MINUSCULES .—Very few of these are of real importance . The most valuable are the following: I . TheFerrar
See also:Group; a group of eight
See also:MSS. known in
See also:Gregory's notation as 13, 69, 124, 346, 543, 788, 826, 828, or in von Soden's as a 368, S 505, a I211, a 226, e 257, e 1033, a 218, e 219, all which, except 69, in spite of the dating implied by von Soden's notation were probably written in the 12th century in
See also:Calabria . They have a most
See also:peculiar text of a mainly " Western " type, with some
See also:affinities to the Old
See also:Syriac and perhaps to the Diatessaron . They are known as the Ferrar group in memory of the
See also:scholar who first published their text, and are sometimes quoted as <h (which, however, properly is the
See also:symbol for Codex Beratinus of the Gospels), and sometimes as fam.13 . 2 .
See also:Cod. i and its
See also:Allies; a group of four MSS. known in Gregory's notation as I, 118, 131, 209, and in von Soden's as S 50, e 346, S 467 and S 457 . The dating implied by the latter notation is wrong, as I certainly belongs to the 12th, not to the loth century, and 118 is probably later than 209 . It is sometimes quoted as fam.' Fain.' and fam.13 probably have a
See also:common archetype in Mark which is also represented by codd . 28 (e 168), 565 (e 93, quoted by Tischendorf and others as 2P') and 700 (e 133, quoted by Scrivener and others as 604) . It seems to have had many points of agreement with the Old Syriac, but it is impossible to identify the locality to which it belonged . Other minuscules of importance are cod .
33 (S 48) at
See also:Paris, which often agrees with x BL and is the best minuscule representative of the " Neutral " and " Alexandrian " types of text in the gospels; cod . 137 (a 364) at Milan, a valuable ' Western" text of the Acts; a 78 (not in Gregory) in the Laura on Mt . Athos, a MS. of the Acts and epistles, with an early (mixed) type of text and . textual comments and notes from
See also:Origen . [The text of the Ferrar group was published after Ferrar's
See also:death by T . K .
See also:Abbott, A Collation of Four Important MSS. of the Gospels (
See also:Dublin, 1877) . It is best discussed by Rendel
See also:Harris's books, The Origin of the
See also:Leicester Codex (1887), The Origin of the Ferrar Group (1893), and The Ferrar Group (1900), all published at
See also:bridge; the text of fam.1 with a discussion of its textual relations is given in K . Lake's " Codex 1 and its Allies " (Texts and Studies, vii . 3, 1902) ; 565 was edited by J . Belsheim in
See also:Des Evang. des
See also:Marcus nach d. griech . Cod . Theodorae, &c .
See also:Christiania, 1885), many corrections to which are published in the appendix to H . S . Cronin's " Codex Purpureus," Texts and Studies, v . 4; 700 was published by H . C . Hoskier in his collation of cod . Evan . 604,
See also:London, 189o; a 78 is edited by E. von der Goltz in Texte and Untersuchungen, N.F. ii . 4.] (B) The Versions.—These are generally divided into (a)
See also:primary and (0) secondary; the former being those which represent
See also:translation made at an early
See also:period directly from Greek originals, and the latter being those which were made either from other versions or from
See also:late and unimportant Greek texts . (a) The primary versions are three—Latin, Syriac and
See also:Egyptian . Latin Versions.—1 . The Old Latin .
See also:letter to
See also:Damasus in A.D . 384, there was in the 4th century Old Latin. a
See also:great variety of text in the Latin version, " Tot enim exemplaria gene quot codices." This
See also:verdict is confirmed by examination of the MSS. which have pre-Hierorymian texts . It is customary to quote these by small letters of the Latin
See also:alphabet, but there is a regrettable
See also:absence of unanimity in the details of the notation . We can distinguish two
See also:main types,
See also:African and
See also:European . The African version is best represented in the gospels by cod . Bobiensis (k) of the 5th (some say 6th) century at
See also:Turin, and cod . Palatinus (e) of the 5th century at Vienna, both of which are imperfect, especially k, which, however, is far the
See also:superior in quality; in the Acts and Catholic epistles by cod . Floriacensis (f, h. or reg.) of the 6th century, a
See also:palimpsest which once belonged to the monks of
See also:Fleury, and by the so-called
See also:speculum (m) or collection of quotations formerly attributed to Augustine but probably connected with Spain . This scanty evidence is dated and localized as African by the quotations of Cyprian, of Augustine (not from the gospels), and of Primasius,
See also:bishop of
See also:Hadrumetum (d. c . 56o), from the Apocalypse . It is still a disputed point whether
See also:Tertullian's quotations may be regarded as evidence for a Latin version or as
See also:translations from the Greek, nor is it certain that this version is African in an exclusive sense; it was undoubtedly used in Africa and there is no evidence that it was known elsewhere originally, but on the other
See also:hand there is no
See also:proof that it was not . The European version is best represented in the gospels by cod .
Vercellensis (a) of the 5th century and cod . Veronensis (b) of the same date (the latter being the better), and by others of less importance . It is possible that a later variety of it is found in cod . Ivlonacensis (q) of the 7th century, and cod . Brixianus (f) of the 6th century, and this used to be called the
See also:Italic version, owing (as F . C . Burkitt has shown) to a misunderstanding of a remark of Augustine about the " Itala " which really refers to the Vulgate . In the Acts the European text is found in cod . Gigas (g or
See also:gig) of the 13th century at
See also:Stockholm, in a
See also:Perpignan MS. of the 12th century (p), published by S . Berger, and probably in cod . Laudianus (e) of the 7th century at
See also:Oxford . In the Catholic epistles it is found in cod .
Corbeiensis (f or ff) of the loth century at St
See also:Petersburg . In the Pauline epistles it is doubtful whether it is extant at all, though some have found it in the cod . Claromontanus (d) and its allies . In the Apocalypse it is found in cod . Gigas . The main problem in connexion with the
See also:history of the African and European versions is whether they were originally one or two . As they stand at
See also:present they are undoubtedly two, and can be distinguished both by the readings which they imply in the under-lying Greek, and by the renderings which they have adopted . But there is also a greater degree of similarity between them than can be explained by accidental coincidence, and there is thus an a priori case for the theory that one of the two is a revision of the other, or that there was an older version, now lost, which was the
See also:original of both . If one of the two is the original it is probably the African, for which there is older evidence, and of which the
See also:style both in
See also:reading and rendering seems purer . The chief
See also:argument against this is that it seems paradoxical to think of Africa rather than Rome as the home of the first Latin version; but it must be remembered that
See also:Christianity was originally Greek, and that the beginnings of a Latin
See also:church in Rome seem to be surprisingly late . [
See also:Editions of Old Latin MSS. are to be found in Old Latin Biblical Texts, i.-iv . (Oxford) ; in
See also:Migne's Patrologia
See also:Latina, tom. xii.; and their history is treated especially in F .
C . Burkitt's " Old Latin and the Itala " (Texts and Studies, iv . 3), as well as in all books dealing with Textual
See also:Criticism generally; other important books are Ronsch's Itala and Vulgata (1875) ;
See also:Corssen's Der cyprianische Text der Acta Apostolorum (Berlin, 1892);
See also:Wordsworth and Sanday on the " Corbey S .
See also:James " in Studia Biblica, i . (1885) ; the articleon the " Old Latin Version," in Hastings'
See also:Dictionary of the Bible . For the textual character and importance of these versions see the section Textual Criticism below.] 2 . The Vulgate or Hieronymian version . To remedy the
See also:fusion produced by the variations of the Latin text Pope Damasus asked Jerome to undertake a revision, and the latter Vulgate. published a new text of the New Testament in A.D . 384 and the
See also:rest of the Bible probably within two years . This version gradually became accepted as the standard text, and after a
See also:time was called the " Vulgata," the first to use this name as a title being, it is said, Roger
See also:Bacon . In the Old Testament Jerome made a new translation directly from the
See also:Hebrew, as the Old Latin was based on the LXX., but in the New Testament he revised the existing version . He did this fully and carefully in the gospels, but some-what superficially in the epistles .
He seems to have taken as the basis of his
See also:work the European version as it existed in his time, perhaps best represented by cod . Monacensis (q) of the 7th century, and by the quotations in
See also:Ambrosiaster, to which cod . Brixianus (f) of the 6th century would be added if it were not probable that it is merely a Vulgate MS. with intrusive elements . This type of text he revised with the help of Greek MSS. of a type which does not seem to correspond exactly to any now extant, but to resemble B more closely than any others . Of Jerome's revision we possess at least 800o MSS., of which the earliest may be divided (in the gospels at all events) into groups connected with various countries; the most important are the Northumbrian, Irish, Anglo-Irish and
See also:Spanish, but the first named might also be called the
See also:Italian, as it represents the text of
See also:good MSS. brought from Italy in the 7th century and copied in the great
See also:schools of Wearmouth and
See also:Jarrow . One of the most important, cod . Amiatinus, was copied in this way in the time of Ceolfrid, Benedict Biscop's successor, as a present for Pope Gregory in 716 . From these MSS. the original Hieronymian text may be reconstructed with considerable certainty . The later history of the version is complicated, but fairly well known . The text soon began to deteriorate by admixture with the Old Latin, as well from the
See also:process of transcription, and several attempts at a revision were made before the invention of printing . Of these the earliest of note were under-taken in France in the 9th century by
See also:Alcuin in 8o,, and almost at the same time by
See also:Theodulf, bishop of
See also:Orleans (787–821) . In the
See also:lath century a similar task was undertaken by
See also:Lanfranc, arch-bishop of Canterbury (1069–1089); in the 12th century by
See also:Stephen Harding (1109), third
See also:abbot of Citeaux, and by
See also:Cardinal Nicolaus Maniacoria (115o), whose corrected Bible is preserved in the public library at
See also:Dijon .
But these were not successful, and in the 13th century, instead of revisions, attempts were made to
See also:fix the text by providing correctoria, or lists of correct readings, which were the
See also:equivalent of critical editions; of these the chief are the Parisian, the Dominican (prepared under Hugo de S . Caro about 1240), and the Vatican . In the 15th century the history of the printed Vulgates begins . The earliest is the Mentz edition of 1452–1456 (the
See also:Mazarin or " 42-
See also:line;' Bible), but the earliest of a critical nature were those of Robert Etienne in 1528 and 1538–1540 . In 1546 the council of Trent decided that the Vulgate should be held as authentica, and in 1590 Pope
See also:Sixtus V. published a new and authoritative edition, which was, probably at the instigation of the
See also:Jesuits, recalled by Pope
See also:Clement VIII. in 1592 . In the same
See also:year, however, the same pope published another edition under the name of Sixtus . This is, according to the Bull of 1592, the authoritative edition, and has since then been accepted as such in the Latin Church . The critical edition by J . Wordsworth (bishop of
See also:Salisbury) and H . J .
See also:White probably restores the text almost to the state in which Jerome
See also:left it . [The text of the Vulgate may be studied in Wordsworth and White, Novum Testamentum Latine; Corssen, Epistula ad Galatas .
Its history is best given in S . Berger's Histoire de la Vulgate (Paris, 1893), in which a good bibliography is given on pp. xxxii.-xxxiv . The section inKenyon's handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament is particularly clear and full.] Syriac Versions.—, . The Old Syriac . This is only known to us at present through two MSS. of the gospels, containing the Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, or separated
See also:gospel, probably Old so called in distinction to
See also:Tatian's Diatessaron . These MSS. are known as the Curetonian and Sinaitic . The ' Syriac . Curetonian is a MS. of the 5th century . The fragments of it which we possess are MS . Brit .
See also:Mus. addit . 14,451, which was brought in 1842 from the monastery of St Mary in the Nitrian
See also:desert, and was edited by
See also:Cureton in 1858; and three leaves in Berlin (MS .
Orient . Quart . 528) which were bought in
See also:Egypt by H .
See also:Brugsch and published by A . Roediger in 1872 . It was given to the monastery of St Mary in the loth century, but its earlier history is unknown . It contained originally the four gospels in the
See also:order Mt., Mk., Jo., Lc . It is generally quoted as Syr°"r or Syr C . The Sinaitic was discovered in 1892 by Mrs
See also:Lewis and Mrs
See also:Gibson in the library of St Catherine's monastery on Mt .
See also:Sinai, where it still remains, and was published in 1894 by R . L . Bensly, J .
Rendel Harris and F . C . Burkitt, with an introduction by Mrs Lewis . It is a palimpsest MS., and the upperwriting (lives of
See also:saints), dated A.D . 778. is the work of "
See also:John, the anchorite of Beth Mari Qanon, a monastery of Ma'arrath Meven city in the
See also:district of
See also:Antioch." This
See also:town is between Antioch and
See also:Aleppo; though the monastery is otherwise unknown, it seems probable that it was the source of many of the MSS.. now at Sinai . The under writing seems to be a little earlier than that of the Curetonian; it contains the gospels in the order Mt., Mc., Lc., Jo. with a few lacunae . There is no evidence that this version was ever used in the Church services: the Diatessaron was always the normal Syriac text of the gospels until the introduction of the Peshito . But the quotations and references in Aphraates, Ephraem and the Acts of Judas
See also:Thomas show that it was known, even if not often used . It seems certain that the Old Syriac version also contained the Acts and Pauline epistles, as Aphraates and Ephraem agree in quoting a text which differs from the Peshito, but no MSS. containing this text are at present known to exist . - [The text of this version is best given, with a literal
See also:English translation, in F.C . Burkitt's Evangelion da Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904).] 2 . The Peshito (
See also:Simple) Version .
