MILITARY OPERATIONS OF 1882-1885 In
See also:February 1879 a slight outbreak of discharged
See also:officers and soldiers occurred at Cairo, which led to the despatch of
See also:British and French
See also:ships to Alexandria . On the 26th of
See also:June of that
See also:Pasha was removed from
See also:Egypt, and Tewfik assumed the khediviate, becoming practically the protege of the two western
See also:powers . On the 1st of February 1881 a more serious disturbance arose at Cairo from the attempt to try three colonels, Ahmed Arabi, All Fehmy, and Abd-el-Al, who had been arrested as the ringleaders of the military party . The prisoners were re-leased by force, and proceeded to dictate terms to the
See also:khedive . Again British and French warships were despatched to Alexandria, and were quickly withdrawn, their presence having produced no apparent impression . It soon became clear that the khedive was powerless, and that the military party, headed by Arabi, threatened to dominate the
See also:country . The " dual note," communicated to the khedive on the 6th of
See also:January 1881, contained an intimation that
See also:Great Britain and France were pre-pared to afford material support if necessary; but the fall of
See also:ministry produced a reaction, and both governments proceeded to minimize the meaning of their language . The khedive was practically compelled to
See also:form a
See also:government in which Arabi was
See also:minister of war and Mahmud Sami premier, and Arabi took steps to extend his influence throughout his army . The situation now became critically serious: for the third
See also:time ships were sent to Alexandria, and on the 25th of May 1882 the consuls-general of the two powers made a strong
See also:representation to Mahmud Sami which produced the resignation of the
See also:Egyptian ministry, and a demand, to which the khedive yielded, by the military party for the reinstatement of Arabi . The attitude of the troops in Alexandria now became threatening; and on the 29th the British residents pointed out that they were " absolutely 'defenceless." This warning was amply justified by the massacres of the 11th of June, during which more than one
See also:hundred persons, including an officer and two
See also:seamen, were killed in the streets of
See also:Bombard- Alexandria, almost under the guns of the ships in ment of
See also:harbour . It was becoming clear that definite
See also:action A/exan- would have to be taken, and on the 15th the channel d a.
See also:squadron was ordered to Malta . By the end of June twenty-six warships, representing the navies of Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy,
See also:Austria, Russia, the
See also:United States, Spain,
See also:Greece and
See also:lay off the
See also:port of Alexandria, and large numbers of refugees were embarked .
See also:order received by
See also:Sir Beauchamp Seymour (afterwards
See also:Lord Alcester) on the 3rd of
See also:July was as follows: Prevent any attempt to
See also:bar channel into port . If
See also:work is resumed on earthworks, or fresh guns mounted, inform military
See also:commander that you have orders to prevent it; and if not immediately discontinued, destroy earthworks and silence batteries if they open
See also:fire, having given sufficient
See also:notice to population,
See also:shipping and
See also:foreign men-of-war." On the 9th the admiral received a
See also:report that working parties had been seen in Fort Silsileh " parbuckling two smooth-
See also:bore guns—apparently 32-pounders—towards their respective carriages and slides, which were facing in the direction of the harbour." Fort Silsileh was an old work at the extreme east of the defences of Alexandria, and its guns do not bear on the harbour . On the loth an
See also:ultimatum was sent to Toulba Pasha, the military commandant, intimating that the
See also:bombardment would commence at sunrise on the following
See also:morning unless " the batteries on the
See also:isthmus of
See also:Ras-el-Tin and the
See also:shore of the harbour of Alexandria " were previously surrendered " for the purpose of disarming." The
See also:fleet prepared for action, and the
See also:bearer of the reply, signed by the
See also:president of the council, and offering to dismount three guns in the batteries named, only succeeded in finding the
See also:late at
