See also:history the word "melody "-must be used in a very abstract sense, as that aspect of
See also:music which is concerned only with the pitch of successive notes . Thus a " melodic scale " is a scale of a kind of music that is not based on an
See also:system; and thus we
See also:ancient Greek music " melodic." The popular conception of melody is that of " air " or " tune," and this is so far from being a
See also:primitive conception that there are few instances of such melody in recorded music before the 17th century; and even folk-songs, unless they are of
See also:recent origin, deviate markedly from the criteria of tunefulness . The
See also:modern conception of melody is based on the interaction of every musical . category . For us a melody is the
See also:surface of a series of harmonies, and an unaccompanied melody so far implies harmony that if it so behaves that
See also:simple harmonies expressing dear
See also:key-relationships would be difficult to find for it, we feel it to be
See also:strange and vague . Again, we do not feel music as melodious unless its rhythm is symmetrical; and this, taken together with the harmonic rationality of modern melody, brings about 'an equally intimate connexion between melody on a large scale and
See also:form on a small scale . In the article on
See also:SONATA FORMS it is shown that there are gradations between the form of some kinds of single melody like "
See also:Allen " (see Ex . 1) and the larger dance forms of the. suite, and then, again, gradations between these and the true sonata forms with their immense range of expression and development . Lastly, the
See also:element that appears at first sight most strictly melodic, namely, the rise and fall of the pitch, is intimately connected by origin with the nature. of the human
See also:voice,, and in later forms is enlarged fully as much by the characteristics of
See also:instruments as by parallel developments in rhythm, harmony and form . Thus modern melody is the musical surface of rhythm, harmony, form and
See also:instrumentation; and, if we take Wagnerian Leitmotif into account, we may as well add drama to the
See also:list . In
See also:short, melody is the surface of music . We may here define a few technicalities which may be said to come more definitely under the
See also:head of melody, than any ;other; but see also HARMONY and RHYTHM .
r . A theme is a melody, not necessarily or even usually
See also:complete, except when designed for a set of variations (q.v.), but of sufficient
See also:independent coherence to be, so to speak, an intelligible musical
See also:sentence . Thus a
See also:fugue-subject is a theme, and the first and second subjects in sonata form are more or less. complex groups of themes . 2 . A figure is the smallest fragment of a theme that can he recognized when transformed' or detached from its'' surroundings . The grouping of figures into new melodies is the most obvious resource of " development " or " working-out ". in the sonata-forms (see Ex . 2-7), besides being the
See also:main resource by which fugues are carried on at those moments in which the subjects and
See also:counter-subjects are not
See also:present as wholes . In r6th-century polyphony melody consists mainly of figures thus broken off from a
See also:fermo (see CONTRAPUNTAL FORMS) . 3 . Polyphony is simultaneous multiple melody . In 16th-century music and in fugue-writing every
See also:part is as melodious as Teary other . The popular cry for melody as an antidote to polyphony is thus really a curious perversion of the complaint that one may have too much of a
See also:good thing .
Several well-known classical melodies are polyphonically composite, being formed by an inner melody appearing as it were through transparent places 'in the
See also:outer melody, which it thus completes . This is especially
See also:common in music for the pianoforte, where the
See also:tone of long notes rrapidl)t fades; and the
See also:works of Chopin are full. of examples . , In Bach s works for keyed instruments figures frequently have a
See also:double meaning on this principle, as, for instance, in the
See also:peculiar kind of counter.. subject in the 15th fugue of the 2nd
See also:book of the Wohltemperirtat Klavier . A good
See also:familiar example of a simple melody:. which, as written by the composer, would need two voices to sing it, is that which begins the secon'd subject of
See also:Beethoven's Waldstein Sonata (Op . 53, first
See also:movement, bars 35-42, where at the third
See also:bar of the melody a
See also:lower voice enters and finishes the phrase) . 4 (a) Conjunct movement is the movement of melody along adjacent degrees of the scale . A large proportion of Beethoven's melodies are conjunct (see Ex . 2, fig . B) . 4 (b) Disjunct movement, the opposite of conjunct, tends, though by no means always, to produce arpeggio types of melody, i.e. melodies which move up and down the notes of a chord . Certain types of such nnelody are highly characteristic of
See also:Brahms; and Ex . I .
Barbara Allen" (showing the germ of binary form in the
See also:balance between A' on the dominant .ats _0
See also:Im _ n'
See also:ANN= B diminished . Ea . 7 . Further development of B by diminution and contrary motion (inversion) . B inverted . AL 1—• r &c . 97 I
See also:A2 l ma~ mom — i Wagner, whose melodies are almost always of instrumental origin, is generally disjunct in diatonic melody and conjunct in chromatic (Ex . 2, fig . C, is a disjunct figure not forming an arpeggio) . For various other melodic devices, such as inversion,
See also:augmentation and diminution, see CONTRAPUNTAL FORMS . We subjoin some musical illustrations showing the treatment of figures in melody as a means of symmetry (Ex . I), and*development ( Ex .
2-7), and (En . 8-13) some modern melodic transformations, differing from earlier methods in being immediate instead ofgradual . (D . F . T.) and A2 on the tonic) . Ex . 2 . Main theme of the first movement of Beethoven's Trio in B I), Op . 97 . 1 B2 ICam 1 Ex . 3 . Figure A of above
See also:developed in a new polyphonic 4-bar phrase .
Al 1 J J J b_a • +~ J J I ~„ As Ex . 5 . Development of C with B . X XI C - B Ex . 6 . Further development of B by diminution, incombination with the trills derived from C . I B2 I I C' Ex . 4 . Further sequential developments 4fp 4(P of A . C2 r tr i Ex . 9 . A and B2 diminished .
Ex .. 8 . BRAHMS, Quintet, Op . 34 . I Ba Ex. i I . The Rheindaughter''sToy . Wagner, Das Rheingold . T Ex . 13: Walhalla . Ex.io .
MELODRAMA (a coined word from Gr. µEXos, music, an...
MELON (Late Lat. melo, shortened form of Gr. p XoaE...
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