Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V02, Page 625 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: it!
MINOR ARMIES too. Dutch and Belgian Armies.—The military power of the " United Provinces " dates its rise from the middle of the 16th century, when, after a long and sanguinary struggle, they succeeded in emancipating themselves from the yoke of Spain; and in the following century it received considerable development in consequence of the wars they had to maintain against Louis XIV. In 1702 they had in their pay upwards of Ioo,000 men, including many English and Scottish regiments, besides 30,000 in the service of the Dutch East India Company. But the slaughter of Malplaquet deprived the republic of the flower of the army. Its part in the War of the Austrian Succession was far from being as creditable as its earlier deeds, a Prussian army overran Holland in 1787 almost without opposition, and at the beginning of the wars of the French Revolution the army had fallen to 36,000 men. In 1795 Holland was conquered by the French under Pichegru, and in the course of the changes which ensued the army was entirely reorganized, and under French direction bore its share in the great wars of the empire. With the fall of Napoleon and the reconstitution of the Nether-lands, the Dutch-Belgian army, formed of the troops of the now united countries, came Into existence. The army fought at Waterloo, but was not destined to a long career. for the revolution of 183o brought about the separation of Belgium. A Dutch garrison under Baron Chasse, a distinguished veteran of the Napoleonic wars, defended Antwerp against the French under Marshal Gerard, and the Netherlands have been engaged in many arduous colonial wars in the East Indies. The Belgian army similarly has contributed officers and non-commissioned officers to the service of the Congo Free State. lot. Swiss Army.—The inhabitants of Switzerland were always a hardy and independent race, but their high military reputation dates from the middle of the 15th century, when the comparatively ill-armed and untrained mountaineers signally defeated Charles the Bold of Burgundy and the flower of the chivalry of Europe in the battles of Granson, Morat and Nancy. The Swabian war, towards the end of that century, and the Milanese war, at the beginning of the following one, added to the fame of the Swiss infantry, and made it the model on which that arm was formed all over Europe. The wealthier countries vied with each other in hiring them as mercenaries, and the poor but warlike Swiss found the profession of arms a lucrative one. A brief account of the Swiss mercenaries will be found earlier in this article. Their fall was due in the end to their own indiscipline in the first place, and the rise of the Spanish standing army and its musketeers in the second. Yet it does not seem that the•military reputation of the Swiss was discredited, even by reverses such as Marignan. On the contrary, they continued all through the 17th and 18th centuries to furnish whole regiments for the service of other countries, notably of France, and individuals, like Jomini in a later age, followed the career of the soldier of fortune everywhere. The most notable incident in the later military history of the Swiss, the heroic faithfulness of Louis XVI.'s Swiss guard, is proverbial, and has been commemorated with just pride by their countrymen. The French Revolutionary armies overran Switzerland, as they did all the small neighbouring states, and during Napoleon's career she had to submit to his rule, and furnish her contingent to his armies. On the fall of Napoleon she regained her independence, and returned to her old trade of furnishing soldiers to the sovereigns and powers of Europe. Charles X. of France had at one time as many as 17,000 Swiss in his pay; Naples and Rome had each four regiments. The recruiting for these foreign services was openly acknowledged and encouraged by the government. The young Swiss engaged usually for a period of four or six years; they were formed in separate regiments, officered by countrymen of their own, and received a higher rate of pay than the national regiments; and at the close of their engagement returned with their earnings to settle down on their paternal holdings. A series of revolutions, however, expelled them from France and Italy, and recently the advance of liberal ideas, and the creation of great national armies based on the principle of personal service, has destroyed their occupation. Switzerland is now remarkable in a military sense as being the only country that maintains no standing army (see Militia). 