See also:night . This proposal was rejected, and at 7 A.M. on the I1th of July the " Alexandra " opened fire and the action became general . The attacking force was disposed in three groups: (I) the "Alexandra," " Sultan " and " Superb," outside the
See also:reef, to engage the Ras-el-Tin and the earthworks under weigh; (2) the " Monarch," " Invincible " and "
See also:Penelope," inside the harbour, to engage the Meks batteries; and (3) the "Inflexible " and " Temeraire," to take up assigned stations outside the reef and to co-operate,with the inshore squadron . The gunboats " Beacon," " Bittern," "
See also:Condor," " Cygnet " and "
See also:Decoy " were to keep out of fire at first and seek opportunities of engaging the Meks batteries . Meks fort was silenced by about 12.45 P.M., and a party from the " Invincible " landed and disabled the guns . As the fire delivered under weigh was not effective, the offshore squadron anchored at about 10.30 A.M., and succeeded in silencing Fort Ras-el-Tin at about 12.30 P.M., and Fort
See also:Adda, by the
See also:explosion of the
See also:magazine, at 1.35 P.M . The " In-flexible " weighed soon after 8 A.M. and engaged Ras-el-Tin, afterwards attacking Forts Pharos and Adda . The " Condor," followed by the " Beacon," " Bittern " and " Decoy," engaged Fort
See also:Marabout soon after 8 A.M. till II A.M., when the gunboats were recalled . After the
See also:works were silenced, the ships moved in closer, with a view to dismount the Egyptian guns . The bombardment ceased at 5 P.M.; but a few rounds were fired by the " Inflexible " and " Temeraire " on the morning of the 12th at the right battery in Ras-el-Tin lines .
The bombardment of the forts of Alexandria is interesting as a
See also:gauge of the effect to be expected from the fire of ships under specially favourable conditions . The Egyptians at different times during the
See also:day brought into action about 33 R.M.L. guns (7-in. to Io-in.), 3 R.B.L. guns (40 prs.), and 120 S.B. guns (6.5-in. and Io-in.), with a few mortars . These guns were disposed over a
See also:line of about to
See also:miles, and were in many cases indifferently mounted . The Egyptian gunners had been little trained, and many of them had never once practised with rifled
See also:ordnance . Of seventy-five hits on the hulls of the ships only five can with certainty be ascribed to projectiles from rifled guns, and
See also:thirty were unquestionably due to the old smoothbores, which were not provided with
See also:sights . The
See also:total loss inflicted was 6 killed and 27 wounded . The British ships engaged fired 1741 heavy projectiles (7-in_ to 16-in.) and 1457
See also:light (7-prs. to 64-prs.), together with 33,493 machine-
See also:gun and
See also:rifle bullets . The result was comparatively small . About 8 rifled guns and 19 smoothbores were dismounted or disabled and 4 and I temporarily put out of action respectively . A considerable portion of this injury was inflicted, after the works had been silenced, by the deliberate fire of the ships . As many as twenty-eight rifled guns and 14o smoothbores would have opened fire on the following day . The Egyptians made quite as
See also:good a stand as could be expected, but were driven from their guns, which they were unable to use with adequate effect; and the bombardment of Alexandria confirms previous experience that the fire of ships cannot really compete with that of well-mounted and well-handled guns on shore .
In the afternoon of the 12th, fires, which were the work of incendiaries, began to break out in the best quarters of Alexandria; and the
See also:town was
See also:left to
See also:murder and pillage till the following day, when a party of bluejackets and
See also:marines was landed at about 3 P.M . Military intervention being now imperatively demanded, a
See also:vote of
See also:credit for 2,300,000 was passed in the British
See also:House of
See also:Commons on the 27th of July . Five days later the French government failed to secure a similar vote, and Great Britain was left to
See also:deal with the Egyptian question alone . An expeditionary force detailed from home stations and from Malta was organized in two divisions, with a
See also:cavalry division,
See also:corps troops, and a
See also:train, numbering in all about 25,000 men . An
See also:Indian contingent numbering about 7000 combatants,
See also:complete in all arms and with its own transport, was prepared for despatch to
See also:Suez . General Sir Garnet Wolseley was appointed commander-in- chief, with
See also:Lieutenant - General Sir J .
