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MISKOLCZ

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 579 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MISKOLCZ, capital of the county of Borsod, Hungary, 113 M. N.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 40,833. It is situated in a valley watered by the Szinva in the east of the Btikk mountains, and opens towards the south to the plain of the Saj6, an affluent of the Hernad. Miskolcz is a thriving town, and among its buildings are a Roman Catholic church of the 13th century in Late Gothic style, a Minorite convent, and Greek Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist churches. It manufactures snuff, porcelain, boots and shoes, and prepared leather, and has both steam and water mills. It trades in grain, flour, wine, fruit, cattle, hides, honey, wax and agricultural products, while four well-attended fairs are held annually. About 5 M. west of the town in the Szinva valley is Di6sgyor (pop. 11,520), which possesses important iron-works, and the ruined castle of Dibsgyor, formerly a shooting residence of the kings of Hungary. About 4 M. to the south-west of Miskolcz are the baths of Tapolcza, containing warm springs. To the south-west of the town lies Onod (pop. 2087), to the south of which, on the banks of the Saj6, is the heath of Mohi or Muhi, famous as the scene of the great defeat of the Hungarians by the Mongols in 1241. About 85,000 Hungarians fell, and the whole country was devastated for the next two years by the Mongolian hordes. During the 16th and 17th centuries Miskolcz suffered much from the Ottomans, and from the troops of George Rak6czy and Emeric Tokolyi. In 1781, 1843 and 1847 it was devastated by fire, and on the 30th of August 1878 a great portion of the town was ruined by a terrific storm.
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