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CONSTANTIN MEUNIER (1831-1905)

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Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 315 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CONSTANTIN MEUNIER (1831-1905), Belgian painter and sculptor, was born at Etterbeek, Brussels. His first exhibit was a plaster sketch, " The Garland," at the Brussels Salon in 1851. Soon afterwards, on the advice of the painter Charles de Groux, he abandoned the chisel for the brush. His first important painting, " The Salle St Roch " (1857), was followed by a series of paintings including " A Trappist Funeral " (1860), " Trappists Ploughing " (1863), in collaboration with Alfred Verwee, " Divine Service at the Monastery of La Trappe " (1871) and episodes of the Peasants' War (1878). About 188o he was commissioned to illustrate those parts of Camille Lemonnier's description of Belgium in Le Tour du monde which referred to miners and factory-workers, and produced " In the Factory," " Smithery at Cockerill's," " Melting Steel at the Factory at Seraing " (1882), " Returning from the Pit," and " The Broken Crucible " (1884). In 1882 he was employed by the government to copy Pedro Carnpana's " Descent from the Cross " at Seville, and in Spain he painted such characteristic pictures as " The Cafe Concert," " Procession on Good Friday," and " The Tobacco Factory at Seville " (Brussels Gallery). On his return to Belgium he was appointed professor at the Louvain Academy of Fine Arts. In 1885 he returned to statuary and produced " The Puddler," " The Hammerer " (r886), " Firedamp " (1889, Brussels Gallery), " Ecce Homo " (x891), " The Old Mine-Horse " (1891), " The Mower " (1892), " The Glebe " (1892), the monument to Father Damien at Louvain (1893), " Puddler at the Furnace " (1893), the scheme of decoration for the Botanic Garden at Brussels in collaboration with the sculptor Charles van der Stappen (1893), " The Horse at the Pond," in the square in the north-east quarter of Brussels, and two unfinished works, the " Monument to Labour " and the Zola monument, in collaboration with the French sculptor Charpentier. The " Monument to Labour," which was acquired by the State for the Brussels Gallery, comprises four stone bas-reliefs, " Industry," " The Mine," " Harvest," and the " Harbour "; four bronze statues, " The Sower " " The Smith " " The Miner," and the " Ancestor "; and a bronze group, " Maternity," Meunier died at Brussels on the 4th of April 1905.
End of Article: CONSTANTIN MEUNIER (1831-1905)
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