See also:Adye as chief of the
See also:staff . The plan of operations contemplated the seizure of
See also:Ismailia as the
See also:base for an advance on Cairo, Alexandria and its suburbs to be held defensively, and the Egyptian forces in the neighbour-
See also:hood to be occupied by demonstrations . The expeditionary force having rendezvoused at Alexandria, means were taken by
See also:Hoskins and Sir W .
See also:Hewett for the seizure 'of the Suez canal . Under orders from the former, Captain
See also:Fairfax, R.N., occupied Port Said on the night of 19th
See also:August, and Commander
See also:Edwards, R.N., proceeded down the canal, taking possession of the gares and dredgers, while Captain Fitzroy, R.N., occupied Ismailia after slight opposition . Before nightfall on the loth of August the canal was wholly in British hands .
Meanwhile, leaving Sir E .
See also:Hamley in command at Alexandria, Sir G . Wolseley with the bulk of the expeditionary force arrived at Port Said on the loth of August, a
See also:naval demonstration having been made at Abukir with a view to deceive the enemy as to the
See also:object of the great
See also:movement in progress . The advance from Ismailia now began . On the 21st Major-General
See also:Graham moved from Ismailia with about 800 men and a small naval force, occupying Nefiche, the junction with the Suez line, at 1.30 A.M. without opposition . On the 22nd he made a recon- naissance towards Suez, and on the 23rd another to El-Magfar, 4 M. from Nefiche . It now appeared that the enemy had dammed the sweet-
See also:water canal and blocked the railway at Tell-el-Mahuta, where entrenchments had been thrown up and resistance seemed to be contemplated . At 4 A.M. on the 24th Sir Garnet Wolseley advanced with 3 squadrons of cavalry, 2 guns, and about
See also:infantry, placed under the orders of Lieutenant-General Willis . The enemy showed in force, estimated at 7000 with 12 guns, and a somewhat desultory action ensued . Reinforcements from Ismailia were ordered up, and the British cavalry, operating on the right, helped to check the enemy's attack, which showed little vigour . At night the troops, now reinforced by the
See also:Brigade, an infantry
See also:battalion, 2 cavalry regiments and to guns, bivouacked on the ground . Early on the morning of the 25th the advance was continued to Tell-el-Mahuta, which the enemy evacuated, while the mounted troops and
See also:artillery pressed on to Mahsama, capturing the Egyptian
See also:camp, with 7 guns and large quantities of
See also:ammunition and supplies .
On the same evening Major-General Graham, with about 1200 marines (artillery and light infantry), reached Mahsama, and on the following day he occupied
See also:Kassassin without opposition . The advance guard had now outrun its communications and was actually
See also:short of
See also:food, while a considerable force was distributed at intervals along the line Ismailia-Kassassin . The situatioh on the 27th tempted attack by an enterprising enemy, and Major-General Graham's force, consisting of a squadron of the 19th Hussars, the
See also:York and
See also:Lancaster Regiment, the duke of
See also:Cornwall's Light Infantry, the Marine Artillery Battalion and two R.H.A. guns, short of ammunition, was in danger of being overwhelmed by vastly
See also:superior numbers from Tell-el-Kebir . On the 28th Major-General Graham's troops were attacked, and after repulsing the enemy, made a general advance about 6.45 P.M . The cavalry, summoned by heliograph from Mahsama, co-operated, and in a moonlight
See also:charge inflicted considerable loss . The British casualties amounted to 14 killed and 83 wounded . During the lull which followed the first action of Kassassin, strenuous efforts were made to bring up supplies and troops and to open up railway communication to the front . On the 9th of
See also:September the Egyptians again attacked Kassassin, but were completely repulsed by g A.M., with a loss of 4 guns, and were pursued to within extreme range of the guns of Tell-el- Kebir . The British casualties were 3 killed and 78 wounded . The three following days were occupied in concentrating troops at Kassassin for the attack on Tell-el-Kebir, held by about 38,000 men with 6o guns . The Egyptian defences consisted of a long line of
See also:trench (21 m.) approximately at right Teu-ei• angles to the railway and the sweet-water canal . At Kebir .