This is represented by many MSS. dating from the 5th century . It has been proved almost to F shito. demonstration by F . C . Burkitt that the portion contain-
See also:ing the gospels was made by
See also:Rabbula, bishop of Edessa (411), to take the place of the Diatessaron, and was based on the Greek text which was at that time in current use at Antioch . The Old Testament Peshifo is a much older and quite
See also:separate version . The exact limits of Rabbula's work are difficult to define . It seems probable that the Old Syriac version did not contain the Catholic epistles, and as these are found in the Peshito they were presumably added by Rabbula . But he never added 2
See also:Jude, 2 and 3 John, or the Apocalypse, and the text of these books, which is sometimes bound up with the Peshito, really is that of the Philoxenian or of the Harklean version . A comparison of the Peshito with quotations in Aphraates and Ephraem shows that Rabbula revised the text of the Acts and Pauline epistles, but in the absence of MSS. of the Old Syriac for these hooks, it is difficult to define the extent or character of his work . The Peshito is quoted as Syr P, Pesh., and Syrsch (because Tischendorf followed the edition of Schaaf) . [The best text of the Peshito is by G . H .
Gwilliam, Tetraevangelium Sanctum (Oxford, 1901); its relations to Rabbula's revision are shown by F . C . Burkitt, S .
See also:Ephraim's quotations from the Gospel " (Texts and Studies, vii . 2, Cambridge, 1901), which renders out of date F . H . Woods's article on the same subject in Studia Biblica, iii. pp . 105-138.] 3 . The Philoxenian Version . This is known, from a note extant in MSS. of the Harklean version, to have been made in A.D . 508 Philox- for Philoxenus, bishop of
See also:Hierapolis, by Polycarpus, a enJan. chorepiscopus . No MSS. of it have survived except in 2 Peter, Jude, 2 and 3 John and the Apocalypse .
The four former are found in some MSS. of the Peshito, as the Philoxenian was used tosupply these epistles which were not in the older version, and the Apocalypse was published in 1892 by Dr Gwynn from a MS. belonging to
See also:Crawford . [This version may be studied in Isaac H .
See also:Williams MS . (Baltimore, 1886) ; in the European editions of the Syriac Bible so far as the minor Catholic epistles are concerned; in Hermathena, vol. vii . (1890), pp . 281-314 (article by Gwynn) ; in Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie, xii. and xiii . (series of articles by Merx) ; in Gwynn's The Apocalypse of St John in a Syriac Version (Dublin, 1897).1 4 . The Harklean Version . This is a revision of the Philoxenian made in 616 by Thomas of Harkel (
See also:Heraclea), bishop of Hierapolis . Harklean . It was apparently an attempt to replace the
See also:free- dom of the Philoxenian by an extreme literalness . It represents in the main the text of the later Greek MSS., but it has important textual notes, and has adopted a
See also:system of asterisks and obeli from the Hexaplar LXX .
The source of these notes seems to have been old MSS. from the library of the Enaton nearAlexandria . The marginal readings are therefore valuable evidence for the Old Alexandrian text . This version is quoted as Syr H (and when necessary Syr Hc* or Syr H'°6) and by Tischendorf as Syrp (=
See also:Syra posterior) . It should be noted that when Tischendorf speaks of Syr°tr he means the Peshito and the Harklean . [There is no satisfactory critical edition of this version, nor have the Philoxenian and the Harklean been disentangled from each other . The printed text is that published in 1778-1803 by J . White at Oxford under the title Versio Philoxenia; for the marginal notes see esp .
See also:Westcott and Hort, Introduction, and for Acts, Pott's Abendlandische Text der Apostelgesch . (
See also:Leipzig, 1900).] 5 . The Palestinian or Jerusalem Version . This is a lectionary which was once thought to have come from the neighbourhood of
See also:Pales- Jerusalem, but has been shown by Burkitt to come from
See also:damn. that of Antioch . It was probably made in the 6th century in connexion with the attempts of Justinian to abolish Judaism .
Usually quoted as SyrPa and by Tischendorf as SyrL1Q1 [The text may be found in Lewis and Gibson's The Palestinian Syriac Lectionary (London, 1899), (Gospels), and in Studia Sinaitica,
See also:part vi . (Acts and Epistles) ; its origin is discussed best by F . C . Burkitt in the Journal of Theological Studies, vol. ii . (1901), pp . 174183.] 6 . The Karkaphensian . This is not a version, but a Syriac Massorah " of the New Testament, i.e. a collection of notes on the texts . Probably emanates from the monastery of the
See also:Skull . Little is known of it and it is unimportant . [See Gwilliam's " Materials for the Criticism of the Peshito N.T." in Studia Biblica, iii. esp. pp . 60-63.] 7 .
Tatian's Diatessaron . This is something more than a version . It was originally aharmony of the four gospels made by Tatian, the
See also:pupil of
See also:Martyr, towards the end of the 2nd cen- Titian's tury . In its original
See also:form it is no longer extant, but it „Diatesexists in Arabic (published by Ciasca) and Latin (cod. saron.” Fuldensis) translations, in both of which the text has unfortunately been almost entirely conformed to the ordinary type . These authorities are, therefore, only available for the reconstruction of the order of the selections from the gospels, not for textual criticism properly so called . For the latter purpose, however, we can use an Armenian translation of a commentary on the Diatessaron by Ephraem, and the quotations in Aphraates . The Diatessaron appears to have been the usual form in which the gospels were read until the beginning of the 5th century, when the Peshito was put in its place, and a systematic destruction of copies of the Diatessaron was undertaken . [The Diatessaron may be studied in Zahn, " Evangelienharmonie," article in the Protestantische Realencyklopadie (1898) ; J . H .
See also:Hill, The Earliest
See also:Life of Christ (
See also:Edinburgh, 1893); J . Rendel Harris, Fragments of the Commentary of Ephraim the Syrian (London, 1895) ; F . C .
Burkitt, Evangelion da Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904, vol. ii.).] Inter-relation of Syriac Versions.—The relations which subsist between the various Syriac versions remain to be discussed . There is little
See also:room for doubt that the Harklean was based on the Philoxenian, and the Philoxenian was based on the Peshito, the revision being made in each case by the help of the Greek MSS. of the
See also:day, but the relations which subsist between the Old Syriac, the Diatessaron and the Peshito are a more difficult question . There are now but few, if any, scholars who think that the Peshito is an entirely separate version, and the majority have been convinced by Burkitt and recognize (i) that the Peshito is based on a knowledge of the Old Syriac and the Diatessaron; (2) that it was made by Rabbula with the help of the contemporary Greek text of the Antiochene Church . But there is not yet the same degree of consensus as to the relations between the Old Syriac and the Diatessaron . Here it is necessary to distinguish between the original text of the Old Syriac and the existing MSS. of it—Cur. and Sin . There is no question that many passages in these show signs of Diatessaron influence, but this is only to be expected if we consider that from the end of the 2nd to the beginning of the 5th century the Diatessaron was the popular form of the gospels . A large
See also:discount has therefore to be made from the agreements between Diatessaron and Syr . S and C . Still, it is improbable that this will explain everything, and it is generally conceded that the original Diatessaron and the original Old Syriac were in some way connected . The connexion is variously explained, and efforts have been made to show on which side the dependence is to be found . 'The most probable theory is that of Burkitt . He thinks that the first Syriac translation was that of Tatian (c .
A.D . 175), who brought the Diatessaron from Rome and translated it into Syriac . There, in the last days of the 2nd century, when
See also:Serapion was bishop of Antioch (A.D . 190-203), a new start was made, and a translation of the " separated Gospels " (Evangelion da Mepharreshe) was made from the MSS. which was in use at Antioch . Probably the maker of this version was partly guided, especially in his choice of renderings, by his knowledge of the Diatessaron . Nevertheless, the Diatessaron remained the more popular and was only driven out by
See also:Theodoret and Rabbula in the 5th century, when it was replaced by the Peshito . If this theory be correct the Syriac versions represent three distinct Greek texts:—(I) the 2nd-century Greek text from Rome, used by Tatian ; (2) the 2nd-century Greek text from Antioch, used for the Old Syriac; (3) the 2nd-century Greek text from Antioch, used by Rabbula for the Peshito . [The best discussion of this point is in vol. ii. of Burkitt's Evangelion da Mepharreshe.] Egyptian Versions,—Much less is known at present about the history of the Egyptian versions . They are found in various dialects of Coptic, the mutual relations of which are not copti, yet certain, but the only ones which are preserved with any completeness are the Bohairic, or
See also:Lower Egyptian, and Sahidic, or Upper Egyptian, though it is certain that fragments of inter-mediate dialects such as
See also:Middle Egyptian, Fayumic, Akhmimic and Memphitic also exist . The Bohairic has been edited by G . Horner . It is well represented, as it became the official version of the Coptic Church; its history is unknown, but from
See also:internal evidence it seems to have been made from good Greek MSS. of the type of NBL, but the date to which this points depends largely on the general view taken of the history of the text of the New Testament .
It need not, but may, be earlier than the 4th century . The Sahidic is not so well preserved . G . Horner's researches tend to show that the Greek text on which it was based was different from that represented by the Bohairic, and probably was akin to the " Western " text, perhaps of the type used by Clement of Alexandria . Unfortunately none of the MSS. seems to be good, and at present it is impossible to make very definite use of the version . It is possible that this is the
See also:oldest Coptic version, and this view is supported by the general probabilities of the spread of Christianity in Egypt . which suggest that the native church and native literature had their strength at first chiefly in the
See also:southern parts of the
See also:country . It must be noted that Westcott and Hort called the Bohairic Memphitic, and the Sahidic Thebaic, and Tischendorf called the Bohairic Coptic . [See G . Horner's The Coptic Version of the New Testament in the
See also:Northern Dialect (Oxford); Scrivener's Introduction (ed .
See also:Miller), vol. ii. pp . 91-144; and especially an article on " Egyptian Versions " in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, vol. i. by
See also:Robinson.] (0) Among the secondary versions the only one of real importance is the Armenian .
The Armenian Version.—The early history of this version is obscure, but it seems probable that there were two translations Armenian. made in the 4th century: (1) by Mesrop with the help of Hrofanos (
See also:Rufinus?) based on a Greek text; (2) by Sahak, based on Syriac . After the council of Ephesus (A . D . 430) Mesrop and Sahak compared and revised their work with the help of MSS. from Constantinople . The general character of the version is late, but there are many places in which the Old Syriac basis can be recognized, and in the Acts and Epistles, where the Old Syriac is no longer extant, this is sometimes very valuable evidence . [See Scrivener (ed . Miller) vol. ii. pp . 148-154; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, article on " The Armenian Versions of the New Testament," by F . C . Conybeare; J . A . Robinson, " Euthaliana " (Texts and Studies, iii .
3), cap . 5; on the supposed connexion of Mark xvi . 8 if. with Aristion mentioned in this version, see esp . Swete's The Gospel according to St Mark (London, 1902), p. exi.] Other secondary versions which are sometimes quoted are the
See also:Gothic, Ethiopic, Georgian, Arabic, Anglo-Saxon, Frankish and Persic . None has any real critical importance; details are given in Gregory's Prolegomena and in Scrivener's Introduction . (C) Quotations in Patristic Writings.—The value of this source of evidence lies in the power which it gives us to date and localize texts . Its limitations are found in the inaccuracy of
See also:quotation of the writers, and often in the corrupt
See also:condition of their text . This latter point especially affects quotations which later
See also:scribes frequently forced into
See also:accord with the text they preferred . All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups:--(1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian,
See also:Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen,
See also:Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially
See also:Methodius of
See also:Lycia and
See also:Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1) . None of these groups bears witness to quite the same text, nor can all of them be identified with the texts found in existing MSS. or versions, but it may be said with some truth that group 2 used the European Latin version, group 3 the African Latin, and group 6 the Diatessaron in the gospels and the Old Syriac elsewhere, while group 1 has much in common with cod . Bezae, though the difference is here somewhat greater . In group 4 the situation is more complex; Clement used a text which has most in common with cod .
Bezae, but is clearly far from identical; Origen in the main has the text of B ; Athanasius a somewhat later variety of the same type, while Cyril has the so-called Alexandrian text found especially in L . Group 4 has a peculiar text which cannot be identified with any definite group of MSS . For further treatment of the importance of this evidence see the section Textual Criticism below . [There is as yet but little satisfactory literature on this subject . Outstanding work is P . M .
See also:Barnard's " Clement of Alexandria's Biblical Text " (Texts and Studies, v . 5), 1899;
See also:Harnack's " Eine Schrift Novatians," in Texte and Untersuchungen, xiii . 4; Souter's Ambrosiaster " in Texts and Studies, vii . 4; the Society of
See also:Theology's New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers; an article by Kostschau, " Bibelcitate bei Origenes," in the Zeitschrift f. wissenschaftliche Theologie (1900). pp . 321-378; and on the general subject especially Nestle's Einfiihrung in des griechische Neue Testament (
See also:Gottingen, 1909), pp . 159-167.] (K .
L.) 3 . Textual Criticism . The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus . His
See also:object, therefore, is to discover and remove the various corruptions which have crept into the text, by the usual methods of the textual critic—the collection of material, the grouping of MSS. and other authorities, the re-construction of archetypes, and the
See also:consideration of tran-scriptional and
See also:intrinsic probability . No
See also:book, however, presents such a complicated problem or such a
See also:wealth of material for the textual critic . In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testament began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics . But in practice it is general, and certainly convenient, to regard their work rather as material for criticism, and to begin the history of textual criticism with the earliest printed editions which sought to establish a standard Greek Text . It is, of course, impossible here to give an account of all these, but the following may fairly be regarded as the epoch-making books from the beginning to the present time . The Cornplutensian.—The first printed text of the Greek Testament is known as the Complutensian, because it was made under the direction of Cardinal Ximenes of Alcala (
See also:Lat . Complutum) . It was printed in 1514, and is thus the first printed text, but is not the first published, as it was not issued until 1522 . It is not known what MSS .
Ximenes used, but it isplain from the character of the text that they were not of great value . His text was reprinted in 1569 by Chr .
See also:Plantin at Antwerp .