102. The Swedish Army can look back with pride to the days of Gustavus Adolphus and of Charles XII. The contributions made by it to the military science of the 17th century have been noticed above. The triumphs of the small and highly disciplined army of Charles were often such as to recall the similar victories of the Greeks under Alexander. The then nebulous armies of Russia and Poland resembled indeed the forces of Darius in the 4th century B.C., but Peter the Great succeeded at last in producing a true army, and the resistance of the Swedes collapsed under the weight of the vastly superior numbers then brought against them. The Danish Army has a long and meritorious record of good service dating from the Thirty Years' War. 103. The existing Army of Portugal dates from the Peninsular War, when a considerable force of Portuguese, at one time exceeding 60,000 men, was organized under Marshal Beresford. Trained and partly officered by English officers, it proved itself not unworthy of its allies, and bore its full share in the series of campaigns and battles by which the French were ultimately expelled from Spain. At the peace the army numbered about 50,000 infantry and 5000 cavalry, formed on the English model, and all in the highest state of efficiency. This force was reduced in 1821, under the new constitutional government, to about one-half. 104. The Rumanian, Bulgarian and Servian armies are the youngest in Europe. The conduct of the Rumanians before Plevna in 1877 earned for them the respect of soldiers of all countries. Servia and Bulgaria came to war in 1885, and the Bulgarian soldiers, under the most adverse conditions, achieved splendid victories under the leadership of their own officers. In the crisis following the Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina (1908-9), it seemed likely that the Servian forces might play an unexpectedly active part in war even with a strong power. V. der Goltz, Das Volk in Waffen (1883, new ed., 1898, English translation, P. A. Ashworth, Nation in Arms, London, 1887, new ed., 1907, French, Nation' armee, Paris, 1889) ; Jahns, Heeresverfassung and Volkerleben (Berlin, 1885); Berndt, Die Zahl im Kriege (Vienna, 1895); F. N. Maude, Evolution of Modern Strategy (1903), Voluntary versus Compulsory Service (1897), and War and the World's Life (1907) ; Pierron, Methodes de guerre, vol. i.; Jahns, Geschichte der Krseggwissenschaften (an exhaustive bibliography, with critical notes) ; Troschke, Mil. Litteratur seit den Befreiungskrie;en (Berlin, 1870) ; T. A. Dodge, Great Captains (Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustavus, Napoleon) ; Bronsart v. Schellendorf (Eng. trans., War Office, 1905) Duties of the General Staff ; Fave, Histoire et tactique des trois armes (Liege, 185o) ; Maynert, Gesch. des Kriegswesens u. der Heeresverfassungen in Europa (Vienna, 1869) ; Jahns, Handbuch fur eine Geschichte des Kriegswesens v. der Urzeit bis zur Renaissance (Leipzig, 1880) ; de la Barre Duparc Histoire de l'art de la guerre avant l'usage de poudre (Paris, 1860) ; Rustow and Kochly, Geschichte des priechischen Kriegswesens (Aarau, 1852) ; Kochly and Rustow, Graechische Kriegsschriftsteller (Leipzig, 1855) ; Forster, in Hermes, xii. (1877) ; D. G. Hogarth, Philip and Alexander (London, 1897) ; Macdougall, Campaigns of Hannibal (London, 1858) ; Rustow, Heerwesen, &c., Julius Casars (Nordhausen, 1855) Organ der M. Wissensch. Verein of 1877 (Vienna) ; Polybius literature of the 17th and 18th centuries; supplement to M.W.B., 1883; the works of Xenophon, Aelian, Arrian, Vegetius, Polybius, Caesar, &c. (see Kochly and Rustow: a