11 P.M. on the 12th of September the advance of about 15,000 men commenced; the 1st division, under Lieutenant-General Willis, was on the right, and the 2nd division, under Lieutenant-General Hamley, was on the left . Seven batteries of artillery, under Brigadier-General Goodenough, were placed in the centre . The cavalry, under Major-General
See also:Drury Lowe, was on the right flank, and the Indian contingent, under Major-General Macpherson, starting one
See also:hour later, was ordered to move south of the sweet-water canal . The night was moonless, and the distance to be covered about 64 m: The ground was perfectly open, slightly undulating, and generally
See also:gravel . The conditions for a night
See also:march were thus ideal; but during the movement the wings closed towards each other, causing great
See also:risk of an outbreak of firing . The line was, however, rectified, and after a
See also:halt the final advance began . By a fortunate accident the isolated outwork was just missed in the darkness by the left flank of the 2nd Division; otherwise a premature alarm would have been given, which must have changed all the conditions of the operation . At
See also:dawn the Highland Brigade of the 2nd Division struck the enemy's trenches, and carried them after a brief struggle . The 1st Division attacked a few minutes later, and the cavalry swept
See also:round the left of the line of entrenchments, cutting down any fugitives who attempted resistance and reaching the enemy's camp in rear . The Indian contingent, on the south of the canal, co-operated, intercepting the Egyptians at the canal
See also:bridge . The opposition encountered at some points was severe, but by 6 A.M. all resistance was at an end . The British loss amounted to 58 killed, 379 wounded and 22 missing; nearly 2000 Egyptians were killed, and more than 500 wounded were treated in hospital .
An immediate pursuit was ordered, and the Indian contingent, under Major-General Macpherson, reached
See also:Zagazig, while the cavalry, under Major-General Drury Lowe, occupied Belbeis and pushed on to Cairo, 65 m. from Tell-el-Kebir, next day . On the evening of the 14th the io,000 troops occupying Abbasia barracks, and 5000 in the citadel of Cairo, surrendered . On the 15th General Sir Garnet Wolseley, with the brigade of Guards under H.R.H. the duke of Connaught, entered the city . The prompt following up of the victory at Tell-el-Kebir saved Cairo from the
See also:fate of Alexandria and brought the
See also:rebellion to an end . The Egyptian troops at Kafr Dauar, Abukir and Rosetta surrendered without opposition, and those at
See also:Damietta followed on the 23rd of September, after being threatened with attack . On the 25th the khedive entered Cairo, where a review of the British troops was held on the 3oth . The expeditionary force was now broken up, leaving about io,000 men, under Major-General Sir A .
See also:Alison, to maintain the authority of the khedive . In twenty-five days, from the landing at Ismailia to the occupation of Cairo, the rebellion was completely suppressed, and the operations were thus signally successful . The authority of the khedive and the
See also:maintenance of
See also:law and order now depended absolutely on the British forces left in occupation . Lord Dufferin, who had been sent to The Sudan Cairo to draw up a project of constitutional reforms, question . advocated the re-
See also:establishment of a native army, not to exceed 5000 to 6000 men, with a proportion of British officers, for purely defence purposes within the
See also:Delta; and on the 13th of
See also:December 1882 Sir
See also:Wood left England to undertake the organization of this force, with the title of
See also:sirdar .
