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MODERN

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 517 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MODERN FRENCH] This it is which accounts for the fact that romanticism then found so little acceptance among sculptors. But in the next generation the sowers of the seed might see their harvest: The pupils of Rude, of Barye and of Carpeaux, allied by school sympathies—the little drawing-school conducted by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, which, in despite of the studios of the Beaux Arts, created a group of independent and highly original artists—formed the centre of a distinct force which increased day by day. Young men, fresh from Rome, persistently kept up the spirit of the Antique. A galaxy of learned and refined artists was represented by such men as Hiolle (1833-1887) (" Arion," " Orpheus "), Idrac (184o-1884) (" Mercury inventing the Caduceus," " Salammb6 "), Marqueste (" Galatea," " Eros," " Perseus beheading the Gorgon," " The Rape of Europa "), and Coutan (" Eros," " A Woman carrying Loaves," " A Sergeant-at-Arms," &c.), Lanson (" The Iron Age "), Longepied (1849-1888) (" Immortality "), Peinte (" Orpheus charming Cerberus to Sleep "), Gustave Michel (" In a Dream," " Meditation "), Caries (" Innocence," " Abel "), A. Boucher (" Earth," " Au but "), besides Carlier, Leonard and Turcan (1846-1895)—soon to be followed by another generation: Puech (" The Siren," " The Muse of Andre Chenier "), Verlet (" The Monument to Maupassant," " Orpheus "), Larche (" The Brook and the Meadow," " Violets "), Sicard (" Hagar and Ishmael "), and Daillon, Escoula, St Lami, and many more. In opposition to these there stood a group of sculptors, young and old, who sought their subjects in mythology, legend, history or poetry, or merely in the scenes of daily life, and aimed at presenting the ideal of their time under its external aspects, but more especially the deepest emotions of the modern mind. It was Fremiet, with his striking and vivid conceptions, who led the advance with new and dramatic subjects: primeval man and the fierce beasts with which he disputed his rule (" A She-Bear and a Man of the Stone Age," " An Oran-utan and a Savage," " Gorillas "), or embodiments of the heroes of the past (" Joan of Arc," " Saint Louis," " Saint George," " Louis of Orleans," &c.); then followed Just Becquet (1829-1907), the excellent artist who represented the stricken figures of " Ishmael " and " Saint Sebastian "; Christophe (1827-1892), with his symbolical presentments of " The Human Comedy," " Fortune " and " The Supreme Kiss "; Aube (" Monument to Gambetta," " Dante," " Bailly," &c.); A. Legros the naturalized English painter and sculptor, who executed some fine fountains for the duke of Portland; Injalbert, returned from Rome (" Hippomene," " Christ on the Cross," " The Herald ") ; and, younger than these, Desbois (" Leda "), Dampt (" A Grandmother's Kiss," " Melusine "), Alexandre Charpentier, Carries, Baffler, Pierre Roche, Madame Marie Cazin and many more. The disruption of the Salons in 1890 showed very plainly the bent of this group, who seceded to the Champ de Mars, where the leaders were Dalou and Rodin, and where Bartholome made an unexpected and original appearance. Foreigners added a contingent of the highest merit, such as the American St Gaudens, and, more especially, the Belgian Constantin Meunier, affiliated to France by their early training, to say nothing of descent. Meunier especially, with his statues and statuettes of labouring figures—miners, puddlers, hammerers, glass-blowers, and, the like—gave to his art a keynote new to France, which found a response even in academic circles. A broad democratic current was swaying public feeling. The questions which turn on the status of the working man had become the programme of every party, even of the most conservative. Art being the mirror of society, the novel, the drama and painting devoted themselves to the glorification of a new factor in modern life, namely, Labour. Sculpture now, in rivalry with painting, through which Millet had immortalized the peasant, and Courbet the working man, also sought inspiration from such themes; and at the same time the demands of the democratic movement called for monuments to the memory and deeds of great or useful men. Sculpture, under this modern tendency, assumed an unexpected aspect; its highest expression is seen in the work of three men509 very dissimilar: Dalou, Rodin, and Bartholome. In Belgium, as has been said, where modern social questions are strongly felt, Constantin Meunier had interpreted the democratic impulse in a very striking manner, under the influence, no doubt, of J. F. Millet. In France, Jules Dalou (1838-1902), with a broader view, aimed at