collection was made in the 15th century, under the title Veteres de re militari scriptores, 1487) ; Oman, A History of the Art of War: Middle Ages (London, 1898); Delpech, La Tactigue au XIII° siecle (Paris, 1886); Kohler, Die Entwickelung des Kriegswesens v. 11. Jahrhdt. bis zu den Hussitenkriegen (Breslau, 1886–1893) ; Ricotti, Storia delle Compagnie di Ventura (Turin, 1846) ; Steger, Gesch. Francesco Sforzas and d. ital. Condottieri (Leipzig, 1865) ; J. A. Symonds, The Renaissance in Italy and The Age of the Despots; A Brandenburg Mobilization of 1477 (German General Staff Monograph, No. 3) ; Palacky, "Kriegskunst der Bohmen," Zeitschrift bohmisch. Museums (Prague, 1828); George, Battles of English History (London, 1895) ; Biottot, Les Grands inspires devant la science: Jeanne d'Arc • (Paris, 1907) ; V. Ellger, Kriegswesen, &c., der Eidgenossen, i4., zg., 16. Jahrhdt. (x873); de la Chauvelays, Les Armees de Charles le Temeraire (Paris, 1879) ; Guillaume, Hist. des bandes d'ordonnance clans les Pays-Bas (Brussels, 1873) ; the works of Froissart, de Branthme, Machiavelli, Lienhard Fronsperger (Kriegsbuch, 1570), de la Noue, du Bellay, &c.; Villari, Life and Times of Machiavelli (English version) ; " Die frommen Landsknechte " (M. W. B., supplement, 188o) ; Kriegsbilder aus der Zeit der Landsknechte (Stuttgart, 1883) ; C. H. Firth, Cromwell's Army (London, 1902) ; Heilmann, Das Kriegswesen der Kaiserlichen and Schweden (Leipzig, 185o) ; C. Walton, History of the British Standing Army, 166o–z700 (London, 1894); E. A. Altnam in United Service Magazine, February 1907; Austrian official history of Prince Eugene's campaigns, &c.; de la Barre Duparcq, Hist. milit. de la Prusse avant 1756 (Paris, 1857); Marsigli, L'Etat militaire de temp. ottoman (1732); Prussian Staff History of the Silesian wars; C. von B(inder)-K(rieglstein), Geist and Stoff im Kriege (Vienna, 1895) ; E. d'Hauterive, L'Armie sous la Revolution (Paris, 1894); C. Rousset, Les Volontaires de 1791–1704; Michelet, Les Soldats de la Revolution (Paris, 1878); publications of the French general staff on the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars; H. Bonnal, Esprit de la guerre moderne (a series of studies in military history, 1805–1870); Paimblant du Rouil, La Division Durutte, les Refractaires, also supplement, M.W.B., 1890; " The French Conscription" (suppl. M.W.B., 1892); C. V. der Goltz, Von Rossbach bis Jena and Auerslddt (a new edition of the original Rossbach and Jena, Berlin, 1883) ; German General Staff Monograph, No. io; M.W.B. supplements of 1845, 1846, 1847, 1854, 1855,1856, 1857, 1858, 1862, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1887; v. Duncker, Preussen weihrend der franz. Okkupation (1872) ; Archives of Prussian war ministry, publications of 1892 and 1896; histories of the wars of 1866 and 187o; V. Chareton, Comme la Prusse a prepare sa revanche, 1806–1813 ; Reports of Col. Baron Stoffel, French' attache at Berlin (translation into English, War Office, London) ; Haxthausen, Les Forces militaires de la Prusse (Paris, 1853) ; de la Barre Duparcq, Etudes historiques ginerales et militaires sur la Prusse (Paris, 1854) Paixhans, Constitution militaire de la France (Paris, 1849); Duc d'Aumale, Les Institutions militaires de la France (Paris, 1867) ; C. v. Decker, fiber die Personlichkeit' des preussischen Soldaten (Berlin, 1842) ; War Office, Army Book of the British Empire (London, 1893) ; M. Jahns, Das franzosische Heer von der grossen Revolution bis zur Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1873) ; Baron Kaulbars, The German Army (in Russian) [St Petersburg, 189o] ; Die Schweiz im 10, Jahrhundert (Berne and Lausanne, 1899) ; Heimann, L'Armee allemande (Paris, 1895) ; R. de l'Homme de Courbiere, Grundzuge der deutschen Militarverwaltung (Berlin, 1882) ; G. F. R. Henderson, The Science of War (London, 1905) ; J. W. Fortescue, History of the British Army (London, 1899– ); R. de 1'Homme de Courbiere, Gesch. der brandenburg-preussisch. Heeresverfassung (Berlin, 1852); Krippentagel and Kustel, Die preuss. Armee von der dltesten Zeit bas zur Gegenwart (Berlin, 1883) ; Gansauge, Das brandenbg.