo. DIALEcTs.—Aragonese: Peralta, Zaragoza, 1836, 8vo: Borao, ib. 1859, 4to. Catalan: Rocha de Girona (Latin), Barcinone, 1561, fol.: Dictionari Catala (Lat. Fr. Span.), Barcelona, 1642, 8vo: Lacavalleria (Cat.-Lat.), ib. 1696, fol.: Esteve, ed. Belvitges, &c. (Catal.-Sp. Lat.), Barcelona, 1805-1835, fol. 2 vols.: Saura (Cat.-Span.), ib. 1851, 16mo; 2nd ed. (Span.-Cat.), ib. 1854; 3rd ed. (id.) ib. 1862, 8vo: Labernia, ib. 1844-1848, 8vo, 2 vols. 1864. Gallegan: Rodriguez, Coruna, 1863, 4t0: Cuveira y Pinol, Madrid, 1877, 8vo. Majorca: Figuera, Palma, 184o, 4t0: Amengual, ib. 1845, 4to. Minorca: Diccionario, Madrid, 1848, 8vo. Valencian: Palmyreno, Valentiae, 1569: Ros, Valencia, 1764, 8vo: Fuster, ib. 1827, 8vo: Lamarca, 2nd ed. ib. 1842, 16mo. Cuba: Glossary of Creole Words, London, 184o, 8vo: Pichardo, 1836; 2nd ed. Havana, 1849, 8vo; 3rd ed. ib. 1862, 8vo; Madrid, 186o, 4t0. Portuguese.—Lima, Lisbon, 1783, 4to: Moraes da Silva, ib. 1789, 4to, 2 vols. ; 6th ed. 1858: Academia real das Sciencas, ib. 1793, tom. i., ccvi. and 544 pages (A to Azurrar) ; Faria, ib. 1849, fol. 2 vols. ; 3rd ed. ib. 1850-1857, fol. 2 vols. 2220 pages. ENGLISH.—Vieyra, London, 1773, 2 vols. 4to: Lacerda, Lisboa, 1866-1871, 4t0, 2 vols. FRENCH.—Marquez, Lisboa,1756-1761, fol. 2 vols.: Roquette, Paris, 1841, 8vo, 2 vols.; 4th ed. 186o: Marques, Lisbonne, 1875, fol. 2 vols.: Souza Pinto, Paris, 1877, 32m0, 1024 pages. GERMAN.—Wagener, Leipzig, 1811-1812, 8vo, 2 vols.: Wollheim, ib. 1844, I2mo, 2 vols. : Bosche, Hamburg, 1858, 8vo, 2 vols. 1660 pages. ITALIAN.—Costa e SA., Lisboa, 1773-1774, fol. 2 vols. 1652 pages: Prefumo, Lisboa, 1853, 8vo, 1162 pages. ANCIENT.—Joaquim de Sancta Rosa de Viterbo, ib. 1798, fol. 2 vols. ; 1824, 8vo. ARABIC WORDS.—Souza, ib. 1789, 4to; 2nd ed. by S. Antonio Moura, ib. 183o, 224 pages. ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN WORDS, NOT ARABIC.—Sao LUiZ, ib. 1837, 4to, 123 pages. FRENCH WORDS.—Id., ib. 1827, 4to; 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro, 1835, 8vo. SYNONYMS.—Id., ib. 1821, 4to; 2nd ed. ib. 1824-1828, 8vo. Fonseca, Paris, 1833, 8vo; 1859, 18mo, 863 pages. HOMONYMS.—De Couto, Lisboa, 1842, fol. POETIC.—Luzitano (i.e. Freire), ib. 1765, 8vo, 2 vols.; 3rd ed. ib. 182o, 4t0, 2 vols. RHYMING. —Couto Guerreiro, Lisboa, 1763, 4to. N•AvAL.—Tiberghien, Rio de Janeiro, 1870, 8vo. CEYLON-PORTUGUESE.—FOX, Colombo, 1819, 8vo: Callaway, ib. 1823, 8vo. Italian.—Accarigi, Vocabulario, Cento, 1543, 4to: Alunno, La Romansh.—Promptuario de voci volgari e Latine, Valgrisii, 1565, 4to: Der, die, das, odor Nomenclatura (German nouns explained in Ron.), Scoul, 1744, 8vo: Conradi, Zurich, 182o, 8vo; 1826, 12mo, 2 vols.: Carisch, Chur, 1821, 8vo; 1852, 16mo. Vlach.—Lesicon Rumanese (Lat. Hung. Germ.), Budae, 1825, 4to: Bobb (Lat. Hung.), Clus, 1822-1823, 4to, 2 VOIS. FRENCH.—Valliant, Boucoureshti, 184o, 8vo: Poyenar, Aaron and Hill, Boucourest, 1840-1841, 4to, 2 vols.; Jassi, 1852, 16mo, 2 vols.: De Pontbriant, Bucuresci, 1862, 8vo: Cihac, Frankf. 187o, 8vo: Costinescu, Bucuresci, 187o, 8vo, 724 pages: Antonescu, Bucharest, 1874, 16mo, 2 vols. 919 pages. GERMAN.—Clemens, Hermanstadt, 1823, 8vo: Isser, Kronstadt, 185o: Polyzu, ib. 1857, 8vo.
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