See also:FIELDS] Islands . The
See also:partition of the continent among the various
See also:European nations has been on the whole favourable to mission
See also:work . The nature of the task and of the results may be best approached by considering the different divisions—North, South, East, West and Central Africa .
See also:North Africa, along the Mediterranean from
See also:Morocco to
See also:Egypt, is distinctly
See also:Mahommedan . To these regions came St
See also:Louis and Raimon Lull, and one may in passing remember the strength of
See also:Christianity in Proconsular Africa in the days of
See also:Tertullian and Cyprian, and in Egypt under
See also:Clement of Alexandria,
See also:Origen and
See also:Athanasius . To-
See also:Islam is supreme, though the North Africa Mission, working largely on medical lines, has penetrated into many cities . In Egypt the
See also:United Presbyterians of
See also:America have met with considerable success among the
See also:Copts, and their
See also:fine educational work has proved a valuable asset both to themselves and the
See also:country . The
See also:Church Missionary Society is doing steady work in Cairo and in Upper Egypt . In the Eastern Sudan a promising beginning has been made, but the regions south of
See also:Kordofan have hardly been touched . In
See also:Nigeria the-
See also:Hausa tribes are coming to be better known, and to
See also:respond to the Christian teaching . In the
See also:Sahara and at
See also:Suakin there are
See also:Roman Catholic
See also:missions . There is a Roman mission to the Gallas in
See also:Abyssinia .
That country has its own crude
See also:form of Christianity, and is much the same today as when
See also:Peter Heiling in the 17th century endeavoured to propagate a purer faith . A mission undertaken by the Church Missionary Society in 1839 was closed by French Jesuit intrigue in 1838 . South Africa.—The Moravians, represented by
See also:Schmidt, who arrived at Cape
See also:Town in
See also:July 1737, were the first to undertake mission work in South Africa . Schmidt won the confidence of the
See also:Hottentots, but the Dutch authorities stopped his work . In 1798
See also:John T . Vanderkemp, an
See also:agent of the
See also:London Missionary Society, founded a mission to the Kaffirs east of Cape Town, and Robert Moffat (1818) went to the Bechuanas .
See also:Livingstone was as determined to open the interior as the Boers were to keep it shut, and he succeeded, pushing north, discovering Lake
See also:Ngami, and consecrating a remarkable
See also:life to the evangelization of Central Africa . The London Mission has also largely evangelized the
See also:Matabele . In 1814 the Wesleyans began work among the Namaquas and Hottentots, and after-wards went into
See also:Kaffraria, Bechuanaland and
See also:Natal . They were followed by the
See also:Glasgow Missionary Society (1821), the
See also:Paris Evangelical Society (1829), the Moravian, Rhenish and Berlin
See also:Societies, and the
See also:Board . The Society for the
See also:Propagation of the
See also:Gospel came in 1819, mainly for colonists, the Church Missionary Society in 1837 . The province of South Africa has ten dioceses, the
See also:bishop of Cape Town being metropolitan .
The Glasgow Society's work was ultimately taken over by the
See also:Free Church of Scotland, whose
See also:great achievement is the
See also:Lovedale Institute, combining
See also:industrial and mission work . The Germans and Scandinavians have also been ardent workers in South Africa, and the Dutch Reformed Church has not entirely neglected the natives . One Dutch society gives its
See also:attention to the
See also:part of the
See also:Transvaal . The chief difficulties in the way of evangelization have been (1) the hostility of natives races aroused by European annexations, (2) the introduction of European vices, (3) the
See also:movement known as Ethiopianism . The
See also:British Wesleyans refused to confer full rights on
See also:negro pastors, who then appealed to the
See also:African Methodist Episcopal Church, a product of American evangelization . One of them, J . M . Dwane, was made
See also:Vicar-Bishop, and a large and powerful
See also:independent negro church organized . Dwane afterwards approached the Anglicans, and in 1900 that church formed the " Ethiopian
See also:Order," ordaining Dwane a deacon and making him Provincial of the Order . Each bishop now deals with the Ethiopians in his own
See also:diocese . The South African governments foresaw dangerous developments in the Ethiopian movement, and steps were taken to restrain its growth . Ethiopianism, if ecclesiastical in its origin, gained strength from racial
See also:base .
The task of averting the racial bitterness so dominant in the United States of America is a most formidable one . There593 are in South Africa several vicariates and prefectures of the Roman Church, the
See also:principal missions being French, those of the
See also:Congregation of the
See also:Holy Ghost and the Oblates of Mary . West Africa was first visited by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1752 . Its agent, T .