creating an art which should represent the aspirations and dreams of this phase of society while adhering to the fine old traditions of the art of Louis XIV., stamped with magnificence and grandeur, but applied with graver, simpler and severer feeling to the glorification of the people. He revived the older style of sculpture, giving it greater power and truer dignity by a close study of life, supported by a scholarly and serious technique. In his " Triumph of the Republic," and the monuments to " Alphand," to " Delacroix," to " Floquet," to " Victor Hugo," and others, he strove to create a style apart. from life, to which he is alien and indifferent, but based on life, the outcome of the needs of society, the impersonation of its characteristics, the expression in eloquent form of its nature, spirit, and moral idiosyncrasy. Treading the same path, though in a different step, is Auguste Rodin. He disregards every contingent fact; even when he takes his subject from legend or history, whether " Eve " or " St John the Baptist," " The Age of Bronze " or" The Burgesses of Calais," " Victor Hugo " or " Balzac," he avoids all the conventional details and attributes of his personages to embody the very essence of humanity as expressed in the quivering flesh. He, like Carpeaux, has gone back, to Dante and to Michelangelo to force the " Gates of Hell "—the subject chosen for the entrance to the Musee des Arts Decoratifs—and to read the deepest mysteries of the human soul. His is the art of suffering, anguish and terror, of cruel and despairing pleasure—a wild cycle of proud and bitter melancholy. All the efforts made in the past to infuse life into Art, all that Puget, Falconet, Pigalle and Houdon tried to effect, and that Rude, Barye and Carpeaux strove for in their turn—all this was part of the endeavour of these their successors, but with a clearer purpose and more conscious aim. By good hap or providence they were greeted on their way by the voice of the most devoted apostle who was to preach the new doctrine, namely, Louis Courajod, the founder of the French sculpture gallery in the Louvre. From his professor's chair in the schools he cursed the Italian intruders of the 16th century for having debased French art with " noble attitudes," extravagant gestures and allegorical antics; and he carried his pupils and his hearers back to the great national period of French sculpture, which, in the dark medieval ages, had created the splendid stone images of the noble French cathedrals. A marked individuality now appeared in protest against academic traditions—Albert Bartholome. He, after beginning as a painter, was tempted by sculpture, more particularly, in the first instance, by a wish to execute a monument to a comrade he had loved. From this first effort, carried out in his studio, without any school training, but with a firm determination to master technical difficulties and fulfil his dream, followed a broader purpose to execute a great expressive and vitally human work which should appeal to the heart of the populace. From this arose the idea of a "Monument to the Dead " in Pere Lachaise. Bartholome had started without a guide, but he instinctively turned to the great tradition of Northern Christianity, which his mind subsequently associated with that of the antique race who had ever done most honour to Death, the people of Egypt. Thus two currents contended, as it were, for the guidance of French sculpture, each claiming a descent from the historic past; one inheriting the classic tradition of the Renaissance, of Latin and Hellenic origin, to which the French school, since the time of Jean Goujon, has owed three centuries of glory. This is the pagan art of the South; its marks are balance, reasonableness and lucidity; it was the composer of apotheoses, the preserver of the ideal of beauty. The other, reverting, after centuries of resignation or of impotent rebellion, to the genuine French past which produced the noble works of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries—to the tradition of Flanders and of Burgundy, which was smothered in the 16th century by Italian art—to the Christian and naturalistic art of the North, which renounced the canons of antiquity, and expressed itself by methods essentially human and mutable, living and suffering-appeals to all mankind. The immediate result of this antagonism was no doubt a period of agitation. The outcome, on the whole, is confusion. Still, however vexatious the chaos of form and movement may be, it is Life, a true reflection of the tumult of modern thought in its complexity and bewilderment; it is the reawakening of sculpture. Monumental and decorative statuary found an extended sphere through the founding or restoration of public buildings after the events of 1870. Memorial sculpture