Lord Dufferin further advised the formation of a
See also:gendarmerie, which " should be in a great measure a mounted force and empowered with a semi-military character " (despatch of January 1st, 1883) . The strength of this military
See also:police force was fixed at 4400 men with 2562 horses, and
See also:Baker Pasha (General
See also:Valentine Baker) was entrusted with its formation, with the title of inspector-general . In a despatch of the 6th of February 1883 Lord Dufferin dealt British expedition under Sir Garnet Wolseley . with the Sudan, and stated that Egypt " could hardly be expected to acquiesce " in a policy of withdrawal from her Southern territories . At the same time he pointed out that, "Unhappily, Egyptian administration in the Sudan had been almost uniformly unfortunate . The success of the
See also:mandi in raising the tribes and extending his influence over great tracts of country was a sufficient
See also:proof of the government's inability either to reconcile the inhabitants to its
See also:rule or to maintain order . The consequences had been most disastrous . Within the last year and a
See also:half the Egyptians had lost something like 9000 men, while it was estimated that 40,000 of their opponents had perished." Moreover, to restore tranquillity in the Sudan, " the first step necessary was the construction of a railway from
See also:Suakin to
See also:Berber, or what, perhaps, would be more advisable, to
See also:Shendi, on the Nile . The completion of this enterprise would at once
See also:change all the elements of the problem." The immense responsibilities involved were most imperfectly understood by the British government . Egyptian
See also:sovereignty in the Sudan
See also:dates from 1820, when Mehemet
See also:Ali sent a large force into the country, and ultimately established his authority over
See also:Sennar and
See also:Kordofan . In 1865 Suakin and
See also:Massawa were assigned to Egyptian rule by the sultan, and in 187o Sir
See also:Samuel Baker proceeded up the Nile to the
See also:conquest of the
See also:Equatorial provinces, of which General
See also:Gordon was appointed
See also:governor-general in 1874 . In the same year
See also:Darfur and
See also:Harrar were annexed, and in 1877 Gordon became governor-general of the Sudan, where, with the valuable assistance of Gessi Pasha, he laboured to destroy the slave
See also:trade and to establish just government .
In August 1879 he returned to Cairo, and was succeeded by Raouf Pasha .
See also:Misrule and oppression in every form now again prevailed throughout the Sudan, while the slave traders, exasperated by Gordon's stern
See also:measures, were ready to revolt . The authority of Egypt was represented by scattered garrisons of armed men, badly officered, undisciplined and largely demoralized . In such conditions a
See also:leader only was required to ensure widespread and dangerous rebellion . A leader appeared in the
See also:person of Mahommed Ahmed,
See also:born in 1848, who had taken up his abode on Abba
See also:Island, and, acquiring great reputation for sanctity, had actively fomented insurrection . In August 1881 a small force sent by Raouf Pasha to arrest Mahommed Ahmed was destroyed, and the latter, proclaiming himself the mandi, stood forth as the
See also:champion of revolt . Thus, at the time when the Egyptian army was broken up at Tell-el-Kebir, the Sudan was already in flames . On the 7th of June 1882, 6000 men under Yusef Pasha, advancing from
See also:Fashoda, were nearly annihilated by the mandists . Payara and Birket in Kordofan quickly fell, and a few days before the
See also:battle of Tell-el-Kebir was fought, the mandi, with a large force, was besieging El Obeid . That town was captured, after an obstinate defence, on the 17th of January 1883, by which time almost the whole of the Sudan south of
See also:Khartum was in open rebellion, except the
See also:Bahr-el-Ghazal and the Equatorial provinces, where for a time Lupton Bey and Emin Pasha were able to hold their own . Abd-el-Kader, who had succeeded Raouf, telegraphed to Cairo for 10,000 additional troops, and pointed out that if they were not sent at once four times this number would be required to re-establish the authority of the government in the Sudan . After gaining some small successes, Abd-el-Kader was superseded by Suliman Niagi on the loth of February 1883, and on the 26th of March
See also:Ala-eddin Pasha was appointed governor-general .
Meanwhile 500o men, who had served in the Egyptian army, were collected and forcibly despatched to Khartum via Suakin . In March 1883Colonel
See also:William Hicks, late of the Bombay army,
See also:master to who in January had been appointed by the khedive p8 ha. chief of the staff of the army of the Sudan, found himself at Khartum with nine
See also:European officers and about 10,000 troops of little military value . The reconquest of the Sudan having been determined upon, although Sir E .