See also:Thompson, trained
See also:Philip Quaque, said to be " the first convert who ever received ordination since the Reformation in the Reformed Church." The Church Missionary Society came in 1804 and has worked heroically and successfully, though the largest mission now is that of the Wesleyans, who came in 1811, settling first at Sierra Leone . The American
See also:Baptists in
See also:Liberia (1821) and the
See also:Basel Mission in the Gold
See also:Coast (1827), the Congregationalists of the United States of America and
See also:Canada in
See also:Angola, and the
See also:English and American Baptists on the
See also:Congo (since 1845) have also extensive and prospering agencies . West Africa has taken heavy
See also:toll not only in
See also:money but in life, but the lesson has now been learned, and a
See also:system of frequent furloughs combined with a better understanding of the
See also:climatic requirements have appreciably lessened the peril . This region is linked with the name of the
See also:Anglican negro Bishop,
See also:Crowther, and with one phase of the ceaseless strength of Islam, which has so far failed to reach the west coast, finding itself confronted by the Christian influences which are at work among the great Hausa tribes and other peoples within the
See also:area of the Niger mission . The Portuguese in Angola and the agents of
See also:Leopold in the Congo State have not been conspicuous friends of missionary enterprise, and the
See also:light-hearted childishness of the native character, so well portrayed in
See also:Kingsley's writings, shows how difficult it is to build up a strong and
See also:stable Christian church . Bishop
See also:Taylor's effort at creating a self-supporting mission proved fruitless . The American
See also:Lutherans are attempting the same task on rather different lines, and with more promise . The Roman Catholic missions are chiefly French, and organized by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the
See also:Lyons African Mission .
Central Africa.—The upper Congo region opened up by Living-
See also:stone and
See also:Stanley has been a favourite sphere for what are known as " faith societies," e.g. the Plymouth Brethren, the Christian and Missionary
See also:Alliance, the Regions Beyond Missionary Union . The American Baptists continue the work started by the Livingstone Inland Mission in 1878, and the
See also:Southern Presbyterian Board (American) have done notable work . The Paris Society, represented especially by
See also:Francois Coillard, has been successful along the
See also:Zambezi, and Scottish, German, Moravian and Jesuit agencies are also well represented . North-
See also:ward, Central and East African organizations, following the Cape to Cairo route, are in
See also:touch with North African agencies working up the Nile . East Africa.—When the Abyssinia mission was closed in 1838 one of the missionaries, Krapf, went among the Gallas and then on to
See also:Mombasa, working in
See also:company with Rebmann . Since H . M . Stanley's
See also:appeal (1875) most satisfactory work, extensive and intensive, has been accomplished in
See also:Uganda, by the Church Missionary Society . The names of
See also:Mackay, Hannington and Pilkington, who lived and died here, are amongst the greatest in the
See also:roll of missionary heroes . The Roman Mission too has been very successful; for some years a French agency, the
See also:White Fathers of Algeria, carried it on, but they were afterwards joined by English helpers from St
See also:Joseph's Society at
See also:Hill . The White Fathers also work in the Great Lakes region, and on the
See also:Zanzibar coast are the French Congregation of the Holy Ghost and German
See also:Benedictines . Zanzibar is also one of the centres of the
See also:Universities Mission, another being Likoma on Lake
See also:Nyasa .
Near this lake the Scottish churches are also doing
See also:noble work . Besides Uganda the Church Missionary Society is responsible for Mombasa . The London Mission is
See also:meeting with success at the south end of Lake Tanganyika in North-east Rhodesia . The English United Methodists and some
See also:Swedish societies have begun work among the Gallas . German Missionary agencies have also come in with German colonization . In East Africa, as in the West, Christian missionaries fear most the aggressive Moslem propaganda .
See also:Madagascar 1 is one of the most interesting mission fields . Work was begun by the London Mission in 1819, and the work of
See also:civilization and evangelization went steadily forward till 1835, when a
See also:period of repression and severe persecution set in, which lasted till 1861 . When the work was recommenced it was found that the native Christians had multiplied and
See also:developed during the harsh treatment of the 25 years . In 1869 the idols were publicly destroyed and the
See also:island declared Christian by royal proclamation . The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1864), the
See also:Norwegian Missionary Society (1866), and the Friends'
See also:Foreign Missionary Association joined in the work, the prosperity of which received a severe check by the French annexation in 1896 . The French authorities were hostile to the English missionaries, and even the handing over of part of the
See also:field to the Paris Evangelical Society did not do much to ease the situation .
See also:Laws were first enacted against private
See also:schools, then against elementary schools, and in 1906—1907
See also:measures were passed which practically closed all mission schools .
See also:Family prayers were forbidden if any outside the immediate family were
See also:present, and 'religious services at the graveside were prohibited . Missionary work in the island has thus passed through a peculiarly trying experience, but happier conditions are now likely to prevail . In
See also:Mauritius and the
See also:Seychelles the Church Missionary Society and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel are at work, especially among the coolies on the
See also:sugar plantations . The outstanding problem of African missions at least north of the Equator (south there is the Ethiopian question) is not the degradation of the black races, nor the demoralizing influences of
See also:heathen Christians, nor even the slave dealer, though all these obstacles are present and powerful . The all-decisive conflict is that between Christianity and Islam, and the Christian agencies must show much more co-operation if they are to be successful . The lines of missionary work have been, generally speaking,
See also:simple gospel preaching followed by
See also:education and industrial work . So rare were the ordinary comforts, and even necessities of life, that the latter had to take a prominent place from the beginning: the missionary had to be
See also:carpenter, brickmaker, tailor, printer,
See also:house and church builder, not only for himself but for his converts . The work of Bible
See also:translation has been particularly long and difficult; for the innumerable peoples who did not speak some form of Arabic the
See also:languages had first to be reduced to writing, and many Christian terms had to be coined . India: —The earliest missionaries to India, with the possible exception of
See also:Pantaenus of Alexandria (c . A.D . 18o), were the
See also:Nestorians from
See also:Persia .