obtained constant employment on patriotic or republican monuments erected in various parts of France, and not yet complete. Illustrious masters have done themselves honour in such work. Dalou, Mercie, Barrias, Falguiere, and many others less famous executed monuments to the glory of the Republic or in memory of the national defence, and figures of Joan of Arc as a symbol of patriotism, &c., as well as numberless statues erected in the market-places of humble towns, or even of villages, in commemoration of national or local celebrities: politicians, soldiers, savants and artists—Thiers, Gambetta, Jules Ferry, Carnot, Pasteur, Claude Bernard, Delacroix, Ingres, Corot, Millet, Victor Hugo, Lamartine and many more. The garden of the Luxembourg alone has become a sort of Elysian Fields, where almost every day some fresh statue rises up in memory of contemporary French poets. The funereal style of monument, in which French art was at all times conspicuously distinguished, was also revived in sympathy with that general sentiment which regards reverence for the dead as a religion, and gave rise, as we have seen, to some splendid work by Chapu (the monuments to Regnault, to Daniel Stern, of Mgr Dupanloup); by Paul Dubois (the monument to General Lamoriciere); by Mercie (the tombs of Baudry, of Cabanel, of King Louis Philippe and his queen Marie Amelie) ; by Dalou (the monuments to Victor Noir, to Floquet and Blanqui) ; and by many more, with Bartholome at their head. The cemetery of Pere Lachaise is indeed one of the best spots to visit for a review of contemporary sculpture. While man has been diligently studied in every class of sculpture, more particularly in portrait sculpture, which finds a more practical adaptation to daily uses by a bust or small statue, such as Theodore Riviere was the first to produce, by medallions, or by medals, closely related to statuary, nature now holds a place in the sculpture of animals—a place created, so to say, by Barye and carried on by Fremiet, Mene, Cain, and, with even greater vigour and a closer study of character, by Gardet (" Panthers," in the Luxembourg, " Lions " and " Dogs," at Chantilly, &c.); Peter, Valton, Le Duc, Isidore Bonheur, Peyrol, Cordier, Surand, Virion, Write and others. Finally, the class of la petite sculpture—the statuette and small group—after long hesitation in the hands of the two men who first cultivated it, Fremiet and the painter Ger6me, made a sudden start into life, due in no small measure to the success attending the charming and pathetic statuettes of Theodore Riviere (" Salammb6 and Malth6," " Ultimum feriens," " Charles VI. and Odette," " The Vow," " Fra Angelico," " The Shunammite Woman," &c.). Riviere was wont to use—as Ger'eme did in his " Bellona," and subsequently in his small " Tamerlane "—materials of various colours, and even precious stones and metals, which he employed with great effect. A whole class of art was not, indeed, originated, but strongly viyified by this method of treatment. Claudius Marioton and Dampt, who always affected small and precious work, Agathon Leonard (e.g. a table decoration of " Dancers " in Sevres china), Laporte Blairsy, Ferrary, Levasseur, Belloc, E. Lafont, &c., utilized every process and every kind of material—marble and metal, wood and ivory, enchanced by the most costly goldsmiths' work and gems. It would seem now that sculpture, thus endowed with new ideas and the most various means of expression, and adaptedto every comprehension and every situation, was fully on a level with the other graphic arts. What it had chiefly to fear was, in fact, the wealth of means at its disposal, and its competition or collaboration with other arts. And this the later generations seem to have understood—the men who were the outcome of the two conflicting traditions: order and moderation on one side; character, life, and emotion on the other. Though very variously inspired by the facts or ideals of contemporary life, such young artists as Jean Boucher ("Evening," " The Antique and the Modern "), Roger Bloche (" Childhood," "Cold "), Derre, Boverie, Hippolyte Lefebvre, Desruelles, Gaston Schnegg, Pierre Roche, Fix-Masseau, Couteilhas, and others seem to show that French sculpture is about to assume a solid position on a sound foundation, while not ceasing to keep in' touch with the tastes, aspects and needs--in short, the ideal—of the day. Thus, while painting engaged the attention of the public by. its new departures, its daring, and its very extravagance, sculpture, which by the conditions of its technique is less exposed to transient influences, has, since the close of the 19th century, developed normally but with renewed vigour. If the brilliancy of the school was not so conspicuous and its works gave rise to little discussion or speculation, it