-preuss. Kriegs wesen,144o,1640,174o(Berlin, 1839); A.v.Boguslawksi,Die Landwehr, 1813–1893 (1893); A. R. v. Sichart, Gesch. d. k. hannover. Armee (Hanover, 1866) ; v. Reitzenstein, Die k. hannover. Kavallerie, 1631–1866 (1892) ; Schlee, Zur Gesch. des hessischen Kriegswesens(Kassel, 1867) ; Leichtlen, Badens Kriegsverfassung (Carlsruhe, 1815); v. Stadlinger, Gesch. des wurttembergischen Kriegswesens (Stuttgart, 1858); Munich, Entwickelung der bayerischen Armee (Munich, 1864); official Gesch. d. k. bayer. Armee (Munich, 1901 onward); Wurdinger, Kriegsgeschichte v. Bayern (Munich, 1868); H. Meynert, Gesch. des osterr. Kriegswesens (Vienna, 1852), Kriegswesen Ungarns (Vienna, 1876) ; Anger, Gesch. der K.-K. Armee (Vienna, -1886) ; Beitrage zur Gesch. des osterr. Heerwesens, 1754–1814 (Vienna, 1872) ; R. v. Ottenfeld and Teuber, Die osterr. Armee, 1700–1867 (Vienna, 1895) ; v. Wrede, Gesch. d. K. u. K. Wehrmacht (Vienna, 1902) ; May de Rainmoter, Histoire militaire de la .Suisse (Lausanne, 1788) ; Cusachs y Barado, La Vida Militar en Espana (Barcelona, 1888) ; Guillaume, Hist. de l'infanterie wallonne sous la maison d'Espagne (Brussels, 1876) ; A. Vitu, Histoire civile de l'armee (Paris, 1868) ; A. Pascal, Hist. de l'arme'e (Paris, 1847) ; L. Jablonski, L'Armie francaise d travers les ages; C. Romagny, Hist. generate de l'armee nationale (Paris, 1893); E. Simond, Hist. mil. de la France; Susane, Hist. de l'infanterie, cavalerie, artillerie francaises (Paris, 1874); Pere Daniel, Hist. des milices francaises (1721) ; the official Historique des corps de troupe (Paris, 1900- -) ; Cahu, Le Soldat francais (Paris, 1876) ; J. Molard, Cent ans de l'armee franfaise, 1789–1880 (Paris, 1890) ; v. Stein, Lehre vom Heerwesen (Stuttgart, 1872) ; du Verger de S. Thomas, L'Italie et son armee, 1865 (Paris, 1866) ; " C. Martel," Military Italy (London, 1884) ; Sir R. Biddulph, Lord Cardwell at the War Office (London, 1904) ; Willoughby Verner, Military Life of the Duke of Cambridge (London, 1905); W. H. Daniel, The Military Forces of the Crown (London, 1902); War Office, Annual Report of the British Army; Broome, Rise and Progress of the Bengal Army (Calcutta, 185o); W. J. Wilson, Hist. o the Madras Army (London, 1882–188; C. M. Clode, Military Forces of the Crown; Blume, Die Grundlage unserer Wehrkraft (Berlin, 1899); Spenser Wilkinson, The Brain of an Army (London, 1890 and 1895); v. Olberg, Die franzosische Armee im Exerzirplatz and im Felde (Berlin, 1861) ; Die Heere and Flotte der Gegenwart, ed. Zepelin (Berlin, 1896) ; Molard, Puissances militaires de l'Europe (Paris, 1895) ; works of Montecucculi, Puysegur, Vauban, Feuquieres, Guibert, " Folard, Guichard, Joly de Maizeroy, Frederick the Great, Marshal Saxe, the prince de Ligne, Napoleon, Carnot, Scharnhorst, Clausewitz, Napoleon III., Moltke, Hamley, &c. The principal general military periodicals are:—English,Journal of the R. United Service Institution; United States, Journal of the Military Service Institution; French, Revue d'histoire and Revue des armies etrangeres (general staff) ; Rau and Lauth, L'Etat militaire des puissances (about every 4 years) ; Revue militaire generale, founded in 1907 by General Langlois; Aimanach du drapeau (a popular aide-memoire published annually) ; German, the Vierteljahrsheft of the general staff : Militdr-Wochenblatt (referred to above as M.W.B.—the supplements are of great value) ; von Lobell's Jahresberichte (annual detailed reports on the state, &c., of all armies —an English precis appears annually in the Journal of the R.U.S. Institution) ; Austrian, Streffleurs ost. Militar - Zeitschrift, with which was amalgamated (1907) the Organ d. militarwissenschaft. Vereins. The British War Office issues from time to time handbooks dealing with foreign armies, and, quarterly since April 1907, a critical review and bibliography of recent military literature in the principal languages, under the name of Recent Publications of Military Interest. (C. F. A.)
End of Article: MINOR
MINO DI GIOVANNI (1431-1484)
MINOR (Lat. for smaller, lesser)

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.