Therecord of their work is told else-where (see
See also:NESTORIUS and NESTORIANS) . The
See also:Jesuits came in the 16th century, but were more successful quantitatively than qualitatively; in the 18th century the Danish coast mission on the coast of
See also:Tranquebar made the first
See also:Protestant advance, Bartholomaus, Ziegenbalg (1683–1719), Plutschau and Christian
See also:Friedrich Schwartz (1926–1998) being its great names . Up to this
See also:time the chief results were that (1) Christianity had gained a footing, (2) it had continued the monotheistic modification of
See also:Indian thought begun by Mahommedanism, and (3) the futility of sporadic and fanatical proselytism had been shown . A new era began with the arrival of
See also:William Carey and the founding of the
See also:Serampur Mission (15 M. north of
See also:Calcutta), though the hostility of the East India Company made the early years of the 19th century very unproductive . When Carey died in 1854 he and his colleagues
See also:Marshman and Ward had translated the Bible into seven languages, and the New Testament into 23 more, besides rendering services of the highest kind to literature, science and general . progress . They founded agricultural societies and savings'
See also:banks, and helped to abolish suttee,
See also:infanticide and other cruelties . At
See also:Travancore in the south, Ringeltaube, an agent of the London Missionary Society, had begun a work, especially among the Shanars or toddy drawers, which by 1840 had 15,000 Christians; and the Church Missionary Society, led by Rhenius, had equal success in
See also:Tinnevelly . The Baptists,
See also:drawn by the fame of the
See also:temple of Jagannath at
See also:Puri on the 1 See T . T .
See also:Thirty Years in Madagascar . 2 See E . P .
See also:Rice in A Primer of
See also:Modern Missions, ed . R . Lovett (London, 1896) ; J .
See also:Richter, A
See also:History of Missions in India (1908) ; The Church Missionary Review (July 1908); Contemporary Review (May 1908 and
See also:June 1910).east coast, established a mission in
See also:Orissa in 182I which soon
See also:bore fruit; the Wesleyans were in
See also:Mysore and the Kaveri valley, the London Missionary Society at the great military centres
See also:Bangalore and
See also:Bellary, agents of the American Board at
See also:Ahmednagar and other parts of the Mahratta country around Bombay . The headquarters of
See also:Hinduism, the
See also:Ganges valley, was occupied by the Baptists, the Church Missionary Society and the London Missionary Society, these entering.
See also:Benares in 1816, 1818 and 182o respectively .
See also:Duff, a Scottish Presbyterian, had begun his great educational work in Calcutta, and Bible
See also:tract and
See also:book societies were springing up everywhere . Chaplains and bishops of the Anglican Church like
See also:James Hough in Tinnevelly,
See also:Henry Martyn in the north, Daniel Corrie in
See also:Agra, T . F .
See also:Middleton in Calcutta, and Reginald Heber all over India, were eagerly using their opportunities . In 1830 ten societies with 106 stations and 149 agents were at work; 1834 saw the founding of the Basel Mission on the west coast, the American Mission in Madura, the American Presbyterian Mission in
See also:Ludhiana . It would be impossible to trace in detail the work done by the different societies since Carey's time . The task as it presented itself may be analysed as follows: (1) to replace the caste system and especially the oppressive supremacy of the Brahmins by a spirit of universal brotherhood and the
See also:establishment of social and religious' liberty; (2) to correct and raise the standard of conduct; (3) to attack polytheistic
See also:idolatry with its attendant immoralities; (4) to replace the pantheistic by a theistic standpoint; (5) to elevate woman and the
See also:pariah .
Besides these matters which concerned Hinduism there was the problem of converting sixty million Mahommedans . The chief methods adopted have been the following: (I)vernacular preaching in the large towns and on itineraries through the rural districts, a work in which native evangelists guided by Europeans and Americans played a large part . (2) Medical missions, which have done much to break down barriers of
See also:prejudice, especially in
See also:Kashmir under Dr Elmslie of the Church Missionary Society, and in
See also:Rajputana at
See also:Jaipur under Dr
See also:Valentine of the United Presbyterians . (3) Orphanages, in which the Roman Catholics led the way and have maintained their lead . (4) Vernacular schools, a
See also:good example of which is seen in the American Board's Madura Mission . (5) English education, in which the missionary societies have amply supplemented the efforts of the
See also:government, outstanding examples being the Madras Christian
See also:College (Free Church of Scotland), so long connected with the name of Dr William
See also:Miller, the General
See also:Assembly of Scotland's Institution at Calcutta, founded by Duff,
See also:Wilson College, Bombay (Free Church of Scotland), and St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic) at
See also:Trichinopoly . Work of this kind is followed up in some centres by lectures and conversations with educated
See also:Hindus . The Haskell Lectureship, which
See also:grew out of the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, belongs here . (6)
See also:Female education and
See also:zenana work . (7) Uplifting work among the Panchamas or low-castes, which has been strikingly successful among the Malas (American Baptists) and the Madigas (London Missionary Society) of the
See also:Telugu-speaking country, who come in mass movements to the Christian faith . (8) Missions among aboriginal tribes, e.g. the
See also:Kols and
See also:Santals of
See also:Nagpur (Berlin Gossner Mission and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel), and the tribes of the Khassia Mountains east of Bengal (Welsh Calvinistic Methodists) (9) Christian literature, in which connexion the name of Dr John Murdoch will always be honourably remembered . (1o) Pastoral work and the care of the churches .