is not the less certain that at the beginning of the 20th century the younger generation offered the encouraging prospect of a compact group of sculptors who would probably leave works of permanent merit. Yet sculpture too had gone through a crisis, and been deeply stirred by the currents which so violently agitated all modern thought. We have already spoken of its " state of mind," torn between the noble traditions of a glorious past which link it to the antique, and the craving to render in its own medium, with greater freedom and fuller force of expression, all those unuttered meanings of the universe. and of contemporary thought which the other arts—painting, literature, the drama, and even music—have striven to identify and to record. But the acute stage of tentative and incoherent effort seemed in 1910 to be past; inspiration had returned. to its normal channel and purely plastic expression. The powerful individuality which.had the most vital influence on modern sculpture in France, and, it may be added, on many foreign schools, is that of Rodin. During the ten years which followed the Great Exhibition in Paris (1900) and the special display of his works, his reputation spread throughout the countries of the world and his fame was fully established. The state liberally contributed to his triumph by commissions and purchases, and in the Luxembourg Gallery may be seen about five and twenty of his finest works. His productiveness was unbroken, but it was chiefly evolved in relation to his first great conception, " The Gate of Hell "; its leading features were taken up again, modified, expanded, and added to by their creator. But besides the numberless embodiments of voluptuous, impassioned, or pathetic ideas—of which there is need to name only " Les ombres " (the Shades) and " Le penseur " (the Thinker), now placed in front of the steps of the Pantheon; several monuments, as for instance to Victor Hugo, to Whistler, and to Puvis de Chavannes; besides a large number of portrait-busts. Enthusiastic literary men, and the critics of the day who upheld Rodin in his struggles, more from an instinct of pugnacity and a love of paradox than from conviction and real comprehension of his prodigious and fertile genius, have tended to give him a poetic and prophetic aspect, and make him appear as a sort of Dante in sculpture. Though his art is vehement in expression, and he has revelled in the presentment of agonized suffering and the poignant melancholy of passion, it is by the methods of Michelangelo and essentially plastic treatment than power of modelling. His modelling is indeed the most wonderful that modern sculpture has to show, the most purely plastic technique, and this characteristic is always evident in his work, combined with reverence for the antique. Rodin made his home in the midst of Greek statues, a museum of the antique which he collected at Meudon; and some of his own late work, such as the male torsos which he exhibited at .the Salon, has a direct relationship to the marbles of the Parthenon—the Ilyssus and the Theseus. It is the fuller understanding of these characteristics of Rodin's work, apart from some exaggeration of expression to which they have given rise, that has had the most valuable influence on the younger generation. Nothing need be particularly noted as to the development of masters long since recognized, whatever branch of the school they belong to; such as Fremiet, Mercie, Marqueste, Injalbert, Saint-Marceaux and others already spoken of. The very distinct individuality of Bartholome, after asserting itself in his crowning effort the " Monument of the Dead," found very delicate expression in numerous works on a more modest scale, nude figures, monumental groups, and portraits. His monument to Jean-Jacques Rousseau for the Pantheon (1909) is a fine example of his art. We must not omit, after the elder generation, the name of Alfred Lenoir, who particularly distinguished himself in portrait-statues by dealing successfully with the difficult problem of modern dress, as in the monuments of Berlioz, to Cesar Franck, to Marshal Canrobert, in the bust of M. Moreau, &c.; nor that of Gustave Michel, a spirit loftily inspired in his decorative compositions and figures for galleries, " Le reve " (the Dream), " La pensee " (Thought)—both in the Luxembourg Gallery,—" Au soir de la vie " (in the Evening of Life), and " Automne." H. Greber, after some realistic works, such as " Le Grisou " (Fire-damp) and portrait-statuettes, as the tiny full-length figures of " Fremiet " and of " Gevine," distinguished himself in the Salon of 1909 by a statue of " Narcissus " at the edge of a fountain-pool, very elegant and Italian in feeling. And among the younger men of the school we must name Verlet, Gasq Vermare, Ernest Dubois, and