See also:Erasmus.—The first published text was that of Erasmus . It was undertaken at the
See also:request of Joannes Froben (Frobenius), the printer of
See also:Basel, who had heard of Cardinal Ximenes' project and wished to forestall it . In this he was successful, as it was issued in 1516 . It was based chiefly on MSS. at Basel, of which the only really good one (cod . Evan . 1) was seldom followed . Erasmus issued new editions in 1519, 1522, 1527 and 1535, and the Aldine Greek Testament, printed at Venice in 1518, is a
See also:reproduction of the first edition . Stephanus.—Perhaps the most important of all early editions were those of Robert Etienne, or Stephanus, of Paris and afterwards of
See also:Geneva . His two first editions (1546, 1549) were based on Erasmus, the Complutensian, and collations of fifteen Greek MSS .
These are 16mo volumes, but the third and most important edition (1550) was a
See also:folio with a revised text . It is this edition which is usually referred to as the text of Stephanus . A
See also:fourth edition (in 16mo) published at Geneva in 1551 is remarkable for giving the division of the text into verses which has since been generally adopted . Beza.—Stephanus' work was continued by
See also:Theodore Beza, who published ten editions between 1565 and 1611 . They did not greatly differ from the 155o edition of Stephanus, but historically are important for the great part they played in spreading a know-ledge of the Greek text, and as supplying the text which the Elzevirs made the standard on the continent .
See also:Elzevir.—The two
See also:Bonaventura and Abraham Elzevir, published two editions at
See also:Leiden in 1624 and 1633, based chiefly on Beza's text . In the preface to the second edition the first is referred to as " textum . . . nunc ab
See also:omnibus receptum," and this is the origin of the name " Textus Receptus " (or T.R.) often given to the ordinary Greek Text . The Elzevir text has formed the basis of all non-critical editions on the continent, but in England the 1550 edition of Stephanus has been more generally followed . The importance of both the Stephanus and Elzevir editions is that they formed a definite text for the purposes of comparison, and so pre-pared the way for the next stage, in which scholars busied them-selves with the investigation and collation of other MSS . Walton's Polyglot.—The first to begin this work was
See also:Brian Walton, bishop of Chester, who published in 1657 in the 5th and 6th volumes of his " polyglot " Bible the text of Stephanus (1550) with the readings of fifteen new MSS. besides those employed by Stephanus himself . The collations were made for him by Archbishop Ussher .
JohnFell.—In 1675 John Fell, clean of Christ Church, published the Elzevir text with an enlarged apparatus, but even more important was the help and advice which he gave to the next important editor—Mill . John
See also:Mill, of
See also:College, Oxford, influenced by the advice, and supported by the
See also:purse of John Fell until the latter's death, published in 1707 a critical edition of the New Testament which has still a considerable value for the scholar . It gives the text of Stephanus (155o) with collations of 78 MSS., besides those of Stephanus, the readings of the Old Latin, so far as was then known, the Vulgate and Peshito, together with full and valuable prolegomena . Bentley.—A little later
See also:Richard Bentley conceived the idea that it would be possible to reconstruct the original text of the New Testament by a comparison of the earliest Greek and Latin
See also:sources; he began to collect material for this purpose, and issued a
See also:scheme entitled " Proposals for Printing " in 1720, but though he amassed many notes nothing was ever printed . W . Mace.—Fairness forbids us to omit the name of
See also:William (or Daniel?) Mace, a Presbyterian
See also:minister who published The New Testament in Greek and English, in 2 vols. in 1729, and really anticipated many of the verdicts of later critics . He was, however, not in a position to obtain recognition, and his work has been generally overlooked . J . J . Wetstein, one of Bentley's assistants, when living in Basel in 1730, published " Prolegomena " to the Text, and in 1751–1752 (at Amsterdam) the text of Stephanus with enlarged Prolegomena and apparatus criticus . His textual views were peculiar; he preferred to follow late MSS. on the ground that all the earlier copies had been contaminated by the Latin—almost
See also:reversing the teaching of Bentley . His edition is historically very important as it introduced the system of notation which, in the amplified form given to it by Gregory, is still in general use .
J . A .
See also:Ben gel, abbot of Alpirspach (a Lutheran community), published in 1734, at
See also:Tubingen, an edition of the New Testament which marks the beginning of a new era . For the first time an attempt was made to group the MSS., which were divided into African and
See also:Asiatic . The former group contained the few old MSS., the latter the many late MSS., and preference was given to the African . This innovation has been followed by almost all critics since
See also:Bengel's time, and it was
See also:developed by Griesbach . J . J . Griesbach, a pupil at Haile of J . S .
See also:Semler (who in 1764 reprinted Wetstein's Prolegomena, and in comments of his own took over and expounded Bengel's views), collated many MSS., and distinguished three main groups :—the Alexandrian or Origenian (which roughly corresponded to Bengel's African), found in ABCL, the Egyptian version and Origen; the Western, found in D and Latin authorities; and the Constantinopolitan (Bengel's Asiatic), found in the later MSS. and in
See also:Byzantine writers . His view was that the last group was the least valuable; but, except when internal evidence forbade (and he thought that it frequently did so), he followed the text found in any two groups against the third .
His first edition was published in 1774-1775, his second and improved edition in 1796 (vol. i.) and 18o6 . For the second edition he had the
See also:advantage not merely of his own collection of material (published chiefly-in his Symbolae Criticae, 1785–1793), but also of many collations by Birch, Matthaei and
See also:Adler, and an edition with new collations by F . K . Alter . J . L .
See also:Hug, Roman Catholic
See also:professor of theology at
See also:Freiburg, published (
See also:Stuttgart and Tubingen) his Einleitung in die Schriften des N . T . (1808); he is chiefly remarkable for the curious way in which he introduced many critical ideas which were not appreciated at the time but have since been revived . He accepted Griesbach's views as a whole, but starting from the known recensions of the LXX. he identified Griesbach's Alexandrian text with the work of
See also:Hesychius, and the Constantinopolitan with that of Lucian, while he described Griesbach's Western text as the KoLrii EK&ooLS . J . M .
A . Scholz, a pupil of Hug, inspected and partially collated nearly a thousand MSS. and assignednumbers to them which have since been generally adopted . His work is for this reason important, but is unfortunately inaccurate . K . Lachmann, the famous classical scholar, opened a new era in textual criticism in 1842-1850, in his N.T . Graece et Latine . In this great book a break was made for the first time with the traditional text and the evidence of the late MSS., and an attempt was made to reconstruct the text according to the oldest authorities . This was a great step forward, but unfortunately it was accompanied by a retrogression to the pre-Griesbachian (or rather pre-Bengelian) days; for Lachmann rejected the idea of grouping MSS., and having selected a small number of the oldest authorities undertook always to follow the reading of the majority . C . Tischendorf, the most famous follower of Lachmann, besides editions of many MSS. and the collation of many more, published between 1841 and 1869–1872 eight editions of the New Testament with full critical notes . The eighth edition, which for the first time contained the readings of tt, has not yet been equalled, and together with the Prolegomena, supplied by C . R .
Gregory after Tischendorf's death, is the standard critical edition which is used by scholars all over the
See also:world . At the same time it must be admitted that it gradually became antiquated . Fresh collations of MSS., and especially fresh discoveries and investigations into the text of the versions and Fathers, have given much new information which entirely changed the character of the evidence for many readings, and rendered a new edition necessary (see SoDEN, H . VON) . As a
See also:collector and publisher of evidence Tischendorf was marvellous, but as an editor of the text he added little to the principles of Lachmann, and like Lachmann does not seem to have appreciated the value of the Griesbachian system of grouping MSS . S . P . Tregelles, an English scholar, like Tischendorf, spent almost his whole life in the collection of material, and published a critical edition, based on the earliest authorities, at intervals between 1857 and 1872 . His work was eclipsed by Tischendorf's, and his critical principles were almost the same as the German scholar's, so that his work has obtained less recognition than would otherwise have been the case . Tischendorf and Tregelles finished the work which Lachmann began . They finally exploded the pretensions of the Textus Receptus to be the original text; but neither of them gave any explanation of the relations of the later text to the earlier, nor developed Griesbach's system of dealing with groups of MSS. rather than with single copies . B .
F . Westcott and F . J . A . Hort (commonly quoted as WH), the Cambridge scholars, supplied the deficiencies of Lachmann, and without giving up the advantages of his system, and its development by Tischendorf, brought back the study of the text of the New Testament to the methods of Griesbach . Their great work was published in 1881 under the title of The New Testament in the Original Greek . Their view of the history of the text is that a comparison of the evidence shows that, while we can distinguish more than one type of text, the most clearly discernible of all the varieties is first recognizable in the quotations of
See also:Chrysostom, and is preserved in almost all the later MSS . Though found in so great a number of witnesses, this type of text is shown not to be the earliest or best by the evidence of all the oldest MS. versions and Fathers, as well as by internal evidence . Moreover, a comparison with the earlier sources of evidence shows that it was built up out of previously existing texts . This is proved by the " conflations " which are found in it . For instance in Mark ix . 38 the later MSS. read OS OUK QKOAOUOEL i//LLV, Kal EKCOXbea/sss abTOV 8TL OUK ILKOAOV0E1 i)t IV, a clumsy
See also:sentence which is clearly made up out of two earlier readings, Kal EKLcXbo/LEV aUTOV OTL OUK i/KOAOMEL i//LLV, found in K BCL boh., and Os OUK G.KOAOVOEL /LEB' i//LWV, Kai .
EKLilXUO/.LEV aUTOV, found in DX fam 1, fam.13 28 latt . It is impossible, in
See also:face of the fact that the evidence of the oldest witnesses of all sorts is constantly opposed to the longer readings, to doubt that WH were right in arguing that these phenomena prove that the later text was made up by a process of revision and conflation of the earlier forms . Influenced by the use of the later text by Chrysostom, WH called it the Syrian or Antiochene text, and refer to the revision which produced it as the Syrian revision . They suggested that it might perhaps be attributed to Lucian, who is known to have made a revision of the text of the LXX . The earlier texts which were used for the Syrian revision may, according to WH, be divided into three:—(1) the Western text, used especially by Latin writers, and found also in cod . Bezae and in Syr C; (2) the Alexandrine text used by Cyril of Alexandria and found especially in CL „33: and (3) a text which differs from both the above mentioned and is therefore called by WH the Neutral text, found especially in tit B and the quotations of Origen . Of these three types WH thought that the Neutral was decidedly the best . The Alexandrian was clearly a literary recension of it, and WH strove to show that the Western was merely due to the non-literary efforts of scribes in other parts to improve the narrative . The only exception which they allowed to this general
See also:rule was in the case of certain passages, especially in the last chapters of Luke, where the " Western " authorities omit words which are found in the Neutral and Alexandrian texts . Their reason was that omission seems to be contrary to the
See also:genius of the Western text, and that it is therefore probable that these passages represent interpolations made in the text on the Neutral side after the division between it and the Western . They might be called Neutral interpolations, but WH preferred the rather clumsy expression " Western non-interpolations.” Having thus decided that the Neutral text was almost always right, it only remained for WH to choose between the various authorities which preserved this type . They decided that the two best authorities were to and B, and that when these differed the reading of B, except when obviously an accidental blunder, was probably right .
The great importance of this work of WH lies in the facts that it not merely condemns but explains the late Antiochene text, and that it attempts to consider in an
See also:objective manner all the existing evidence and to explain it historically and genealogically . Opinions differ as to the correctness of the results reached by WH, but there is scarcely room for doubt that as an example of method their work is quite unrivalled at present and is the necessary starting-point for all
See also:modern investigations . Since Westcott and Hort no work of the same importance appeared up till 1909 . Various useful texts have been issued, among which those of Nestle (Novum Testamentum Graece, Stuttgart, 1904), based on a comparison of the texts of Tischendorf, WH and
See also:Weiss, and of Baljon (Novum Testamentum Graeae,
See also:Groningen, 1898), are the best . The only serious attempt as yet published to
See also:print a
See also:complete text independently of other editors is that of B . Weiss (Das Neue Testament, Leipzig, 1894–1900), but the method followed in this is so subjective and pays so little
See also:attention to the evidence of the versions that it is not likely to be permanently important . The text reached is not widely different from that of WH . The new work in course of preparation by von Soden at Berlin, which promises to take the place of Tischendorf's edition, must certainly do this so far as Greek MSS. are concerned, for the whole
See also:field has been reinvestigated by a
See also:band of assistants who have grouped and collated specimens of all known MSS . Besides these
See also:works the chief efforts of textual critics since WH have been directed towards the elucidation of minor problems, and the promulgation of certain hypotheses to explain the characteristics either of individual MSS. or of groups of MSS . Among these the works of Sanday, Corssen, Wordsworth, White, Burkitt and Harris on the history of the Old Latin and Vulgate, and especially the work of Burkitt on the Old Syriac, have given most
See also:light on the subject . These lines of
See also:research have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus . Other noteworthy and interesting, though in the end probably less important, work has been done by
See also:Blass, Bousset, Schmidtke, Rendel Harris and
See also:Chase .
The outline of the chief works is as follows: F . Blass.—In his various books on the Acts and third gospel Blass has propounded a new theory as to the " Western " text . He was struck by the fact that neither the Western can be shown to be derived from the Neutral, nor the Neutral from the Western . He therefore conceived the idea that perhaps both texts were
See also:Lucan, and represented two recensions by the original writer, and he re-constructed the history as follows . Luke wrote the first edition of the Gospel for
See also:Theophilus from Caesarea; this is the Neutral text of the Gospel . Afterwards he went to Rome and there revised the text of the Gospel and reissued it for the Church in that city; this is the Western (or, as Blass calls it, Roman) text of the Gospel . At the same time he continued his narrative for the benefit of the Roman Church, and published the Western text of the Acts . Finally he revised the Acts and sent a copy to Theophilus; this is the Neutral text of the Acts . This ingenious theory met with consider-able approval when it was first advanced, but it has gradually been seen that " Western " text does not possess the unity which Blass's theory requires it to have . Still, Blass's textual notes are very important, and there is a mass of material in his books . Bousset and Schmidtke.—These two scholars have done much work in trying to identify smaller groups of MSS. with
See also:local texts . Bousset has argued that the readings in the Pauline epistles found in Ke H and a few minuscules represent the text used by Pamphilus, and on the whole this view seems to be highly probable .