The great changes that have been wrought in India, politically, commercially, intellectually and religiously, by the combined
See also:action of the British government and the Christian missions, are evidenced among other tokens by the growth of such societies as the Arya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj . • Orthodox Hindus, especially those whose social status and very livelihood are imperilled by the revolution, have shown their alarm either by open opposition, subjecting converts to every sort of caste coercion, or by methods of defence, e.g .
See also:Hindu tract societies and
See also:young men's associations, which are modelled on Christian organizations . A
See also:counter reformation can also be traced which attempts to revive Hinduism by purging it of its grossness and allegorizing its fables and legends . A new Islam is also a factor of the situation . Comparatively few converts have been made from Mahommedanism to Christianity, and these have been chiefly among the learned . But there is a wide prevalence of free-thinking, especially among the younger and educated classes of the community . The
See also:special difficulties of mission work in India may be thus summarized . (i) Racial antipathy . (2) The speculative rather than experimental and
See also:practical nature of the Hindu consciousness—historical proofs make no appeal to him . (3) The lack of initiative: in a
See also:land where the joint family system is everywhere and all powerful, individualism and will-power are at a
See also:discount . (4) The
See also:ignorance and conservatism of the
See also:women .
(5) An inadequate sense ofsin . (6) The introduction of European forms of materialism and
See also:anti-Christian philosophy . Perhaps, too, the methods adopted by missionaries have not always been the wisest, and they have some-times failed to remember the method of their
See also:Master, who came" not to destroy, but to fulfil." In spite, however, of all the difficulties, permanent and increasing results have been achieved along all the lines indicated above, The establishment of a strong native church is far from being the only fruit of the enterprise, but it is a fruit that can be gauged by
See also:statistics, and these are sufficiently striking . In a necessarily inadequate
See also:sketch it is impossible to give more than the barest mention to one or two other features of modern missionary achievement in India, e.g. the development of industrial schools, the establishment of a South India United Church, in which the Congregationalist agencies (London Missionary Society and American Board) and the Presbyterians have joined forces, and the endeavour to
See also:train an efficient and educated native
See also:ministry, which is being promoted especially at Serampur, where an old Danish degree-granting
See also:charter has been revived in what should become a Christian university, and at Bangalore, where Presbyterians, Congregationalists and Wesleyans collaborate to
See also:staff and maintain a united theological college . The government
See also:census for India and
See also:Burma (1901) gives a Christian population of 2,923,241 (native Christians 2,664,313) out of a
See also:total population of 294,361,056, or about 3% . The inclusion of Portuguese and French possessions would add about 350,000 to the Christian total . Though the number does not seem relatively high, it is significant when compared with that of former censuses—in 1872, 1,517,997; in 1881, 1,862,525 (increase 22.7%); in 1891, 2,284,380 (increase 22.6%); in 1901, 2,923,241 (increase of 28%) . The Increase of 28 % between 1891 and 1901 has often been compared with the fact that the total population of India only registered an increase of 21% in that
See also:decade . In the words of The
See also:Pioneer, " this is a hard fact which cannot be explained away " and " the most remarkable feature of the returns." The increase was shared by every province and state in India . In 1910 there were 4614 missionaries (including wives), representing 122 societies, 1272 Indian ministers, and 34,095 other native workers, including teachers and Bible-women . The growth of the Protestant Native Christian community between 1851 and 1910 is shown in the following table: The Protestant community in India in 1910 was over a million strong, well distributed among the chief provinces, a fine spiritual force, easily first in female education, and rapidly growing in
See also:wealth, position and influence . A
See also:report of the Director of Public Instruction for the Madre§
See also:Presidency says: " I have frequently called attention to the educational progress of the native Christian community .
There can be no question, if the community pursues with steadiness the present policy of its teachers, that in the course of ageneration it will have secured a preponderating position in all the great professions." What India wants (as
See also:Nobili 300 years ago saw, and attempted, though by fatal methods of deceit, to supply) is a Christianity not foreign but native, not dissociated from the religious life of the land but its fulfilment . Though there are many Christians in India to-day, the Hindu still looks askance at Christianity, not because it is a religion but because it is foreign . " India is waiting for her own divinely appointed apostle, who, whether Brahmin or non-Brahmin,shall connect Christianity with India's religious past, and present it as the true Vedanta or completion of the Veda and thus make it capable of appealing to the Hindu religious nature." It only remains to be said that the work of the missionaries individually and collectively has over and over again received the warmest recognition and praise from the highest officials of the Indian government .
See also:China.'—The earliest Christian missionaries to China, as to India, were the Nestorian (q.v.) . Their work and that of the Roman Church, begun as the result of Marco Polo's travels about 1290, faded away under the persecution of the Ming
See also:dynasty which came to power about 1350 . The next attempt was that of the French Jesuits, following on the visit and
See also:death of
See also:Xavier . They established themselves at
See also:Canton in 1582, and on the accession of the Manchu dynasty (1644) advanced rapidly . In 1685 there were three dioceses,
See also:Nanking and Macao, with a
See also:hundred churches . The Orthodox Eastern Church gained r footing in Peking in the same
See also:year, and established a college o . Greek priests .