Larche, all employed on important works. It must indeed be said that in France, apart from the select committees which have, with more or less success, peopled provincial towns with monumental statues, the government has always taken an interest in encouraging the art of sculpture. Any considerable work of that class could hardly be undertaken without its support. The former Council of Fine Arts in Paris foresaw the application of sculpture to the decoration of the park of Saint Cloud; the present council has encouraged a strong competition among our sculptors by decorating the squares of the Carrousel and of the Champ de Mars, by carrying on the decorative work in the Pantheon, &c. They have thus given commissions to a group of rising artists, who quickly made a distinguished reputation. The names of these younger sculptors have already been recorded here; in the ten years 1901–1910 they came into the front rank of their contemporaries by their conspicuous talent and the firm expression of their ideals. The first fact to be noted about them is their determination to be men of their time. Many artists before them were indeed possessed by this idea: Legros, Dalou, the Belgian sculptor Constantin Meunier, the American St Gaudens, and among their immediate precursors Alfred Lenoir. But now this purposeful bias is more strongly marked; the new men do not restrict themselves to the merely monumental or commemorative aspect, to the picturesque treatment of the miners or the tillers of the soil. Every type of the people, even of the middle-class citizen, is included in the programme. Alexandre Charpentier (d. 1909) was one of the earliest of these younger realists, and he gave it expression not only in sculpture proper, but in medal work, and has-reliefs introduced into architecture, in decorative furniture and in every form of ornamental sculpture. Thus he produced the " Woman suckling her Infant " (1883) and a large bas-relief of " Bakers," executed in stone and placed in the square of St Germain des Pres, Paris; and, following in his footsteps, other artists gave expression to the same ideas. An instructive fact is that one of these men was a pupil of the Ecole des Beaux Arts and of the academy at Rome. Hippolyte Lefebvre devoted himself to proving that the common aspects of modern life are not an insuperable problem for the sculptor's art; nay, that they actually afford him new subjects most suitable to his methods. He persisted in this purpose, and finally won the adhesion of his fellow-artists and the medal of honour for his " Jeunes aveugles " (Blind Boys), in the Luxembourg Gallery. We have also by him in this manner of the day, handled with truly synthetic breadth, " Summer," a youthful female figure in an ordinary walking dress carrying a parasol, her straw hat tilted over her eyes; " Winter," an old lady wrapped in furs, coming down snow-covered steps; " Spring," more accurately the " Age of Love," a group of six figures, and others. His comrade Roger Bloche has gone even further, asserting with no little pugnacity the same ideas in figures derived from the people, and in episodes of daily life, as in the " Accident," a recumbent figure surrounded by about twenty bystanders, drawn from every rank of society and rendered with that firm decision and breadth of treatment which alone constitute a work of art. This work earned him a first prize in the Salon of 1909. These awards are an unmistakable sign of official recognition of these tendencies, so long ignored and disapproved. Such encouragement has borne fruit. Francois Sicard and Henri Bouchard, who both had won the prix de Rome, started boldly on the new road, one in his monumental sculpture (a " Monument of the War of 1870 " at Tours; " Monument to Barbey "; " Monument to Bertagna "; a pediment for a college for girls at Tours), the other in works recalling the feeling of Constantin Meunier by subjects of labour, in town or country, small figures in bronze, or large and important decorative groups, as '' La Carriere " (the Quarry) and " Le Defrichement "(Turning the Sod), a group of six oxen led by two men. This was intended to decorate the Champ de Mars. Meantime the study of beauty in the nude, far from being' neglected, seemed to start on a new flight. Some students of the Roman school revived this tradition. Victor Segoffin and Maximilien Landowski, each in his own nervous, vivid and characteristic manner, and, borne on an independent current, Louis Convers and Aim& Octobre show a feeling for grace and charm. This is the normal and traditional heritage of the school; we see how strikingly it has renewed itself. In opposition to the followers of Rodin we find another group which represents an antagonistic school. Mademoiselle Camille Claudel, Jose de Charmoy and Henri Matisse typify the