Another group which Bousset has tried to identify is that headed by B, which he connects with the recension of Hesychius, but this theory, though widely accepted inGermany, does not seem to rest on a very solid basis . To some extent influenced by and using Bousset's results, Schmidtke has tried to show that certain small lines in the margin of B point to a connexion between that MS. and a Gospel harmony, which, by assuming that the text of B is Hesychian, he identifies with that of Ammonius . If true, this is exceedingly important . Nestle, however, and other scholars think that the lines in B are merely indications of a division of the text into sense-paragraphs and have nothing to do with any harmony . Bendel Harris and Chase.—Two investigations, which attracted much
See also:notice when they were published, tried to explain the phenomena of the Western text as due to retranslation from early versions into Greek . Rendel Harris argued for the influence of Latin, and Chase for that of Syriac . While both threw valuable light on obscure points, it seems probable that they exaggerated the extent to which retranslation can be traced; that they ranked Codex Bezae some-what too highly as the best witness to the " Western " text ; and that some of their work was rendered defective by their failure to recognize quite clearly that the " Western " text is not a unity . At the same time, however little of Rendel Harris's results may ultimately be accepted by the textual critics of the future, his work will always remain historically of the first importance as having done more than anything else to stimulate thought and open new lipes of research in textual criticism in the last
See also:decade of the 19th century . The time has not yet come when any final attempt can be made to bring all these separate studies together and estimate exactly how far they necessitate serious modification of the views of Westcott and Hort; but a tentative and provisional
See also:judgment would probably have to be on somewhat the following lines . The work of WH may be summed up into two theorems:—(1) The text pre-served in the later MSS. is not
See also:primitive, but built up out of earlier texts; . (2) these earlier texts may be classified as Western, Alexandrian and Neutral, of which the Neutral is the primitive form . The former of these theorems has been generally accepted and may be taken as proved, but the second has been closely criticized and probably must be modified .
It has been approached from two sides, according as critics have considered the Western or the Neutral and Alexandrian texts . The Western Text.—This was regarded by WH as a definite text, found in D, the Old Latin and the Old Syriac; and it is an essential part of their theory that in the main these three witnesses represent one text . On the evidence which they had WH were undoubtedly justified, but discoveries and investigation have gone far to make it impossible to hold this view any longer . We now know more about the Old Latin, and, thanks to Mrs Lewis'
See also:discovery, much more about the Old Syriac . The result is that the authorities on which WH relied for their Western text are seen to bear witness to two texts, not to one . The Old Latin, if we take the African form as the oldest, as compared with the Neutral text has a series of interpolations and a series of omissions . The Old Syriac, if we take the Sinaitic MS. as the purest form, compared in the same way, has a similar
See also:double series of interpolations and omissions, but neither the omissions nor the interpolations are the same in the Old Latin as in the Old Syriac . Such a line of research suggests that instead of being able, as WH thought, to set the Western against the Neutral text (the Alexandrian being merely a development of the latter), we must consider the problem as the comparison of at least three texts, a Western (geographically), an Eastern and the Neutral . This makes the
See also:matter much more difficult; and an answer is demanded to the problem afforded by the agreement of two of these texts against the third . The obvious solution would be to say that where two agree their reading is probably correct, but the followers of WH maintain that the agreement of the Western and Eastern is often an agreement in error . It is difficult to see how texts, geographically so wide apart as the Old Latin and Old Syriac would seem to be, are likely to agree in error, but it is certainlytrue that some readings found in both texts seem to have little probability . Sanday, followed by Chase and a few other English scholars, has suggested that the Old Latin may have been made originally in Antioch, but this paradoxical view has met with little support .
A more probable
See also:suggestion is Burkitt's, who thinks that many readings in our present Old Syriac MSS. are due to the Diatessaron, which was a geographically Western text . It may be that this suggestion will solve the difficulty, but at present it is impossible to say . The Neutral and Alexandrian Texts.—WH made it plain that the Alexandrian text was a literary development of the Neutral, but they always maintained that the latter text was not confined to, though chiefly used in Alexandria . More
See also:recent investigations have confirmed their view as to the relation of the Alexandrian to the Neutral text, but have thrown doubt on the age and wide-spread use of the latter . Whatever view be taken of the provenance of Codex Vaticanus it is plain that its archetype had the Pauline epistles in a peculiar order which is only found in Egypt, and so far no one has been able to discover any non-Alexandrian writer who used the Neutral text . Moreover, Barnard's researches into the Biblical text of Clement of Alexandria show that there is reason to doubt whether even in Alexandria the Neutral text was used in the earliest times . We have no evidence earlier than Clement, and the text of the New Testament which he quotes has more in common with the Old Latin or ` geographically Western " text than with the Neutral, though it definitely agrees with no known type preserved in MSS. or versions . This discovery has put the Neutral text in a different light . It would seem as though we could roughly
See also:divide the history of the text in Alexandria into three periods . The earliest is that which is represented by the quotations in Clement, and must have been in use in Alexandria at the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century . It is unfortunately not found in any extant MS . The second stage is that found in the quotations of Origen which is fairly well represented in K B, though Origen seems at times to have used MSS. of the earlier type .
The third stage is WH's Alexandrian, found in the quotations of Cyril of Alexandria and a few MSS . (esp . CL „A 4') . It is clearly a re-vision of the second stage, as WH saw, but we can now add that it was not merely a literary revision but was influenced by the tendency to revive readings which are found in the first stage but rejected in the second . It thus seems probable that WH's theory must be modified, both as regards the " Western " text, which is seen not to be a single text at all, and as regards the " Neutral " text, which seems to be nothing more than the second stage of the development of the text in Alexandria . But the importance of these modifications is something more than the doubt which they have thrown on WI-I's theories: they have really shifted the centre of gravity of the textual problem . Formerly the Greek
See also:uncials, which go back to the 4th century, were regarded as the most important source of evidence, and were supposed to have the decisive
See also:vote; but now it is becoming plain that still more important, though unfortunately much less complete, is the evidence of the versions and of quotations by early writers . Both of these point to the existence in the 3rd and even 2nd century of types of text which differ in very many points from anything preserved in Greek MSS . Yet there is no doubt that both of them ultimately represent Greek MSS. which are no longer extant . The question, therefore, is whether we ought not to
See also:base our text on the versions and ecclesiastical quotations rather than on the extant Greek MSS . Two positions are possible: (I) We may defend a text based on the best existing Greek MSS. by the argument that these represent the text which was approved by competent
See also:judges in the 4th century, and would be found to exist in earlier MSS. if. we possessed them . The weak point of this argument is the lack of evidence in support of the second part .
The only possible sources of evidence, apart from the discovery of fresh MSS., are the versions, and they do not point to existence in the 2nd or 3rd century of texts agreeing with the great uncials . It is also possible to argue, as WH did, on the same side, that the purest form of text was pre-served in Alexandria, from which the oldest uncials are directly or indirectly derived, but this argument has been weakened if not finally disposed of by the evidence of Clement of Alexandria . It is, of course, conceivable that Clement merely used
See also:bad MSS., and that there were other MSS. which he might have used, agreein with the great uncials, but there is no evidence for this view . (2 If we reject this position we must accept the evidence as giving the great uncials much the same secondary importance as Westcott and Horf gave to the later MSS., and make an attempt to reconstruct a text on the basis of versions and Fathers . The adoption of this view sets textual critics a peculiarly difficult task . The first stage in their work must be the
See also:establishment of the earliest form of each version, and the collection and examination of the quotations in all the early writers . This has not yet been done, but enough has been accomplished to point to the probability that the result will be the establishment of at least three main types of texts, represented by the Old Syriac, the Old Latin and Clement's quotations, while it is doubtful how far Tatian's Diatessaron, the quotations in Justin and a few other sources may be used to reconstruct the type of Greek text used in Rome in the 2nd century when Rome was still primarily a Greek church . The second stage must be the comparison of these results and the. attempt to reconstruct from them a Greek text from which they all arose . 4 . Higher Criticism . The New Testament is a series of early Christian writings which the Church came to regard as canonical, i.e. they were placed in the same category as the Old Testament, the writings which the Christian had inherited from the Jewish Church . Just as the
See also:ancient Scriptures were considered to be the Word of
See also:God, so that what they contained was necessarily the true and inspired
See also:doctrine, so also the New Testament was available for proving the Church's
See also:dogma .
The assured canonicity of the whole New Testament resulted in its use by the
See also:medieval theologians, the Schoolmen, as a storehouse of proof-texts . Thus the New Testament seemed to exist in order to prove the Church's conclusions, not to tell its own
See also:tale . The Nouum Instrumentum published by Erasmus in 1516 (see above, Textual Criticism) contained more than the mere Erasmus . Editio Princeps of the Greek text: Erasmus accom- panied it with a Latin rendering of his own, in which he aimed at giving the meaning of the Greek without blindly following the conventional phraseology of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only form in which the New Testament had been current in western
See also:Europe for centuries . This rendering of Erasmus, together with his annotations and prefaces to the several books, make his editions the first great
See also:monument of modern Biblical study . Medieval Bibles contain
See also:short prefaces by St Jerome and others . The stereotyped information supplied in these prefaces was
See also:drawn from various sources: Erasmus distinguishes, e.g., between the
See also:direct statements in the Acts and the inferences which may be drawn from incidental allusions in the Pauline Epistles, or from the statements of ancient non-canonical writers.' This discrimination of sources is the starting-point of scientific criticism . The early champions of Church reform in the beginning of the 16th century found in the Bible their most trustworthy The weapon . The picture of
See also:Apostolical Christianity Reformers. found in the New Testament offered indeed a glaring contrast to the papal system of the later middle ages . Moreover, some of the " authorities " used by the Schoolmen had been discovered by the New Learning of the
See also:Renaissance to be no authorities at all, such as the writings falsely attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite . When, therefore, the
See also:breach came, and the struggle between reformers and conservatives within the undivided Church was transformed into a struggle between Protestants and Romanists, it was inevitable that the authority which in the previous centuries had been ascribed to the Church ' E.g. from the preface to the Acts: " Dionysius, bishop of the
See also:Corinthians, a very ancient writer, quoted by Eusebius, writes that Peter and Paul obtained the
See also:crown of martyrdom by the command of
See also:Nero on the same day." And again: " Some industrious critics have added (to the narrative of Acts) that Paul was acquitted at his first trial by Nero . . .
. This conjecture they make from the 2nd Ep. toTimothy...."should be transferred by the Reformed Churches to the Bible . " The Bible, the Bible alone, is the religion of Protestants " 2 did really
See also:express the watchword of the
See also:anti-Romanist parties, especially towards the close of the acuter struggle . At the beginning of the
See also:movement the New Testament itself had been freely criticized .
See also:Luther, like his countrymen of to-day, judged the contents of the New Testament by the light of his leading convictions; and in his German translation, which occupies the same place in Germany as the Authorized Version of 1611 does in English-speaking lands, he even placed four of the books (
See also:Hebrews, James, Jude, Apocalypse) in an appendix at the end, with prefaces explanatory of this drastic
See also:act of criticism . But though we may trace a real affiliation between the principles of Luther and modern German critical study—notably in the doctrines of the Gospel within the Gospel and of the residual Essence of Christianity—Luther's discriminations were in the 17th century ignored in practice . From cover to cover the whole New Testament was regarded at the beginning of the 18th century by almost all Protestants as the infallible
See also:revelation of the true religion . The doctrines of Christianity, and in many communities the customs of the Church, were held to be inferences from the inspired text of the Scriptures . The first serious
See also:blow to this view came from the study of textual criticism . The editions of Mill (1707) and of Wetstein (1751) proved once for all that variations in the text, many of them serious, had existed from the earliest times . It was evident, therefore, that the true authority of the New Testament could not be that of a legal
See also:code which is definite in all its parts . More important still was the growing perception of the general uniformity of nature, which had forced itself with increasing insistence upon men's minds as the study of the natural sciences progressed in the 17th and 18th centuries . The miracles of the New Testament, which had formerly been received as bulwarks of Christianity, now appeared as difficulties needing explanation .
Furthermore, the prevailing philosophies of the 18th century tended to demand that a real divine revelation should be one which expressed itself in a form convincing to the reason of the
See also:average plain man, whatever his predispositions might be; it was obvious that the New Testament did not wholly conform to this standard . But if the New Testament be not itself the direct divine revelation in the sense of the 18th century, the question still remains, how we are to picture the true history of the rise of Christianity, and what its true meaning A . Rfistsational- . This is the question which has occupied the theologians of the 19th and loth centuries . Perhaps the most significant event from which to date the modern period is the publication by Lessing in 1774–1777 of the "Wolfenbi ttel Fragments," i.e . H . S .
See also:posthumous attack on Christianity, a work which showed that the mere study of the New Testament is not enough to compel belief in an unwilling reader . Lessing's publication also helped to demonstrate the weakness of the older rationalist position, a position which really belongs to the 18th century, though its best-remembered exponent, Dr H . E . G . Paulus, only died in 1851 .
The characteristic of the rationalists was the attempt to explain away the New Testament miracles as coincidences or naturally occurring events, while at the same time they held as tenaciously as possible to the accuracy of the letter of the New Testament narratives . The opposite
See also:swing of the pendulum appears in D . F . Strauss: in his Strauss . Leben Jesu (1833) he abandons the shifts and ex- pedients by which the rationalists eliminated the miraculous from the Gospel stories, but he abandons also their historical character . According to Strauss the fulfilments of prophecy in the New Testament arise from the Christians' belief that the Christian
See also:Messiah must have fulfilled the predictions of the prophets, and the miracles of Jesus in the New Testament either originate in the same way or are purely mythical embodiments of Christian doctrines . 2 The phrase is
See also:Chillingworth's (1637), who may be described as a Broad High-churchman . Influence of textual criticism . N.T . CHRONOLOGY] The main objection to this presentation, as also to that of the rationalists, is that it is very largely based not upon the Tiiblagen historical data, but upon a pre-determined theory. school . Granted the philosophical basis, the criticism practised upon the New Testament by Paulus and Strauss follows almost automatically . Herein lies the permanent importance of the work of
See also:Ferdinand Christian Baur, professor of theology at Tubingen from 1826 to 1860 .