See also:Friction between Jesuits and
See also:Dominicans lec' to the proscription of Christianity by the emperor in 1724; missionaries and converts being banished . The
See also:story of modern missions in China begins with Robert Morrison (q.v.) of the London Missionary Society, who reached Canton in 1807, and not being allowed to reside in China entered the service of the East India Company .
In 1813 he was joined by a colleague, William Milne, and in 1814 baptized his first convert . In 1829 came representatives of the American Board, in 1836 Peter
See also:Parker began his medical mission, and on the opening of the Treaty Ports the old edicts were withdrawn, and other societies crowded in to a field more than ample . After the war of 1856 a measure of official toleration was obtained, and the task of evangelizing the country was fairly begun . Though the missionaries were chiefly concentrated in the treaty ports they gradually pushed inland, and here the names of W . C . Burns, a Scottish evangelist, J . Hudson Taylor, the founder of the China Inland Mission, and James Gilmour, the apostle of
See also:Mongolia, are pre-eminent . But for more than
See also:half a century China seemed the most hopeless of mission fields . The upper classes were especially anti-foreign, and the whole nation vaunted its superiority to the
See also:rest of man- kind . In 1857 there were only about 400 baptized Protestant Christians in the whole of China . Even after the removal of the edicts the old prejudices remained, and the missionaries were regarded as
See also:political emissaries, the forerunners of military aggression . Native Christians were stigmatized as traitors, " followers of the foreign devils." In 1870 there was a great out- break concentrating in the massacres at
See also:Hankow and
See also:Tientsin; in 189r at Hunan and in 1895 at Ku
See also:Cheng there were other attacks which were only pre- liminary to the Boxer uprising of 1899-1900, when 135 missionaries, besides 52
See also:children and perhaps 16,000 native Christians, whose heroism will always be memorable, perished, often after horrible tortures .
There is little doubt that thissavage outburst was directed not against religious teaching as such, but against the introduction of customs and ideas which tended to weaken the old power of the mandarins over the
See also:people . These leaders skilfully seized upon every
See also:breach of tradition to inflame popular passion, attacking especially the medical work as a pretext for mutilation, the schools as hotbeds of
See also:vice, and the orphanages as furnishing material for
See also:witchcraft . Out of the agony, however, a new China was
See also:born . The growing power of
See also:Japan, seen in her
See also:wars with China and Russia, and the impotence of the Boxers against the European
See also:allies, made all classes in China realize their
See also:comparative impotence, and the central government began a series of reforms, reorganizing the military, educational, fiscal and political systems on Western lines . Educational reforms became especially insistent, and modern methods and studies supplanted 1 See A . H .
See also:Chinese Characteristics;
See also:Village Life in China; and J . C .
See also:Gibson, Mission Problems and Mission Methods in South China . Native Christian Communicants . Native Agents . Community .
See also:Rate of Rate of Proportion Unordained Number . Increase . Number . Increase. of the Ordained. preachers . Community . % % 1851 91,092 — 14,661 — 16•o 21 1861 138,731 52'3 24,976 70'3 18•o 97 1266 1871 224,258 61.6 52,816 111.4 23.5 225 1985 188i 417,372 86.1 113,325 114.5 27.1 461 2488 1890 559,661 34.0 182,722 61.2 32.6 797 3491 1900 854,867 52.8 301,699 65.1 35'3 — — 1910 1,472,448 72.2 522,743 73'3 — 1,272 the immemorial Confucian type . Students went in great numbers to Japan,
See also:Europe and America, and the old contempt and hostility toward things Western gave place to respect and friendliness . Early in the igth century the missionaries had not been able to do much by way of education, but the new openings were seized with such power as was possible, and while in 1876 there were 289 mission schools with 4909 pupils, in 1910 there were 3129 schools with 79,823 scholars . More significant still is the way in which the foremost Chinese officials have turned to missionaries like Timothy
See also:Richard and Griffith John for assistance in guiding the new impulse . The universities of
See also:Oxford and Cambridge, under the inspiration of
See also:Lord William
See also:Cecil, were interesting themselves in 1910 in a
See also:scheme for establishing a Christian university in China . One of Morrison's contemporaries hoped that after a century of mission work there might possibly be 2000 Christians in China . That number was reached in 1865, and in 1910 there was a Protestant community of 214,546 church members and baptized Christians .