extremes of this manner; Emile Bourdelle, Aristide Maillot and Lucien Schnegg might be regarded as some of the artists who best deserved attention. With various characteristics and vehement or equable temperament they all reveal in the highest degree a fine sense of purely plastic qualities; in them we find no lapse into the pictorial, no purpose or arriere-pensee that is not of the essence of sculpture. Emile Bourdelle has given us busts of Beethoven, Carpeaux, Heracles (in the Luxembourg Gallery), Pallas Athena, and the large group of " Wrestlers of Tarn et Garonne " for completion in bronze. Maillot for his part prefers to work in marble and stone with large surfaces, after the tradition of the ancients; he exhibited in the autumn Salons several heads of girls and of old women, a figure of a youth in bronze (1909) and a stooping nude female figure in plaster. Lucien Schnegg's (d. 1909) reputation would have been assured by one bust only from his hand, that, namely, of his pupil " Mademoiselle Jane Poupelet." This in marble is now in the Luxembourg Gallery, and is a masterpiece for grace and dignity in the best spirit of the antique. Besides these there should be named Jean Boucher, who has executed a monument to Renan, the " Evening of Life " and " Ancient and Modern "; E. Derr-6, an inventive decorator, with social tendencies and grateful emotional feeling; Max Blondat, lively and witty, as is seen in a fountain with frogs entitled " eunesse " (exhibited in the Royal Academy, 1910) and Love " (in the Luxembourg Gallery); Abbal, Pierre Roche, who loves to handle very various materials—marble, stone and lead; Moreau-Vauthier, D. Poisson, Fix-Masseau, Gaudissard, David, Jacquot, Despiau, known by some fine busts, Drivier, Niclausse and Michel Cazin. Sculpture on a small scale was effectively carried on by L. Dejean, Vallgren, Carabin, who carves in wood, Cavaillon and Feomont-Meurice. The sculpture of animals, since G. Gardet and P. Peter, has been brilliantly executed by Paul Jouve, Christophe, Navellier, Bigot, Perrault-Harry, Marie Gautier, Berthier and others. (L. BE.) The inevitable reaction in Belgium following upon the long period of dry and lifeless academic sculpture is difficult to trace to any particular pioneer or leader. Nevertheless the three men who certainly mark this period of revolt nr°dern are Guillaume Geefs, De Bay and Simonis. There sculpture. is, however, very little to be remembered of these men except that they were the best of their time. Geef's work was marred greatly by his frivolous and unessential details and poverty of thought, together with a frigid coldness of expression in his modelling. In his statue of General Belliard at Brussels, however, he shows the tendency to search for a broader and truer interpretation that warrants his being mentioned as belonging to the movement against the academic school. De Bay was a sculptor of a more artistic temperament, and though some of his works are charming and sympathetic when judged by the standard of his own day, few show evidence of advanced ideas. The work of Simons is very different. Beyond the mere endeavour to grasp something more true, his work is fresher and perhaps more honest, more bold and gifted with more life. Such qualities are shown in his " Young Girl," in the museum at Brussels, and " Godefroid de Bouillon," in the Place Roy*. Besides these three sculptors there was no man of note to strengthen the revival of sculptural art until Paul de Vigne (1843–1901). His early work bears the unmistakable influence of the Italian Renaissance, but after studying in Paris and in Rome he became a follower of the true classic ideal, not of the so-called classicism of Canova and his followers. He was a prolific artist, and from his numerous works it is difficult to pronounce one as his masterpiece. Perhaps that most generally considered his best is the sepulchral marble figure of " Immortality " in the museum at Brussels. Almost its equal in beauty and truthful rendering are his two bronze groups, " The Triumph of Art," on the facade of the Palais des Beaux Arts at Brussels, and the monument to Breydell and De Koninck at Bruges. Among his other works are " Fra Angelico of Fiesole." the bust of Professor Moke, at Antwerp, " Heliotrope " in the museum at Ghent, " Portrait of M. Charles van Hutten," the Wilson monument in the Musee Communal, Brussels, the statue of " Marnix de Sainte Aldegonde " in Brussels, the monument erected at Courtrai to Mgr de Hearne, the monument of Meddepenningen at Ghent, and the monument of the Gevaert family in the Communal Cemetery at Evere. The art of Charles van der Stappen (b. 1843) is decorative in character, mostly applied to architecture, though he proved himself a versatile sculptor, producing many statues, reliefs, groups, monumental