See also:stone of his reconstruction of early Christian history is derived not so much from philosophical principles as from a fresh study of the documents . Starting from
See also:Galatians and 1 Corinthians, which are obviously the genuine letters of a Christian
See also:leader called Paul to his converts, Baur accepted 2 Corinthians and Romans as the work of the same hand . From the study of these contemporary and genuine documents, he elaborated the theory that the earliest Christianity, the Christianity of Jesus and the original apostles, was wholly Judaistic in
See also:tone and practice . Paul, converted to belief in Jesus as Messiah after the Crucifixion, was the first to perceive that for Christians Judaism had ceased to be binding . Between him and the older apostles arose a long and fierce controversy, which was healed only when at last his disciples and the Judaizing disciples of the apostles coalesced into the Catholic Church . This only occurred, according to Baur, early in the 2nd century, when the strife was finally allayed and forgotten . The various documents which make up the New Testament were to be dated mainly by their relation to the great dispute . The Apocalypse was a genuine work of John the son of Zebedee, one of the leaders of the Judaistic party, but most of the books were late, at least in their present form . The Acts, Baur thought, were written about A.D . 140, after the memory of the great controversy had almost passed away . All four Gospels also were to be placed in the 2nd century, though that according to
See also:Matthew retained many features unaltered from the Judaistic original upon which it was based . The Tubingen school founded by Baur dominated the theological criticism of the New Testament during a great part of the 19th century and it still finds some support .
The Later main position was not so much erroneous as one-sided . views . The
See also:quarrel between St Paul and his opponents did not last so long as Baur supposed, and the great catastrophe of the fall of Jerusalem effectually reduced thorough-going Judaistic Christianity into insignificance from A.D . 70 onwards . Moreover, St Paul's converts do not seem to have adopted consistent " Paulinism " as a religious philosophy . St Paul was an emancipated
See also:Jew, but his converts were mostly Greeks, and the permanent significance of St Paul's theories of
See also:law and faith only began to be perceived after his letters had been collected together and had been received into the Church's
See also:canon . All these considerations tend to make the late
See also:dates proposed by Baur for the greater part of the New Testament books unnecessary; the latest investigators, notably Professor A . Harnack of Berlin, accept dates that are not far removed from the ancient Christian literary tradition . Literary criticism of the Gospels points to a similar conclusion . A
See also:hundred years' study of the synoptic problem, i.e. the causes which make the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark and Luke at once so much alike and so different, has resulted in the demonstration of the priority of Mark, which " was known to Matthew and Luke in the same state and with the same contents as we have it now."' This Gospel may be dated a very few years after A.D . 70 . Luke and Matthew appear to have been published between 8o and 100 2 Besides the Gospel of Mark these Evangelists made use of another document, now lost, which contained many sayings of Jesus and some narratives not found in Mark .
This document is by many scholars identified with the "
See also:Logia," mentioned by
See also:Papias (Eusebius, Ch . Hist. iii . 39) as being the work of Matthew the Apostle, but the
See also:identification is not certain . 1 J .
See also:Wellhausen, Einl. in die drei ersten Evangelien (1905), p . 57 . 2 If Luke used
See also:Josephus, as F . C . Burkitt and others believe, the later date must be taken; otherwise the earlier date is more probable, as in any case it must fall within the lifetime of a
See also:companion of St Paul.887 The Johannine writings, i.e. the Fourth Gospel and the three Epistles of John, represent the view of Christ and Christianity taken by a Christian teacher, who seems to have lived and written in
See also:Asia Minor at the close of the 1st century A.D . The value of the Fourth Gospel as a narrative of events is a matter of dispute, but the view of the
See also:personality of Jesus Christ set forth in it is unquestionably that which the Church has accepted . The discoveries of papyri in Upper Egypt during recent years, containing original letters written by persons of various classes and in some cases contemporary with the Epistles of the New Testament, have immensely increased our knowledge of the Greek of the period, and have cleared up not a few difficulties of language and expression . More important still is the application of Semitic study to elucidate the Gospels .
It is idle indeed to rewrite the Gospel narratives in the Aramaic dialect spoken by Christ and the apostles, but the main watchwords of the Gospel theology—phrases like " the
See also:Kingdom of God," " the World to come," the "
See also:Father in
See also:Heaven," " the Son of Man,"—can be more or less surely reconstructed from Jewish writings, and their meaning gauged apart from the special significance which they received in Christian hands . This line of investigation has been specially followed by Professor G . Dalman in his Worte Jesu . The study of the Semitic elements in early Christianity is less advanced than the study of the Greek elements, so that it is doubtless from the Semitic side that further progress in the criticism of the New Testament may be expected . 5 . New Testament Chronology . The subject of the chronology of the New Testament falls naturally into two distinct sections—the chronology of the Gospels, that is, of the life of Christ; and the chronology of the_Acts, that is, of the apostolic age . The Chronology of the Gospels . The data group themselves
See also:round three definite points and the intervals between them: the definite points are the Nativity, the
See also:Baptism and the Crucifixion; the age of Christ at the time of the Baptism connects the first two points, and the duration of his public
See also:ministry connects the second and third . The results obtained under the different heads serve mutually to test, and thereby to correct or confirm, one another . 1 . The date of the Nativity as fixed according to our common computation of Anni Domini (first put forward by Dionysius Exiguus at Rome early in the 6th century) has long been recognized to be too late .
The fathers of the primitive church had been nearer the truth with the years 3 or 2 B.C . (see Irenaeus, Haer. in. xxi . 3 [
See also:xxiv . 2]; Clement of Alexandria, Strom. i . 21, p . 147; Hippolytus, in Danielem, iv. ed . Bonwetsch, p . 242; [Tertullian], adv . Judaeos, 8) . What may be called the received chronology during the last two centuries has pushed the date farther back to 4 B.C . But the considerations now to be adduced make it probable that the true date is earlier still . (a) Evidence of St Matthew's Gospel (i .
18–ii . 2z).—The
See also:birth of Christ took place before the death of Herod, and the evidence of Josephus fixes the death of Herod, with some approach to certainty, in the early
See also:spring of 4 B.C . Josephus, indeed, while he tells us that Herod died not long before
See also:Passover., nowhere names the exact year; but he gives four calculations which serve to connect Herod's death with more or less known points, namely, the length of Herod's own reign, both from his de jure and from his de facto accession, and the length of the reigns of two of his successors,
See also:Archelaus and Herod
See also:Philip, to the date of their deposition and death respectively . The various calculations are not quite easy to harmonize, but the extent of choice for the year of Herod's death is limited to the years 4 and 3 B.C., with a very great preponderance of probability in favour of the former . How long before this the Nativity should be placed the Gospel does not enable us to say precisely, but as Herod's decree of extermination included all infants up to two years of age, and as a sojourn of the
See also:Family in Egypt of unknown length intervened between the
See also:massacre and Herod's death, it is clear that it is at least possible, so far as the evidence of this Gospel goes, that the birth of Christ preceded Herod's death by as much as two or three years . What is thus shown to be possible would, of course, be necessary if we went on, with the astronomer
See also:Kepler, to identify the
See also:star of the Magi with the conjunction of the
See also:Jupiter and Saturn which occurred, in the
See also:Pisces, in May,
See also:October and
See also:December of 7 B.C.] . (b) Evidence of St Luke's Gospel (ii . 1-8).—The birth of Christ took place at the time of a general
See also:census of the
See also:empire ordered by
See also:Augustus: " it was the first census, and was made at the time when Quirinius was
See also:governor of
See also:Syria." Against this account it has been urged that we know that the governorship of Syria from so or 9 B.C. down to and after Herod's death was held successively by M . Titius, C . Sentius
See also:Saturninus, and P . Quintilius Varus; and further, that when
See also:Judaea became a Roman province on the deposition of Archelaus in A.D . 6, Quirinius was governor of Syria, and did carry out an elaborate census .
The notice in the Gospel, it is suggested,
See also:grew out of a confused recollection of the later (and only historical) census, and is devoid of any value whatever . At the other extreme
See also:Sir W . M .
See also:Ramsay (Was Christ
See also:Born at
See also:Bethlehem?, 1898, pp . 149 ff.) defends the exact accuracy of St Luke's " first census " as witnessing to the (otherwise of course unknown) introduction into Syria of the periodic fourteen years' census which the evidence of papyri has lately established for Egypt, at least from A.D . 20 onwards . Reckoning back from A.D . 20, the periodic census should fall in 9 B.C., but Ramsay alleges various causes for delay, which would have postponed the actual execution of the census till 7 B.C., and supposes that Quirinius was an imperial
See also:commissioner specially appointed to carry it out . The truth seems to rest midway between these extremes . St Luke's statement of a general census is in all probability erroneous, and the introduction of the name Quirinius appears to be due to confusion with the census of A.D . 6 . But the confusion in question would only be possible; or at any
See also:rate likely, if there really was a census at the time of the Nativity; and it is no more improbable that Herod should have held, or permitted to be held, a local census than that Archelaus of
See also:Cappadocia in the reign of Tiberius (Tacitus,
See also:Ann. vi .
41) should have taken a census of his own native state "after the Roman manner." ' It is a curious coincidence that a medieval Jew, R . Abarbanel (
See also:Abrabanel), records that the conjunction of these particular planets in this particular constellation was to be a sign of Messiah's coming . It is just conceivable that his statement may ultimately depend on some such ancient tradition as may have been known to Chaldaean magi . But St Luke's account, when the name of Quirinius is subtracted from it, ceases to contain any
See also:chronological evidence . (c) Evidence of Tertullian.—Strangely enough, however, the missing name of the governor under whom the census of the Nativity was carried out appears to be supplied by an author who wrote more than a century after St Luke, and has by no means a good reputation for historical trustworthiness . Tertullian, in fact (adv . Marcionem, iv . 19), employs against Marcion's denial of the true humanity of Christ the argument that it was well known that Sentius Saturninus carried out a census under Augustus in Judaea, by consulting which the family and relationships of Christ could have been discovered . This Saturninus was the middle one of the three
See also:governors of Syria named above, and as his successor Varus must have arrived by the middle of 6 B.C. at latest (for coins of Varus are extant of the twenty-fifth year of the era of
See also:Actium), his own tenure must have fallen about 8 and 7 B.C., and his census cannot be placed later than 7 or 7–6 B.C . The independence of Tertullian's information about this census is guaranteed by the mere fact of his knowledge of the governor's name; and if there was a census about that date, it would be unreasonable not to identify it with St Luke's census of the Nativity . The traditional Western day for the
See also:Christmas festival, 25th December, goes back as far as Hippolytus, loc. cit.; the traditional Eastern day, 6th
See also:January, as far as the Basilidian Gnostics (but in their case only as a celebration of the Baptism), mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, loc. cit . 2 .
See also:interval between the Nativity and the Baptism . Evidence of St Luke's Gospel (iii . 23).—At the time of his baptism Jesus was aPXOpfvos ioeL ETWV rpLaKovea, of which words two opposite misinterpretations must be avoided: (i.) fipxbµevos does not mean (as Valentinian interpreters thought, Iren . 11. xxii . 5 [xxxiii . 3]; so also
See also:Epiphanius, Haer . Ii . 16) " beginning to be
See also:thirty years " in the sense of " not yet quite thirty," but " at the beginning of His ministry," as in Luke
See also:xxiii . 5; Acts i . 22, X . 37; (ii.) duel ETCJV TpcaKOVTa does not mean " on attaining the full age of thirty, before which he could not have publicly taught," for if there was by Jewish
See also:custom or tradition any minimum age for a teacher, it was not thirty, but
See also:forty (Bab . Taira. ed .
1715, fol . 19 b; Iren. loc cit.) . St Luke's phrase is a general one, " about thirty years old," and cannot be so pressed as to exclude somelatitude in either direction . 3 . The date of the Baptism . (a) Evidence of St Luke's Gospel (iii. i).—A
See also:terminus a quo for the Baptism is the synchronism of the commencement of the Baptist's public ministry with the fifteenth year of the rule (i7ye,uovla) of Tiberius . Augustus died on 19th
See also:August A.D . 14, and, reckoned from that point, Tiberius's fifteenth year might be, according to different methods of calculation, either A.D . 28, or 28–29, or 29 . But any such result would be difficult to reconcile with the results yielded by other lines of investigation in this article; among alter-native views the choice seems to lie between the following:—(i.) The years of Tiberius are here reckoned from some earlier starting-point than the death of his predecessor—probably from the
See also:grant to him of co-
See also:ordinate authority with Augustus over the provinces made in A.D . I I (see, for the parallel with the case of
See also:Vespasian and Titus, Ramsay, St Paul the Roman Traveller, p . 387), so that the fifteenth year would be roughly A.D .
25; or (ii.) St Luke has made here a second error in chronology, caused perhaps in this case by reckoning back from the Crucifixion, and only allowing one year to the ministry of Christ . (b) Evidence of St John's Gospel (ii . 13, 20).—A terminus ad quem for the Baptism is the synchronism of the first Passover mentioned after it with the forty-
See also:sixth year of the
See also:building of Herod's
See also:Temple . Herod began the Temple in the eighteenth year of his reign, probably 20–19 B.C., and the Passover of the forty-sixth year is probably that of A.D . 27 . While too much stress must not be laid on a chain of reasoning open to some uncertainty at several points, it is difficult to suppose with
See also:Loisy, Quatrieme Evangile, 1903, p . 293, that the number was intended N . T . CHRONOLOGY] by the evangelist as purely figurative, and is therefore destitute of all historical meaning . On the whole, the Baptism of Christ should probably be placed in A.D . 26—27; and as the Nativity was placed in 7–6 B.C . (at latest), this would make the age of Christ at his Baptism to be about thirty-two, which tallies well enough with St Luke's general estimate .