These numbers are more than
See also:double what they were in 1900 . In addition there are more than as many adherents.' The excellence of the converts, upon the whole, is testified to by travellers who really know the case; particularly by Mrs Bishop, who speaks of the " raw material " out of which they are made as "the best stuff in
See also:Asia." The total number of Protestant missionaries (including wives) in China in 1910 was 4175, one to about 'too sq. m., or to more than 1oo,000 Chinese . There are over 12,000 Chinese evangelists, Bible-women, teachers, &c . The Roman Catholic returns give 902,478 members and 390,617 catechumens . The work is carried on by eleven societies or religious orders with over 40 bishops and woo European priests, mostly French . A large feature of the work is the
See also:baptism of children . An important concession was obtained in 1899 by the French
See also:minister at Peking, with a view to the more effective
See also:protection of the Roman missions . The bishops were declared " equal in
See also:rank to the viceroys and
See also:governors," and the priests " to the prefects of the first and second class "; and their influence and authority were to correspond . The Anglican bishops agreed to decline these secular
See also:powers, as also did the heads of other Protestant missions . It is alleged by some that the exercise of the powers gained by the Roman hierarchy was one cause of the Boxer outbreaks . Certainly their native adherents had their full
See also:share of persecution and
See also:massacre . The Anglican Church is not so strong in China as in some other fields; the American Episcopalians were first in the field in 1835, followed by the Church Missionary Society (in 1844), which has had stirring success in Fu-Kien, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1874 .
There are five dioceses, and in 1897 an episcopal
See also:conference was held in
See also:Shanghai . Since the
See also:Japanese War the Scottish and Irish Presbyterians have made wonderful progress in
See also:Manchuria ; native evangelists do an increasing share of the work, and there is hardly any town or village without Christians . The London Mission has always been conspicuous for the contribution made by its agents to linguistic and
See also:literary knowledge, the name of James Legge being an outstanding example; it is now, in co-operation with other societies, earnestly taking up the new educational and medical openings . One of the most interesting features of missionary work in China is the comity that prevails among the workers of different societies and agencies . Thus in 1907 at the
See also:Centenary Conference in Shanghai, when many topics were discussed centring in the question of the native Chinese Church, a general declaration of faith and purpose was adopted, which, after setting out the things held in
See also:common, proceeded, " We frankly recognize that we differ as to methods of administration and of church government; that some among us differ from others as to the administration of baptism; and that there are some differences as to the statement of the
See also:doctrine of
See also:predestination, or the election of
See also:grace . But we unite in holding that these exceptions do not invalidate the assertion of our real unity in our common witness to the Gospel of the Grace of
See also:God." The conference reported, " We have quite as much reason to be encouraged by the
See also:net result of the progress of Christianity in China during the 19th century as the early Christians had with the progress of the Gospel in the Roman
See also:Empire during the first century." Japan and Korea.—The Christian faith was brought to Japan by Portuguese traders in 1542, followed by Xavier in 1549 . See Contemporary Review (Feb . 1908), " Report on Christian Missions in China," by Mr F . W .
See also:Professor Macalister and
See also:Sir Alex .
See also:Simpson . This great missionary was well received by the daimios (feudal lords), and though he remained only 21 years, with the help of a Japanese whom he had converted at Malacca he organized many congregations .
In 1581 there were 200 churches and 150,000 Christians; ten years later the converts numbered 600,000, in 1594 a million and a half . Then came a time of repression and persecution under Iyeyasu, whose secondedict in 1614 condemned every foreigner to death, forbade the entry of foreigners and the return of Japanese who had
See also:left the islands, and extinguished Christianity by
See also:fire and sword . The reopening of the country came in 1859, largely through American pressure, and in May of that year two agents of the Protestant Episcopal Church began work at
See also:Nagasaki . They were followed by others from the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, and by their great intellectual ability,
See also:patience and tact these pioneers (S . R .
See also:Brown; J . C .
See also:Hepburn and G . F . Verbeck), as the
See also:Ito said, contributed very largely to the progress and development of Japan in the days when she was first studying the
See also:world . They did an immense amount of preparatory work along evangelistic, medical and educational lines, and skilfully gathered the youths of the country around them . The accession of a new mikado in 1868 finally ended the old seclusion; financiers,
See also:engineers, artisans poured in from Western Europe, and from America came bands of teachers, largely under missionary influence .
In 1869 the American Board (Congregational) sent its first
See also:band; in 187o Verbeck was called on to organize a scheme for
See also:national education . In 1872 the first Japanese church was formed; in 1875 Joseph Neesima, who had been converted by a
See also:Russian missionary and then educated in America, founded a Christian Japanese College, the Doshisha, in the sacred city of Kyoto . Meanwhile the Christian
See also:calendar had been adopted and the old anti-Christian edicts removed . By 1889 there were 30,000 Protestant communicants . It was at this time that the nation, conscious of its new life, began to be restive under the supercilious attitude of foreign nations, and the feeling of irritation was shared by the native Christian communities . It showed itself in a
See also:desire to throw off the governance of the missionaries, in a
See also:criticism of Protestant creeds as not adapted to Japanese needs, and in a slackened growth numerically and intensively . After a period of stress and uncertainty, due very largely to the variety of denominational creed and polity, matters assumed an easier
See also:condition, the missionaries recognizing the national characteristics and aiming at guidance rather than
See also:control . The war with China in 1894 marked a new
See also:chapter and initiated a time of intense national activity; education and work for women went forward rapidly . Missionaries went through the island as.never before, and their evangelistic work was built upon by Japanese ministers . In the war with Russia Japanese Christianity found a new opportunity; on the battlefield, in the
See also:camp, at home, Christian men were pre-eminent . In 1902 there were 50,000 church members; in 1910, 67,043; the total Protestant community in 1910 was about 1oo,000, and had an influence out of all proportion to its numbers; the Roman Church was estimated at 79,000, and the Orthodox Eastern Church (Russian) at 30,000 . No sketch, however brief, can omit a reference to the Anglican bishop of South Tokyo,
See also:Bickersteth (1850-1897), who from his
See also:appointment in 1886 guided the joint movement of English and American Episcopalians which issued in the Nippon Sei Kokwai or Holy Catholic Church of Japan, a national church with its own laws and its own missions in
See also:Formosa .