See also:Malet reported that the Egyptian government could not supply the necessary funds, and that there was great risk of failure, Colonel Hicks, who had resigned his
See also:post on the 23rd of July, and had been appointed commander-in-chief, started from Khartum on 9th September, with a total force of about 10,000 men, includingnon-combatants, for Kordofan . On the 22nd of May Sir E . Malet had informed Sherif Pasha that, " although Colonel Hicks finds it convenient to communicate with Lord Dufferin or with me, it must not be supposed that we endorse in any way the contents of his telegrams . . . Her
See also:Majesty's government are in no way responsible for his operations in the Sudan, which have been undertaken under the authority of His
See also:Highness's government." Colonel Hicks was fully aware of the unfitness of his
See also:rabble forces for the contemplated task, and on the 5th of August he telegraphed: " I am convinced it would be best to keep the two
See also:rivers and province of Sennar, and wait for Kordofan to settle itself." Early in
See also:November the force from Khartum was caught by the mandists short of water at Kashgil, near El Obeid, and was almost totally destroyed, Colonel Hicks, with all his European officers, perishing . Sinister rumours having reached Cairo, Sir E .
See also:Baring (Lord Cromer), who had succeeded Sir E . Malet, telegraphed that " if Colonel Hicks's army is destroyed, the Egyptian government will lose the whole of the Sudan, unless some assistance from the outside is given," and advised the withdrawal to some post on the Nile . On the following day Lord Granville replied: " We cannot lend
See also:English or Indian troops; if consulted, recommend
See also:abandonment of the Sudan within certain limits "; and on the 25th he added that " Her Majesty's government can do nothing in the
See also:matter which would throw upon them the responsibilities for operations in the Sudan." In a despatch of the 3rd of December Sir E .
Baring forcibly argued against British intervention in the affairs of the Sudan, and on the 13th of December Lord Granville telegraphed that " Her Majesty's government recommend the ministers of khedive to come to an early decision to abandon all territory south of
See also:Assuan, or, at least, of
See also:Wadi Halfa." On the 4th of January 1884 Sir E . Baring was directed to insist upon the policy of evacuation, and on the 18th General Gordon left
See also:London to assist in its execution . The year 1883 brought a great accession of power to the mandi, who had captured about 20,000 rifles, 19 guns and large stores of ammunition . On the Red Sea littoral Osman Digna, a slave dealer of Suakin, appointed amir of the Defeat of Eastern Sudan, raised the
See also:local tribes and invested Banker . Sinkat and Tokar . On the 16th of
See also:October and the 4th of November Egyptian reinforcements intended for the former place were destroyed, and on the 2nd of December a force of 700 men was annihilated near Tamanieb . On the 23rd of December General Valentine Baker, followed by about 2500 men, gendarmerie, blacks, Sudanese and
See also:Turks, with To British officers, arrived at Suakin to prepare for the
See also:relief of Sinkat and Tokar . The khedive appears to have been aware of the risks to be incurred, and in a private
See also:letter he informed the general that " I rely upon your prudence and ability not to engage the enemy except under the most favourable circumstances." The tragedy of Kashgil was repeated on the 4th of February 1884, when General Baker's heterogeneous force, on the march from Trinkitat to Tokar, was routed at El Teb by an inferior
See also:body of tribesmen . Of 3715 men, 2375, with 11 European officers, were killed . Suakin was now in danger, and on the 6th of February British bluejackets and marines were landed for the defence of the town . Two expeditions in the Sudan led by British officers having thus ended in disaster, and General Gordon with Lieutenant-Colonel J . D .
See also:Stewart having reached Khartum on Bash the 18th of February, the policy of British non-inter- expedition vention in regard to Sudan affairs could no longer be uirnder maintained . Public opinion in England was strongl ss Y tlratram: impressed by the fact that the Egyptian garrisons of battles of Tokar and Sinkat were perishing within striking dis- El Teb and tance of the Red Sea littoral . A British force about 4400 Tamanleb, strong, with 22 guns, made up of troops from Egypt and from units detained on passage from India, was rapidly concentrated at Suakin and placed under the orders of Major-General Sir G . Graham, with Major-Generals Sir R . Buller and J .
See also:Davis as brigadiers .
MILITARY OPERATIONS IN EGYPT AND THE SUDAN
MILITIA (Fr. milice, Ger. Miliz, from Lat. miles, s...
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