4 . The interval between the Baptism and the Crucifixion, or, in other words, the duration of the public ministry of Christ . (a) Evidence of the Synoptic Tradition and of St Mark's Gospel (ii . 23, vi . 39, X1V. r).—The order of events in the primitive synoptic tradition appears to be faithfully reproduced in St Mark; and if this order is chronological, Christ's ministry lasted at least two years, since the plucking of the ears ofcorn (April–June) marks a first spring; the feeding of the five thousand when the grass was fresh
See also:green (xXwpos: about
See also:March), a second; and the Passover of the Crucifixion a third: and these three points are so far removed from one another in the narrative that the conclusion would hold, even if the general arrangement in St Mark were only roughly, and not minutely, chronological . On the other hand, it may be true that an impression of a briefer period of ministry naturally results, and in early generations did actually result, from the synoptic account considered as a whole . (b) Evidence of St Luke's Gospel (ix . 51–xix . 28 compared with iv . 14–ix . 50; iv . 19).—Still stronger is the impression of brevity suggested by St Luke .
The second and larger
See also:half of the narrative of the ministry is introduced at ix . 51 with the words, " It came to pass as the days of His
See also:assumption were coming to the full, He set His face firmly to go to Jerusalem," under which phrase the evangelist cannot have meant to include more than a few months, perhaps not more than a few
See also:weeks; so that even if the earlier and shorter half of the account, which describes a purely Galilean ministry (" Judaea " in iv . 44, if it is the true reading, means Judaea in the sense of
See also:Palestine), is to be spread over a longer period of time, the combined narrative can hardly have been planned on the scale of more than a single year . St Luke himself may have understood literally, like so many of his readers in ancient times, the reference which he records to the " acceptable year of the Lord " (iv . 19 = Isaiah lxi . 2) : see, too, above, 3 (a) ad fin . (c) Evidence of St John's Gospel (ii . 13, " the Passover of the Jews was near," and 23, " He was in Jerusalem at the Passover at the feast "; v. i, " after these things was a feast for ` the feast '] of the Jews "; vi . 4, " and the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was near "; vii . 2, " and the feast of the Jews, the
See also:Tabernacles, was near "; x . 22, at that time the feast of dedication took place at Jerusalem "; xi . 55, " and the Passover of the Jews was near ": besides iv .
35, " say ye not that there is yet a period of four months and
See also:harvest cometh? behold, I tell you, lift up your eyes and see the
See also:fields that they are white to harvest ") . This catena of time-references is of course unique in the Gospels as a basis for a chronology of the ministry; and it is not reason-able to doubt (with Loisy, loc. cit., who suggests that the aim was to produce an artificial
See also:correspondence of a three and a half years' ministry with the half-week of Daniel; but many and diverse as are the early interpretations of Daniel's seventy weeks• no one before Eusebius thought of connecting the half-week with the ministry), that the evangelist intended these notices as definite historical data, possibly for the correction of the looser synoptic narratives and of the erroneous impressions to which they had given rise . Unfortunately, difficulties, either (i.) of reading, or (ii.) of
See also:interpretation, or (iii.) of arrangement, have been raised with regard to nearly all of them; and these difficulties must be briefly noticed here . (i.) Readings (a) v . 1, Eopri A B D, Origen, Epiphanius, Chrysostom,
See also:Chronicle; $ Eoprit ;tCLA 1-118, 33, the Egyptian versions, Eusebius, Cyril-Alex . (Irenaeus?) . The
See also:balance of internal evidence —copyists being more likely to accentuate than to diminish the precision of a note of time—inclines, like the balance of
See also:external evidence, against the article . (3) vi . 4, as aaaxa is read by all known MSS. and versions; but it has been argued by Hort (in Westcott's and Hort's New Testament in Greek, appendix, pp . 77-81) that four ancient authorities omitted the words, and that their omission889 simplifies the whole chronology, since " the feast " which was " near " in vi . 4 would then be identical with the feast of Tabernacles mentioned in vii . 2, and all the time-notices of the Gospel could be arranged to fall within the space of a single year, between the Pass-over of ii .
13 and the Passover of xi . 55 . But of the four authorities alleged, Irenaeus (I I. xxii . 3 [xxxiii . I]) and the Alogi (ap . Epiphanius, Haer. li . 22) were giving catalogues of Passovers " observed " by Christ (at Jerusalem), and therefore naturally omitted a mere chronological reference like vi . 4: Cyril of Alexandria, in so far as his evidence is adverse to the words, appears to be incorporating a passage from the Commentary of Origen, not extant in loc . ; and the only writer who perhaps really did omit the words—with the view, no doubt, of reconciling the witness of the fourth Gospel with the then widely spread tradition of the single-year ministry--is Origen himself . (ii.) Interpretation (a) iv . 35: which is to be taken literally, the " four months to harvest " (about January), or the " fields white to harvest " (about May) ? It does not seem possible to rule out either interpretation; the choice between them will follow from the view taken of the general chronological arrangement of the Gospel .
(3) v. i.: if " the feast " is read, a choice remains between Passover and Tabernacles (the definite article would not be very definite after all) ; if the more probable " a feast," the greater feasts are presumably excluded, but a choice remains between, at any rate,
See also:Pentecost (May), Trumpets (
See also:September), Dedication (December) and
See also:Purim (
See also:February) . Here again the decision will follow on the general chronological arrangement which may be adopted . (iii.) Arrangement.—So far the amount of possible latitude left is not so great as to obscure the main outline of the chronology . For a first (ii . 13, 20), second (vi . 4), and third (xi . 55) Passover are established, with two indeterminate notices (iv . 35, v . 1) between the first and second, and two determinate notices (vii . 2 Tabernacles in October, x . 22 Dedication in December) between the second and third . But of late years an increasing
See also:desire has been manifested, especially in Germany and
See also:America, to manipulate the fourth Gospel on grounds of internal evidence, at first only in the way of particular transpositions of more or less attractiveness, but latterly also by schemes of thorough-going rearrangement .
The former class of proposals will as a rule hardly affect the chronology of the Gospel; the latter will affect it vitally . The distinction here drawn may be illustrated from the earliest instance of the former and one of the latest of the latter . In 1871Archdeacon J . P .
See also:Norris (Journal of
See also:Philology) wished to transpose chapters v. and vi.—ch. vi. was, like ch. xxi., a Galilean appendix, and was inserted by
See also:mistake at some-what too late a point in the
See also:body of the Gospel—and to read " the feast " in v . 1, identifying it with the Passover which was near in vi . 4: in any case, whether " the feast "=Passover, or " a feast " =Pentecost, were read in v . 1, the transposition would not affect the two years' ministry . In 1900 Professor B . W . Bacon (
See also:American Journal of Theology, p . 770) proposed a rearrangement of the whole Gospel, according to which the time-notices would occur in the following order: vi .
4, Passover is near; iv . 35, the fields white to harvest=May; v . 1, "a feast "=Pentecost; vii . 2, Tabernacles; x . 22, Dedication; xi . 55, Passover is near; xii . 1, Jesus at
See also:Bethany six days before Passover; ii . 13, Passover is near and Jesus goes up to Jerusalem (ii . 23, an
See also:interpolation) for the Passover of the Crucifixion; and the ministry would thus be reduced to a single year . Such a scheme does not lend itself to discussion here; but as far as evidence is at present obtainable, the conclusion that the fourth evangelist drew up his narrative on the basis of a two years' rather than a one year's ministry appears to be irrefragable . Not only do the fourth and second Gospels thus agree in indications of a two years' ministry, but the notes of the middle spring of the three (John vi . 4; Mark vi .
39) both belong to the feeding of the 5000, one of the few points of actual contact between the two Gospels . The question, however, may still be raised, whether these time-indications of the two Gospels are exhaustive, whether (that is) two years, and two years only, are to be allotted to the ministry . Irenaeus (II. xxii . 3-6 [xxxiii . 1-4]), in favour of a ministry of not less than ten years, appeals (i.) to the tradition of Asia Minor; (ii.) to therecord in St John that Christ, who was thirty years old at the time of his baptism, was addressed by the Jews as " not yet [i.e. nearly] fifty years old ": but both his arguments are probably derived from a single source, Papias's interpretation of John viii . 57 . With this exception, however, all ancient writers, whether they enumerated two or three or four Passovers in the Gospel history, believed that the enumeration was exhaustive; and their belief appears correctly to represent the mind of the author of the Fourth Gospel, seeing that his various notes of time were probably in intentional contrast to the looser synoptic accounts . Moreover, the wide currency in early times of the tradition of the single-year ministry (
See also:Ptolemaeus . 890 ap . Iren, loc. cit.; Clementine Homilies, xvii . 19; Clem . Alex .
Strom. i . 145, Vi . 279;
See also:Africanus, ap . Routh, Rell . Sacr. ii . 240, 306; Hippolytus, Paschal Cycle and Chronicle; Origen, in Levit .
See also:Horn. ix . 5, de Principiis, iv . 5) becomes more difficult to account for the farther it is removed from the actual facts . 5 . The date of the Crucifixion . (a) The Roman Governor.—Pontius
See also:Pilate was on his way back to Rome, after ten years of
See also:office, when Tiberius died on the 16th March A.D .
See also:Ant. xvui. ii . 2, iv . 2) . Luke xiii . 1, xxiii . 12, show that he was not a newcomer at the time of the Crucifixion . For the Crucifixion " under Pontius Pilate " the Passover of A.D . 28 is therefore the earliest possible and the Passover of A.D . 36 the latest . (b) The Jewish High-
See also:Priest.—Caiaphas was appointed before Pilate's arrival, and was deposed at a Passover apparently not later than that of the year of Herod Philip's death, A.D . 34 (josephus, Ant. xv111. ii . 2, iv .
3-v . 3 . The Crucifixion at some previous Passover would then fall not later than A.D . 33 . (c) The Day of the Week.—The Resurrection on " the first day of the week " (
See also:Sunday) was " on the third day " after the Crucifixion; and that "the third day" implies an interval of only two days hardly needed to be shown, but has been shown to demonstration in Field's Notes on the Translation of the New Testament (on Matt. xvi . 21) . The Crucifixion was therefore on a
See also:Friday in some year between A.D . 28 and 33 inclusive . (d) The Day of the Jewish
See also:Month Nisan.—The Passover was kept at the full
See also:moon of the lunar month Nisan, the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year; the Paschal
See also:lambs were slain on the afternoon of the 14th Nisan, and the Passover was eaten after sunset the same day— which, however, as the Jewish day began at sunset, was by their reckoning the early
See also:hours of the 15th Nisan; the first fruits (of the
See also:barley harvest) were solemnly offered on the 16th . The synoptic Gospels appear to place the Crucifixion on the 15th, since they speak of the Last Supper as a Passover;' St John's Gospel, on the other hand (xiii . 1, 29, xviii . 28), distinctly implies that the feast had not yet taken place, and thus makes the Crucifixion fall on the 14th .
Early Christian tradition is unanimous on this side; either the 14th is mentioned, or the Crucifixion is made the
See also:antitype of the slaughter of the Paschal Lamb (and the Resurrection of the first fruits), in the following authorities anterior to A.D . 235: St Paul, 1
See also:Cor . V . 7, RV . 20; Quartodecimans of Asia Minor, who observed the Christian Pascha on the " 14th," no matter on what day of the week it fell;
See also:Claudius Apollinaris, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, all three quoted in the Paschal Chronicle; Irenaeus (apparently) Iv. x . 1 [xx . 1]; [Tertullian] adv . Judaeos, 8; Africanus, in Routh, Rell . Sacr. ii . 297 . The Crucifixion, then, should be placed rather on the 14th than on the 15th of Nisan . These four lines of inquiry have shown that the Crucifixion fell on Friday, Nisan 14 (rather than 15), in one of the six years 28–33 A.D.; and therefore, if it is possible to discover (i.) exactly which moon or month was reckoned each year as the moon or month of Nisan, and (ii.) exactly on what day that particular moon or month was reckoned as beginning, it will, of course, be possible to tell in which of these years Nisan 14 fell on a Friday .
To neither question can an answer be given in terms so precise as to exclude some latitude, but to both with sufficient exactness to rule out at once three of the six years . (i.) The difficulty with regard to the month is to know how the commencement of the Jewish year was fixed—in what years an extra month was intercalated before Nisan . If the Paschal full moon was, as in later Christian times, the first after the springequinox, the difficulty would be reduced to the question on what day the equinox was reckoned . If, on the other hand, it was, as in ancient Jewish times, the first after the earliest ears of the barley harvest would be ripe, it would have varied with the forwardness or backward- ' If the Passover celebration could be anticipated by one day in a private Jewish family (and we know perhaps too little of Jewish rules in the time of Christ to be able to exclude this possibility), the evidence of the synoptic Gospels would no longer conflict with that of St John.(N.T . CHRONOLOGY ness of the
See also:season from year to year . (ii.) The difficulty with regard to the day is, quite similarly, to know what precise relation the first day of the Jewish months
See also:bore to the astronomical new moon . In later Christian times the Paschal month was calculated from the astronomical new moon; in earlier Jewish times all months were reckoned to begin at the first sunset when the new moon was visible, which in the most favourable circumstances would be some hours, and in the most unfavourable three days, later than the astronomical new moon . Direct material for answering the question when and how far astronomical calculations replaced simple observations as the basis of the Jewish
See also:calendar is not forthcoming . Jewish traditions represented the Sanhedrin as retaining to the end its plenary power over, the calendar, and as still fixing the first day of every month and the first month of every year . But as it is quite inconceivable that the Jews of the Dispersion should not have known beforehand at what full moon they were to present themselves at Jerusalem for the Passover, it must be assumed as true in fact, whether or no it was true in theory, that the old empirical methods must have been qualified, at least partially, by permanent, that is in effect by astronomical rules . Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days—to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twenty-nine . In the same way the beginning of the Jewish year according to the state of the harvest was supplanted by some more fixed relation to the solar year .