See also:April 1907 the Conference of the World's Student Christian Federation (700 students from 25 different countries) met in Tokyo, and received a notable welcome from the national leaders in administration, education and religion . In Korea, the "
See also:Hermit Nation," or as the Koreans prefer to say, " The Land of the
See also:Calm," Christianity was introduced at the end of the 18th century by some members of the Korean legation at
See also:Pekin who had met Roman Catholic missionaries . It took
See also:root and spread in spite of opposition until 1864, when an anti-foreign outbreak exterminated it . The
See also:door was re-opened by the
See also:treaties of 1882-1886, and even before that copies of the gospels had been circulated from the Manchuria side . The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Presbyterian Board, both of America, entered the country in 1885, and were soon joined by similar agencies from Canada and
See also:Australia . The Anglican Church began work in 189o, the work was thoroughly planned, the characteristics of the people were care-fully considered, and the successes and failures of other mission-fields were studied as a
See also:guide to method . The medical work won the favour of'the government, and so wisely did the missionaries
See also:act, that during all the turbulent changes 'since 1884 they escaped entanglement in the political disturbances and yet held the confidence of the people . The persistence and growth of Christianity among the Koreans is largely due to the fact that Christianity had not been superimposed on them as a foreign organization . They had built their own churches and schools, adopted their own forms of worship and phrased their own beliefs . Korea vies with Uganda as a
See also:triumph of modern missionary enterprise . In 1866 there were not more than
See also:loo Christians; official returns in 1910 show 178,686 Protestants, including 72,000 church members and probationers; and 72,290 Roman Catholics . Theological colleges, normal training colleges and higher and
See also:lower grade schools bear witness to an activity and a success which are truly remarkable .
South-East Asia and the East Indies.—The work of Christian missions in this area has had the double
See also:advantage of freedom from political and social unrest, and of comparatively little overlapping, each country as a
See also:rule being taken over by a single society . In Burma the American Baptists, whose work began with Adoniram
See also:Judson in 1813, are conspicuous, and have had marked success among the Karens or
See also:peasant class, where the pioneer was George Dana
See also:Boardman (1827) . The
See also:Karen Christian communities are strong numerically and have a good name for self-support . The Baptists have also stations in
See also:Arakan and
See also:Assam where they
See also:link up with the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists (1845) . The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and the Methodist Episcopal Church work in and around
See also:Rangoon . In Siam again the Americans, especially the Presbyterians, have been most prominent . Medical work made an impression on the people and won the favour of the government, which has always been cordial and has employed missionaries as
See also:court-tutors .
See also:Buddhism is at its best at Siam, and this and the enervating
See also:climate are responsible for the comparatively small
See also:direct success of Christian propaganda in Siam proper . In the
See also:Laos country to the north, however, much more has been done, and a healthy type of Christian community established . Native workers have done something to carry the Gospel into the French colonies of
See also:Tongking and
See also:Annam . Here the Roman missions are very extensive, and have over a million adherents, despite violent persecution before the French occupation . The peninsula and
See also:archipelago known as Malaysia presents a remarkable mingling of races, languages and beliefs .
Tatar, Mahommedan and Hindu invasions all preceded the Portuguese who brought Roman Catholicism, and the Dutch who brought Protestantism . This last resulted in a great number of nominal conversions, as baptism was the
See also:passport to government favour, and church membership was based on the learning of the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer, and on the saying of grace at mealtimes . In the Straits Settlement the
See also:foundations of modern missionary effort were laid by the London Missionary Society pioneers who were waiting to get into China; they were succeeded by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1856), English Presbyterians (1875), Methodist Episcopalians (1884), who have a fine Anglo-Chinese College at Singapore, and the Church of England Zenana Society (1900) . In the Archipelago most of the work has naturally been in the hands of the
See also:Netherlands Missionary Society (1812) and other Dutch agencies, who at first were not encouraged by the colonial government, but have since done well, especially in the Minahassa
See also:district of
See also:Celebes (150,000 members) and among the Bataks of
See also:Sumatra (Rhenish Mission) . In Celebes and the
See also:Moluccas the work is now under the Colonial State Church . In
See also:Java the government has favoured Mahommedans (there isactive intercourse between the island and
See also:Mecca), but there are some 25,000 Christians and a training school and seminary at Depok near
See also:Batavia . In Dutch
See also:Borneo the Rhenish Society is slowly making headway among the
See also:Dyaks; in British Borneo the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1848) and the Methodist Episcopalians occupy the field . The total number of Christians in British Malaysia and the Dutch East Indies is about 600,000 (including 57,000 Roman Catholics) . Western Asia and the
See also:Turkish Empire 1—The American Presbyterians and Congregationalists have the largest Protestant missions in these lands, working, however, mainly for the enlightenment and education of the
See also:Oriental Christians . With the same
See also:object, though on different lines, the archbishop of Canter, bury's
See also:Assyrian Mission seeks to influence the Nestorians . The Roman Catholics have extensive missions in these countries, directed at winning adherents to the unity of the Holy See from the Oriental Churches, which are regarded as schismatic and heretical . In this enterprise there has been great advance in Egypt among the Copts, and in 1899 the
See also:Pope signalized " the resurrection of the Church 'of Alexandria " by appointing a
See also:Patriarch for Egypt,
See also:Libya and
See also:Nubia .
