MISS . in the same solid
See also:hand are still to be seen in the
See also:Chapter Library of Durham, this
See also:style of writing having been practised more especially in the
See also:north of England . But in addition to this calligraphic
See also:book-writing, there was also a lighter
See also:form of the
See also:round letters which was used for less sumptuous
See also:MSS. or for more ordinary occasions . Specimens of this hand are found in the Durham
See also:Cassiodorus (
See also:Pal .
See also:Soc. pl . 164), in the Canterbury Gospels (Pal . Soc. pl . 7; Cal . Anc . MSS. pt. ii., pls . 17, 18), the Epinal Glossary (E . Eng . Text Soc.), and in a few charters (Fats .
Anc . Charters, pt. i., 15; ii., 2, 3; Pal . Soc . 1o), one of which, of A.D . 778, written in Wessex, is interesting as showing theextension of the round hand to the
See also:southern parts of England . The examples here enumerated are of the 8th and 9th centuries—the earlier ones being written in a
See also:free natural hand, and those of later date bearing evidence of decadence . Indeed the round hand was being rapidly displaced by the more convenient pointed hand, which was in full use in England in the
See also:middle of the 8th century . How
See also:late, however, the more calligraphic round hand could be continued under favouring circumstances is seen in the
See also:Liber Vitae or
See also:list of benefactors of Durham (Cat . Anc . MSS. pt. ii., pl . 25; Pal . Soc. pl .
238), the writing of which would, from its beautifulexecution, be taken for that of the 8th century, did not
See also:internal evidence prove it to be of about the
See also:year 840 . The pointed hand ran its course through the 8th, 9th, and loth centuries, until
See also:English writing came under the influence of the
See also:foreign minuscule . The leading characteristics of this hand in the 8th century are regularity and breadth in the formation of the letters and a calligraphic contrast of heavy and
See also:light strokes —the hand being then at its best . In the 9th century there is greater lateral
See also:compression, although regularity and correct formation are maintained . But in the loth century there are signs of decadence . New forms are introduced, and there is a disposition to be imitative . A test
See also:letter of this latter century is found in the letter a with obliquely cut top, a . The course of the progressive changes in the pointed hand may be followed in the Facsimiles of
See also:Ancient Charters in the
See also:British Museum and in the Facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the Rolls Series . The charters reproduced in these
See also:works have survived in sufficient numbers to enable us not only to form a fairly accurate knowledge of the criteria of their age, but also to recognize
See also:local peculiarities of writing . The Mercian
See also:scribes appear to have been very excellent penmen, writing a very graceful hand with much delicate
See also:play in the strokes . On the other hanc' the writing of Wessex was heavier and more straggling and is in such strong contrast to the Mercian hand that its examples may be easily detected with a little practice . Turning to books in which the pointed hand was employed, a very beautiful specimen, of the 8th century, is a copy of Bede's Ecclesiastical[
See also:NATIONAL HANDS
See also:History (fig .
42) in the University Library atCambridge (Pal . Soc. pls . 139, 140), which has in a marked degree that breadth of style which has been referred to . Not much later is another copy of the same
See also:work in the Cottonian Library (Pal . Soc. pl . 141; Cat . Anc . MSS. pt. ii., pl . 19), from which the following facsimile is taken . 9icurSut tPotu 9me j trot olbtLutiatD•lutrnuLv-' 1r himot i, io 9-3 ar nlwwr (tus sui tempora gerebat . Uir uenerabilis oidiluuald, qui multis annis in monasterio quod dicitur Inhry—) For an example of the beginning of the 9th century, a MS. of miscellanea, of A.D . 811-814, also in the Cottonian Library, may be referred to (Pal .
Soc. pl . 165; Cat . Anc . MSS. pt. ii .
See also:Plate 24); and a very interesting MS. written in the Wessex style is the Digby MS . 63 of the middle of the century (Pal . Soc. pl . 168) . As seen in the charters, the pointed writing of the loth century assumes generally a larger
See also:size, and is rather more artificial and calligraphic . A very beautiful example of the book-hand of this
See also:period is found in the
See also:volume known as the Durham Ritual (Pal . Soc. pl . 240), which, owing to the care bestowed on the writing and the archaism of the style, might at first sight pass for a MS. of higher antiquity .
In the latter
See also:part of the loth century the foreign set minuscule hand began to make its way into England, consequent on increased intercourse with the Continent and
See also:political changes which followed . In the charters we find the foreign and native hands on the same page: the
See also:body of the document, in Latin, in Carolingian
See also:minuscules; the boundaries of the
See also:land conveyed, in the English hand . The same practice was followed in books . The
See also:charter (in book form) of
See also:King Eadgar to New Minster, Winchester, A.D . 966 (Pal . Soc. pls . 46, 47), the Benedictional of
See also:Bishop iEthelwold of Winchester (pls . 142, 144) before A.D . 984, and the MS. of the
See also:Office of the
See also:Cross, A.D . 1012—IO20 (pl . 6o), also written in Winchester, are all examples of the use of the foreign minuscule for Latin . The
See also:change also which the national hand underwent at this period may certainly be attributed to this foreign influence .
The pointed hand, strictly so-called, is replaced by a rounder or rather squarecharacter, with lengthened strokes above and below the
See also:line . tumuli, ',errhtr > n, .
See also:pear, Vllfb ovFtc be : .: .
See also:Rc e:1(
See also:anu FOILUC . all Pre pu ' 111 fiO1'au XWCfl (manan he wns his mega. sceard freonda ge fylled on folcstede besingen yet s9cge. and his sunu forint. on wnlstowe wundum'forgrunden.) This style of writing becomes the ordinary English hand down to the
See also:time of the Norman
See also:Conquest . That event extinguished the national hand for official purposes—it disappears from charters; and the already established use of the Carolingian minuscule in Latin MSS. completed its exclusion as the hand-writing of the learned . It cannot, however, be doubted that it still lingered in those parts of the
See also:country where foreign influence did not at once penetrate, and that Englishmen still continued to write their own language in their own style of writing . But that the earlier distinctive national hand was soon overpowered by foreign teaching is evident in English MSS. of the 12th century, the writing of which is of the foreign type, although the English letter thorn, p, survived and continued in use down to the 15th century, when it was transformed to y .
LORD OF MISRULE
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