But this relation was not, it would seem, regulated by the date, real or supposed, of the equinox . Christian controversialists from Anatolius ofLaodicea (A.D . 277) onwards accused the Jews of disregarding the (Christian) equinoctial limit, and of sometimes placing the Paschal full moon before it; and it is possible that in the time of Christ the 14th of Nisan might have fallen as far back as the 17th of March . In the following table the first
See also:column gives the terminus paschalis, or 14th of the Paschal moon, according to the Christian calendar; the second gives the 14th, reckoned from the time of the astronomical new moon of Nisan; the third the 14th, reckoned from the probable first appearance of the new moon at sunset . Alternative moons are given for A.D . 29, according as the full moon falling about the 18th of March is or is not reckoned the proper ,Paschal moon . A.D . 28 Sat .
See also:Mar . 27 Mar . 28 Mar . 30 29 Th .
Mar . 17 Mar . 17 Mar . 19 F . Ap . 15 Ap . 16 Ap . 18 „ 30 Tu . Ap . 4 Ap . 5 Ap . 7 „ 31 Sat .
Mar . 24 Mar . 25 Mar . 27 32 Sat . Ap . 12 Ap . 12 Ap . 14 33 W . Ap . 1 Ap . 1-2 Ap . 3 or 4 .
It will be seen at once that Friday cannot have fallen on Nisan 14th in any of the three years A.D . 28, 31 and 32 . The choice is narrowel down to A.D . 29, Friday, 18th March (Friday, 15th
See also:April, would no doubt be too early even for the 14th of Nisan); A.D . 30, Friday 7th April; and A.D . 33, Friday, 3rd April . (e) The
See also:Civil Year (consuls, or regnal years of Tiberius) in early Christian tradition . It is not a priori improbable that the year of the central event from which the Christian Church dated her own existence should have been noted in the apostolic age and handed down to the memory of succeeding generations; and the evidence does go some way to suggest that we have in favour of A.D . 29, the consulate of the two Gemini (15th or 16th year of Tiberius), a body of tradition independent of the Gospels and ancient, if not primitive, in origin . The earliest witness, indeed, who can be cited for a definite date for the crucifixion gave not 29, but 33 A.D . The
See also:pagan chronicler,
See also:Phlegon, writing in the reign of
See also:Hadrian, noted under
See also:Olympiad 202.4 (=A.D . 32-33), besides a great
See also:earthquake in
See also:Bithynia, an eclipse so remarkable that it became
See also:night N.T .
CHRONOLOGY] " at the sixth
See also:hour of the day." The eclipse meant is, presumably, that of the Crucifixion (so Origen, contra Celsum, ii . 33 [but see in Matt . 134,
See also:Delarue iii . 922], Eusebius's Chronicle Tib . 19 [ =A.D . 33]; Anon. in
See also:Cramer's Catena in Matt. p . 237), but as the notice of it was clearly derived by Phlegon, pagan as he was, directly or indirectly from the Gospel narrative, there is no reason at all to ascribe any independent value to the date . Phlegon may have had grounds for dating the Bithynian
See also:earth-quake in that year, and have brought the dateless portent into connexion with the dated one . Eusebius adopted and popularized this date, which fell in with his own system of Gospel chronology, but of the year 33 as the date of the Passion there is no vestige in Christian tradition before the 4th century . The only date, in fact, which has any real claim to represent Christian tradition independent of the Gospels, is the year 29 . Tiberius 15 is given by Clem . Alex .
Strom. i . 147; Origen, Hom. in Jerem. xiv . 13; cf. c . Cels. iv . 22 . Tiberius 16 by Julius Africanus (Routh, Rell . Sacr. ii . 301-304), and pseudo-Cyprian de pascha computus (A.D . 243), § 20 . The consulship of the two Gemini by Lactantius, Div . Inst . 1v. x .
18, and (Lactantius?)• de morte pers . § 2; the consulship of the two Gemini= Tiberius 18 by Hippolytus,
See also:Comm. in Danielem, iv . (ed . Bonwetsch, p . 242); the consulship of the two Gemini= Tiberius 15 by [Tertullian] adv . Judaeos, § 8; the consulship of the two Gemini=Tiberius 15 (al . 18 or 19) =01 . 202.4 [this last is a later interpolation from Eusebius] in the Acts of Pilate . Other methods of expressing the year 29 appear in Hippolytus's Paschal Cycle and Chronicle, and in the
See also:legend (ap . Eusebius, H.E. i . 13) . No doubt it would be possible to explain Tiberius 16 as a combination of Luke iii .
1 with a one-year ministry, and even to treat Tiberius 15 as an unintelligent repetition from St Luke—though the omission to allow a single year for the ministry would be so
See also:strange as to be almost unintelligible—but the date by the consuls has an independent look about it, and of its extreme antiquity the evidence gives two indications: (i.) Hippolytus's Commentary on Daniel (now generally dated c . A.D . 200) combines it with an apparently inconsistent date, Tiberius 18; the latter is clearly his own combination of the length of the ministry (he says in the same passage that Christ suffered in his 33rd year) with Luke iii . 1—the consulship must have been taken from tradition without regard to consistency; (ii.) the names of the Gemini are divergently given in our oldest authorities; in [Tert.] adv . Judaeos correctly as Rubellius Geminus and Fufius (or Rufius) Geminus, but in Hippolytus and the Acts of Pilate as Rufus and Rubellio . But if the tradition of the consulship was thus, it would seem, already an old one about the year 200, there is at least some reason to conclude that trustworthy information in early Christian circles pointed, independently of the Gospels, to the year 2g as that of the Crucifixion . (f) The Civil Month and Day.—The earliest known calculations, by Basilidian Gnostics, quoted in Clem . Alex . Strom. i . 147, gave alternative dates, )?hamenoth 25, Pharmuthi 25, Pharmuthi 1g; that is, according to the fixed Alexandrine calendar of B.C . 26, 21st March, 2oth April, 14th April; in the older, not wholly superseded, Egyptian calendar the equivalents with Roman days varied from year to year . But in all probability these dates were only one development of those speculations in the region of numbers to which
See also:Gnosticism was so prone; and in any case to look for genuine traditions among Egyptian Gnostics, or even in the church of Alexandria, would be to misread the history of Christianity in the and century .
Such traditions must be found, if anywhere, in Palestine and Syria, in Asia Minor, in Rome, not in Egypt; within the Church, not among the Gnostics . The date which makes the most obvious claim to satisfy these conditions would be the 25th of March, as given by Hippolytus, [Tert.] adv . Judaeos, and the Acts of Pilate (according to all extant MSS. and versions, but see below), loco. citt.—the same three authorities who bear the earliest witness for the consuls of the year of the Crucifixion—and by many later writers . It cannot be correct, since no full moon occurs near it in any of the possible years; yet it must be891 very early, too early to be explained with DrSalmon (Dictionary of Christian Biography, iii . 92b), as originated by Hippolytus's Paschal cycle of A.D . 221 . Now Epiphanius (Haer . 1 . 1) had. seen copies of the Acts of Pilate in which the day given was not 25th March, but a.d. xv. kal . Apr . (=18th March); and if this was the primitive form of the tradition, it is easy to see how 25th March could have grown out of it, since the 18th would from comparatively early times, in the East at any rate, have been thought impossible as falling before the equinox, and no substitution would be so natural as that of the day week, Friday, 25th March . But Friday, 18th March, A.D .
29, was one of the three alternative dates for the Crucifixion which on astronomical and calendar grounds were found (see above, 5d) to be possible . Thus A.D . 29 is the year, the 18th of March is the day, to which Christian tradition (whatever value, whether much or ,little, be ascribed to it) appears to point . Further, the Baptism was tentatively placed in A.D . 26-27; the length of the ministry was fixed, with some approach to certainty, at between two and three years, and here too the resultant date for the Crucifixion would be the Passover of A.D . 29 . To sum up: the various dates and intervals, to the approximate determination of which this article has been devoted, do not claim separately more than a tentative and probable value . But it is submitted that their harmony and convergence give them some additional claim toacceptance, and at any rate do something to secure each one of them singly—the Nativity in 7-6 B.C., the Baptism in A.D . 26-27, the Crucifixion in A.D . 29 —from being to any wide extent in error . The Chronology of the Apostolic Age . The chronology of the New Testament outside the Gospels may be defined for the purposes of this article as that of the period between the Crucifixion in A.D .
29 (30) on the one hand, and on the other the persecution of Nero in A.D . 64 and the fall of Jerusalem in A.D . 70 . Of the events in Christian history which fall between these limits it must be admitted that there are many which with our present information we cannot date with exactness . But the book of Acts, our only continuous authority for the period, contains two synchronisms withsecular history which can be dated with some pretence to exactness and constitute fixed points by help of which a more or less complete chronology can be constructed for at least the latter half of the apostolic age . These are the death of Herod Agrippa I: (xii . 23) and the replacement of Felix by Festus (xxiv . 27) . 1 . The death of Herod Agrippa I . This
See also:prince, son of
See also:Aristobulus and
See also:grandson of Herod the Great, was made (i.)
See also:king over the tetrarchy which had been Herod Philip's, " not many days " after the accession of
See also:Gaius, 16th of March A.D . 37; (ii.) ruler of the tetrarchy of Antipas, in A.D .
39-40; (iii.) ruler of the whole of Palestine (with Abilene), on the accession of Claudius at the beginning of A.D . 41. josephus's Jewish
See also:Wars and Antiquities differ by one in the number of years they allot to his reign over the tetrarchies (the former work says three years, the latter four), but agree in the more important datum that he reigned three years more after the grant from Claudius, which would make the latest limit of his death the spring of A.D . 44 . The Antiquities also place his death in the seventh year of his reign, which would be A.D . 43-44 . On the other hand, coins whose genuineness there is no apparent reason to doubt are extant of -Agrippa's ninth year; and this can only be reconciled even with A.D . 44 by supposing that he commenced reckoning a second year of his reign on Nisan 1, A.D . 37, so that his ninth would run from Nisan 1, A.D . 44 . On the balance of evidence the only year which can possibly reconcile all the data appears to be A.D . 44 after Nisan, so that it will have been at the Passover of that year that St Peter's arrest and deliverance took place . After Agrippa's death Judaea was once more governed by procurators, of whom Cuspius Fadus and Tiberius
See also:Alexander ruled from A.D .
44 to 48; the third, Cumanus, was appointed in A.D . 48; and the fourth, Felix, in A.D . 52 . Under Tiberius Alexander, i.e. in A.D . 46 or 47, occurred the great
See also:famine which Agabus had foretold, and in which the Antiochene church sent help to that of Jerusalem by the ministry of
See also:Barnabas and
See also:Saul (Acts xi . 3o, xii . 25) . Thus the earliest date at which the commencement of the first missionary
See also:journey (Acts xiii . 4) can be placed is the spring of A.D . 47 . The journey extended from
See also:Salamis " throughout the whole
See also:island " of Cyprus as far as
See also:Paphos, and on the mainland from
See also:Pamphylia to Pisidian Antioch,
See also:Iconium, Lystra and Derbe, at each of which places indications are given of a prolonged visit (xiii . 49, xiv .
3, 6, 7, 21) . The same places were visited in
See also:reverse order on the return journey, as far as
See also:Perga on the Pamphylian
See also:coast; but instead of revisiting Cyprus the voyage to Syria was this time made direct . In estimating the length of time occupied by this first missionary journey, it must be remembered that a
See also:sea voyage could never have been undertaken, and
See also:land travel only rarely, during the winter months, say
See also:November to March; and as the amount of the work accomplished is obviously more than could fall within the travelling season of a single year, the winter of 47-48 must have been spent in the interior, and return to the coast and to Syria made only some time before the end of autumn A.D . O . The succeeding winter, at least, was spent again at Antioch of Syria (xiv . 28) . The council at Jerusalem of Acts xv. will fall at earliest in the spring of A.D . 49i and as only " certain days " were spent at Antioch after it (xv . 36) the start on the second missionary journey might have been made in the (late) summer of the same year . The " confirmation " of the existing churches of Syria and
See also:Cilicia, and of those of the first journey beginning with Derbe (xv . 41, xvi . 5), cannot have been completed under several months, nor would the Apostle have commenced the strictly missionary part of the journey in districts not previously visited, before the opening of the travel-
See also:ling season of A.D .
50 . No delay was then made on the Asiatic side: it may still have been in spring when St Paul crossed to Europe and began the course ofpreaching at
See also:Philippi, Thessalonica, Beroea and Athens which finally brought him to Corinth . The stay of eighteen months at the last-named place (xviii . 1i) will naturally begin at the end of one travelling season and end at the beginning of another, i.e. from the autumn of A.D . 5o to the spring of A.D . 52 . From Corinth the Apostle went to Jerusalem to " salute the church," and then again to Antioch in Syria, where he stayed only for " a time " (xviii . 22), and soon left—on the third missionary journey, as conventionally reckoned —proceeding " in order " through the churches of the interior of Asia Minor . These journeys and the intervening halts must have occupied seven or eight months, and it must have been about the end of the year when St Paul established his new headquarters at Ephesus . The stay there lasted between two and three years (xix . 8, 10, xx . 31), and cannot have terminated before the spring of A.D .