Farther east, on the
See also:borders of
See also:Turkey and Persia, the Roman and Russo-Greek Churches compete for the adhesion of the Nestorians, Chaldeans and Armenians . The
See also:Franciscans, Dominicans, Lazarists and Jesuits are engaged in all these
See also:works . Direct work among Mahommedans is done, though with small result, by the North Africa Mission (non-denominational) and the Church Missionary Society . The Egypt,
See also:Palestine and Persia missions of the latter society have been largely reinforced and extended since 1884, medical work and women's work being especially prominent, Four cities in southern Persia are now occupied . Three missions just touch the border of
See also:Arabia, viz. the United Free Church of Scotland at
See also:Aden, founded by
See also:Keith-Falconer (1856-1887) son of the 9th
See also:earl of
See also:Kintore and Arabic professor at Cambridge; an American Presbyterian Mission on the Persian Gulf; and the Church Missionary Society's Mission at
See also:Bagdad . The American Robert College at Constantinople and the work of the Friends' Missionary Association in
See also:Syria are honourable and successful enterprises . The chief difficulties have been (1) the antagonism of the officials of the Oriental churches, (2) the suspicion and hostility of Islam, (3) the jealousies, religious and political, connected with the Eastern Question . Missions in Christian Lands.—Australia has been referred to already (see South Seas, above) . In the Western Hemisphere we may distinguish the following: (1) Early Roman Missions began with the
See also:discovery of the continent and practically ceased in the
See also:middle of the 18th century . Conspicuous among their achievements was the conversion of Mexico, 200,000 converts being enrolled within six years after the capture of the capital (1521), and a million baptized by the Franciscans alone within thirty years . In South America the passive character of the population made them submissive alike to the
See also:Spanish government and the Roman faith . Their natural devotion and their susceptibility to pomp and ritual was a factor skilfully used by the priests, but hardly anything was done to strengthen their moral power .
The influx of base European strata helped to reduce the whole continent south of Mexico in about a century to a level as low as that preceding the first mission . About 1600 the Franciscans and French Jesuits began their work in North America and among the
See also:Indians did a successful work marked by much heroism . They also enabled the Roman Church to keep its hold on the French colonists of
See also:Quebec and
See also:Montreal, and were pioneers in California . (2) Modern Missions in North America.—Missions among the Red Indian tribes in the North-West Territories of both the United States and Canada have long been carried on by several societies . The first workers were
See also:Thomas Mayhew, junior and John
See also:Eliot at Martha's Vineyard (1643) and
See also:Roxbury (1646) . Bishop Whipple of
See also:Minnesota was justly called the Apostle of the Indians, so far as the work of the American Episcopal Church was concerned . In the
See also:Canadian North-West the Church Missionary Society's Missions have reached many tribes up to the shores of the Polar
See also:sea, and made some thousands of converts . Even the wan, dering Eskimos, thanks to the Moravians, are mainly Christians . The Anglican Church has nine dioceses in the province of
See also:Rupert's Land . The Roman Catholic missionaries also are scattered over these immense territories, and have a large number of Indian adherents . Besides the Oblates many are Jesuits from French Canada . The Russo-Greek Church has a mission in
See also:Alaska, dating See J .
Richter, A History of Protestant Missions in the Near East (1910) . 598 from the time when it was Russian territory, and various American societies are also represented . The total number of Indians in British North America is 99,000, of whom about 27,000 are still
See also:pagan, and the rest are about equally divided between the Protestant and Roman Catholic Missions . (3) Central and South America.-Protestant missions to Indians here have been very limited . Von Weltz did something in Dutch
See also:Guiana (c . 1670), and the Moravians among the Arrawak Indians of Surinam (1738-18o8) . Since 1847 they have worked on the Mosquito coast of Central America . American Missions are at work in Mexico and adjacent countries . In the West India Islands the negro population has been reached by most of the larger British societies . The South American Missionary Society, founded by the
See also:ill-fated Captain
See also:Gardiner, has much extended its work among the Indians of the interior of what has been well called " the Neglected Continent "; it has been specially successful among the
See also:Araucanians of Chile and the Paraguayan
See also:Chaco . Their work among the Fuegians drew a warm tribute from
See also:Charles Darwin . Several American missions are also at work .
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has an important mission in British Guiana . But there are numerous heathen tribes never yet reached . The Roman Church, which is dominant throughout the continent, has been engaged in serious struggles with the anti-religious tendencies of the Republican governments, and L'Annee de l'Eglise makes no mention of missions among the Indians . In fact the Pope in 1897 was obliged to send a severe rebuke to the
See also:clergy for their lack of consistency and zeal . Protestant societies have done much to bring the Bible to the knowledge of the nominally Roman Catholic population .
MISSIONS (Lat. missio, a sending)
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