55 . From Ephesus he went into Europe, and after " much teaching " given to the churches of
See also:Macedonia (xx . 2), spent the three winter months at Corinth, returning to Philippi in time for the Passover (xx . 3, 6) of A.D . 56 . Pentecost of the same year was spent at Jerusalem, and there St Paul was arrested, and kept in prison at Caesarea for two full years, until Festus succeeded Felix as governor (xx . 16, xxiv . 27), an event which, on this arrangement of the chronology of the missionary journeys, would therefore fall in A.D . 58 . Care, however, must be taken to remember exactly what this line of argument amounts to—what it can fairly be said to have proved, and what it still leaves open . It has been shown, firstly, that the missionary journeys cannot have commenced before the spring of A.D . 47, and, secondly, that between their commencement and the end of the two years' imprisonment at Caesarea not less than eleven full years must have elapsed .
Consequently A.D . 58 appears to be the earliest date possible for the arrival of Festus . On the other hand, a later date for Festus is not absolutely excluded . It is possible that the first missionary journey should be placed in A.D . 48 instead of A.D . 47; and it is possible, though not probable, that the missionary journeys should be spread over one year more than has been suggested above . At any rate, then, the alternative is open that everydate given above, from A.D . 47 to A.D . 58, should be moved on one year, with the result of placing Festus's arrival in A.D . 59 . It is now time to run to the direct evidence for the date of Festus's arrival asprocurator, in order to test by it the result already tentatively obtained . 2 .
See also:cement of Felix by Festus . This is the
See also:pivot date of St Paul's later life, but unfortunately two schools of critics date it as differently as A.D . 55 and A.D . 6o (or 61) . The former are represented by Harnack, the latter by Wieseler, whom Lightfoot follows . It can be said confidently that the truth is between these two extremes (though in what exact year it is not easy to say), as will be evident from a consideration of the arguments urged, which in each case appear less to prove one extreme than to disprove its opposite . Arguments for the Later Date, A.D . 6o or 61.—(a) St Paul, at the time of his arrest, two years before Felix's recall, addresses him as " for many years past a
See also:judge for this nation " (Acts xxiv. to, 27) . It is certain that Felix succeeded Cumanus in A.D . 52, for Tacitus mentions Cumanus's recall under that year, Josephus immediately before the notice of the completion of Claudius's twelfth year [January, A.D . 531, Eusebius probably under Claudius It, that is, between September 51 and September 52 (for the meaning of the regnal years in the Chronicle of Eusebius see the present writer's article in Journal of Theological Studies, January 1900, pp . 188-192) .
It is argued that " many years " cannot mean less than six or seven, so that St Paul must have been speaking at earliest in 58 or 59, and Felix will have left Judaea at earliest in 6o or 61 . But this argument overlooks the fact that Felix had been in some position which might properly be described as that of " judge for this nation " before he became governor of all Palestine in A.D . 52 . In the words of Tacitus, Felix was at the time of that
See also:appointment iampridem Iudaeae empositus (
See also:Annals, xii . 54) ; he certainly supposes Felix to have been already governor of
See also:Samaria, and apparently of Judaea too, and only recognizes Cumanus as governor of Galilee; and Josephus, though he says nothing of this, and treats Cumanus as the
See also:sole procurator down to A.D . 52, implies that Felix had been in some position where the Jewish authorities could judge of his fitness when he tells us that the high priest Jonathan used to
See also:press on Felix, as a reason for urging him to govern well, the fact he that had asked for his appointment to the procuratorship (Ant. xx. viii . 5) . If Felix had acted in some position of responsibility in Palestine before 52 (perhaps for some time before), St Paul could well have spoken of "many years" at least as early as 56 or 57 . (0) Josephus enumerates after the accession of Nero (October 54) a long
See also:catalogue of events which all took place under the procurator-
See also:ship of Felix, including the revolt of " the Egyptian " which was already " before these days " at the time of St Paul's arrest, two years from the end of Felix's tenure . This suggests, no doubt, that the Egyptian rebelled at earliest in 54-55, and makes it probable that St Paul's arrest did not take place before (the Pentecost of) A.D . 56; and it implies certainly that the main or most important part of Felix's governorship fell, in Josephus's view, under Nero . But as two years only of Felix's rule (52–54) fell under Claudius, this procedure would be quite natural on Josephus's part if his recall were dated in 58 or 59, so that four or five years fell under Nero .
And there is no need at all to suppose that all the incidents which the historian masses under his account of Felix were successive: events in Emesa,
See also:Chalcis, Caesarea and Jerusalem may easily have been synchronous . The arguments, then, brought forward in favour of A.D . 6o or 61 do not do more than bring the rule of Felix down to 8 or 59 . Arguments for an Early Date, A.D . 55 or 56.–(e) Eusebius's Chronicle places the arrival of Festus in Nero 2, October 55-56, and Eusebius's chronology of the procurators goes back probably through Julius Africanus (himself a Palestinian) to contemporary authorities like the Jewish
See also:kings of Justus of
See also:Tiberias . But (i.) Nero 2 is really September 56-September 57; (ii.) it is doubtful whether Eusebius had any authority to depend on here other than Josephus, who gives no precise year for Festus—Julius Africanus is`hardly probable, since we know that his chronicle was very jejune for the Christian period —and if so, Eusebius had to find a year as best he could.' (3) Felix, on his return to Rome, was prosecuted by the Jews for misgovernment, but was acquitted through the influence of his
See also:Pallas . Pallas had been minister and favourite of Claudius, 1 Dr C . Erbes ( Texte and Untersuchungen, new series, iv . 1) attempts to interpret the evidence of Eusebius in favour of the later date for Festus as follows: Eusebius's date for Festus is to be found in Nero r, by striking a mean between the Armenian, Claudius 12, and the Latin, Nero 2; it is really to be understbod as reckoned, not by years of Nero, but by years of Agrippa; and as Eusebius erroneously antedated Agrippa's reign by five years, commencing it with A.D . 45 instead of A.D . 50, his date for Festus is five years too early also, and should be moved to Nero 6, A.D . 59-60 .
The whole of this theory appears to the present writer to be a gigantic
See also:nest: see Journal of Theological Studies (October 1901), pp . 120-123 . but was removed from office in the winter following Nero's accession, 54-55 . Felix must therefore have been tried at the very beginning of Nero's reign . But this argument would make Felix's recall—if Festus came in summer, as Acts
See also:xxv . I,
See also:xxvii . I, 9, seem to prove—fall actually under Claudius . And, in fact, it would be a mistake to look upon Pallas's retirement as a disgrace . He stipulated that no inquiry should be made into his conduct in office, and was left for another seven years unmolested in the enjoyment of the
See also:fortune he had amassed . There is, therefore, every likelihood that he retained for some years enough influence to
See also:shield his brother . Of these arguments, then, the first, so far as it is valid, is an argument for the summer, not of A.D . 95 or 56, but of A.D .
57 as that of the recall, while the second will apply to any of the earlier years ®f Nero's reign . In the result, then, the arguments brought forward in favour of each extreme fail to prove their case, but at the same time prove something against the opposite view . Thus the point that Josephus catalogues the events of Felix's procuratorship under Nero cannot be pressed to bring down Felix's tenure as far as 6o or 61, but it does seem to exclude as early a termination as 56, or even 57 . Conversely, the influence of Pallas at
See also:court need not be terminated by his ceasing to be minister early in 55; but it would have been overshadowed not later than the year 6o by the influence of Poppaea, who in the summer of that year'. enabled the Jews to win their cause in the matter of the Temple
See also:wall, and would certainly have supported them against Felix . Thus the choice again appears to lie between the years 58 and 59 for the recall of Felix and arrival of Festus . If St Paul was arrested in 56 or 57, and appealed to Caesar on the arrival of Festus in 58 or 59, then, as he reached Rome in the early part of the year following, and remained there a prisoner for two full years, we are brought down to the early spring of either 61 or 62 for the close of the period recorded in the Acts . That after these two years he was released and visited Spain in the west, and in the east Ephesus, Macedonia, Crete, Troas,
See also:Miletus, and perhaps
See also:Achaea and
See also:Epirus, is probable, in the one case, from the evidence of Romans xv . 28, Clem. ad Cor. v. and the Muratorian canon, and, in the other, from the Pastoral Epistles . These journeys certainly cannot have occupied less than two years, and it is more natural to allow three for them, which takes us down to 64–65 . Early evidence is unanimous in pointing to St Peter and St Paul as victims of the persecution of Nero (Clem. ad Cor. v. vi., Dionysius of Corinth ap . Eus . H.E. ii .
25, &c., combined with what we know from Tacitus of the course of the persecution, and from Gains of Rome, ap . Eus. ii: 25, of the
See also:burial-places of the two apostles); and tradition clearly distinguished the fierce outbreak at Rome that followed on the
See also:fire of the city in
See also:July 64 from any permanent disabilities of the Christians in the
See also:eye of the law which the persecution may have initiated . There is, therefore, no reason at all to doubt that both apostles were martyred in 64–65, and the date serves as a confirmation of the chronology adopted above of the imprisonment,
See also:release and subsequent journeys of St Paul . Investigation, then, of that part of the book of Acts which follows the death of Agrippa, recorded in
See also:chap. xii.—i.e. of that part of the apostolic age which follows the year 44—has shown that apparent difficulties can be to a large extent set aside, and that there is nowhere room between A.D . 44 and 64 for doubt extending to more than a single year . The first missionary journey may have begun in 47 or 48; the arrival of Festus may have taken place in the summer of 58 or of S9; the two years of the Roman imprisonment recorded in the last
See also:chapter of Acts may have ended in the spring of 61 or 62; and the dates which fall in between these extremes are liable to the same variation . The present writer leans to the earlier alternative in each case, 47, 58, 61; but he willingly concedes that the evidence, as he understands it, is not inconsistent with the later alternative . But if the events of A.D . 44–64 can thus be fixed with a
See also:fair approximation to certainty, it is unfortunately otherwise with the events of A.D . 29–44 . Here we are dependent (i.) on general 1 This date appears to be satisfactorily established by Ramsay, " A Second Fixed Point in the Pauline Chronology," Expositor, August 1900.indications given in the Acts; (ii.) on the evidence of the
See also:Epistle to the Galatians, which, though in appearance more precise, can be and is interpreted in very different ways . (i.) The book of Acts is divided, by general summaries from time to time inserted in the narrative, into six periods: i .
1–vi . 7, vi . 8–ix . 31, ix . 32–xii . 24, Xii . 25–xvi . 5, xvi . 6–xix . 20, xix . 21–xxviii . 31 .
Of these the three last extend respectively from the death of Herod to the start for Europe in the second missionary journey (A.D . 44 to the spring of 50 [5r]), from the start for Europe to the end of the long stay at Ephesus (A.D . 50  to the spring of A.D . 55 ), and from the departure from Ephesus to the end of the two years' captivity at Rome (A.D . 55  to the beginning of A.D . 61 ) . It will be seen that these periods are of more or less the same length, namely, six (or seven) years, five years, six years . There is, therefore, some slight presumption that the three earlier periods, which together cover about fifteen years, were intended by so
See also:artistic a writer as St Luke to mark each some similar lapse of time . If that were so, the preaching of the apostles at Jerusalem and organization of the Church at the capital—the preaching of the seven and the extension of the Church all over Palestine—the extension of the Church to Antioch, and the commencement of St Paul's work—might each occupy five years more or less, that is to say, roughly, A.D . 29–34., 34–39, 39–44• The conversion of St Paul, which falls within the second period, would on this arrangement fall somewhere between five and ten years after the Crucifixion . Such conclusions are, however, of course general in the extreme . (ii.) A nearer attempt to date at least the chronology of St Paul's earlier years as a Christian could be made by the help of the Galatian Epistle if we could be sure from what point and to what point its reckonings are made .
The apostle tells us that on his conversion he retired from
See also:Damascus into
See also:Arabia, and thence returned to Damascus; then after three years (from his con-version) he went up to Jerusalem, but stayed only a fortnight, and went to the regions of Syria and Cilicia . Then after fourteen years (from his conversion ? or from his last visit ?) he went up to Jerusalem again to confer with the elder apostles . Now, if either of these visits to Jerusalem could be identified with any of the visits whose dates have been approximately settled in the chronology of A.D . 44–64, we should have a fixed point from which to argue back . Unfortunately, even less agreement exists on this
See also:head than on the question whether the fourteen years of the last-mentioned visit are to be reckoned from the conversion or from the previous visit . Most critics, indeed, are now agreed that the fourteen years are to be calculated from the conversion; and most of them still hold that the visit of Galatians ii. is the same as the council of Acts xv., partly, no doubt, on the ground that the latter visit was too important and decisive for St Paul to have omitted in giving even the most
See also:summary description of his relations with the twelve . This ground would, however, be cut away from their feet if it were possible to hold (with J . V . Bartlet, Apostolic Age, Igloo, and V . Weber, Die Abfassung des Galaterbri fs vor dent Apostelkonzil,
See also:Ravensburg, 'goo) that the epistle was actually written just before the council, i.e. in the winter of 48-49 [49–50] . In that case, of course, the two visits of Galatians i. and ii. would be those of Acts ix . 26 and xi .
30 . The fourteen years reckoned back from the latter (c . A.D . 46) would bring us to A.D . 32--33 as the latest possible date for the conversion . With the older view, on the other hand, the fourteen years reckoned from the council in A.D . 49 [5o] would allow us to bring down the conversion to A.D . 36 . The new view clears away somemanifest difficulties in the reconciliation of the Epistle and the Acts, and the early date for Galatians in relation to the other Pauline epistles is not so improbable as it may seem; but the chronology still appears more satisfactory on the older view, which enables the conversion to be placed at least three years later than on the alternative theory . But it is clear that the last word has not been said, and that definite results for this period cannot yet be looked for . To sum up: an attempt has been made, it is hoped with some success, to provide a framework of history equipped with dates from the time of St Peter's arrest by Herod Agrippa I. at the Passover of A.D . 44 down to the martyrdom of St Peter and St Paul in the persecution of Nero, A.D .
64–65 . For the previous period, on the other hand, from A.D . 29 to A.D . 44, it appeared impossible in our present state of knowledge to state conclusions other than in the most general form .
MINUET (adapted, under the influence of the Italian...
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