works, and statuettes. His works include a silver centre-piece executed for the town of Brussels, the statue of William the Silent in the Square du Petit Sablon, Brussels, a bust for the monument of Edouard Agneesens in the cemetery of St Josse-ten-noode, St Michael in the Gothic hall of the Hotel de Ville, Brussels, the monument to Baron Coppens near Sheet, the Alexandre Gendebien monument at Brussels, statues for the Alhambra theatre and Caryatids for the architect De Curtis' house in the same city, and the group of tired workmen, called " The Builders of Cities." The work of Thomas Vincotte is characterized chiefly by its vigour and vitality. Vin9otte is classed by some authorities as belonging to the classic group, but his work is less graceful than that of de Vigne and more vigorous and life-like than Van der Stappen's. There is perhaps more movement in his work than in that of any of his con-temporaries. The many portraits he executed reveal the ability of grasping the essentials of portraiture as well as the discrimination necessary to discard everything that does not render the work alike and characteristic. Among his works are a statue of Giotto in the Brussels Museum, " Music," on the facade of the Palais des Beaux Arts, the Godecharles monument in the Park, the bronze group of the " Horsebreaker " in the Avenue Louise, and the statue " Agneessens " in the Boulevard du Midi, all of them in Brussels. There is also a bronze group of horses and Tritons for the park of the Chateau d'Ardenne. Few men have exercised such influence upon Belgian sculpture as Jef Lambeaux (1852–1908), the Flemish artist. He was born at Antwerp of poor and obscure parents. At an early age he showed great aptitude for drawing, and after a very meagre education he was apprenticed to a wood carver. While there he studied at the academy schools. At sixteen he completed his course and undertook his first important commission, that for two reliefs for the tympana of the French theatre. He was successful for a time in producing statuettes, but after a while his success waned and he was obliged to abandon sculpture and to take any work he could get. After a period devoted to odd employments—sometimes painting, sometimes modelling—he again saved money to enable him to produce some good works. The first of these, " The Kiss," was finished in 1880. It had a great success and was bought by the Antwerp Museum. This discovery of a sculptor of talent led the town of Antwerp to find the means for sending Lambeaux to Italy. After studying in Florence he returned to produce " La Folle Chanson," which by some is considered his masterpiece. The group of " Intoxication " produced later is less satisfactory. The figures show a curious and unpleasant development which the sculptor's previous work scarcely hinted at. A work which may be placed with his " Folle Chanson " is the " Fountain of Brabo " in front of the Hotel de Ville at Antwerp. This in fact is declared by many critics to be Lambeaux's chefd'cauvre; it is certainly his most imposing monument. Other works of his are " The Robber of the Eagle's Nest," the wonderful colossal relief, " The Passions of Humanity," " The Wrestlers " and " The Orgy." Less bold and energetic than Lambeaux's is the work of Julien Dillens (b. 1849). Though it does not possess that sense of life and the directness which is found in his brother sculptor, his standard of excellence was steadier. He will be remembered as one of Belgium's finest decorative sculptors, for his best work has been done in architectural enrichment. His pediment for the Hospice des Trois Allies at Uccle is a successful treatment of the difficult dress of modern times. Dillen's masterpiece is without doubt the group of " Justice " in the Palais de Justice at Brussels. He is responsible for many other important works, the chief of which are the busts of De Pede and Rubens in the Brussels Museum, a statue of Van Orley in one of the squares of Brussels, " The Lansquenets," on the summit of the Royal Palace. (before its reconstruction), a statue of Jean de Nivelles on the front of the Palais de Justice at Nivelles, and the marble statues of St Victor and St Louis at Epernay. There is yet another artist who ranks as one of the greatest sculptors of Flanders.- This is Jules Lagae (b. 1862). He was a pupil of Jef Lambeaux. His work does not call for further distinction from that of Dillens and Lambeaux, than that it is what may be termed " delicate " and possessed a distinctive charm of spontaneous freshness. His " Mother and Child," shown at Florence in '891, is a good example of the first quality, while " The Kiss," a terra-cotta bust, shows his spontaneity. In the Walloon provinces two sculptors have done much for the renaissance of the art, Achille Chainave and Jean Marie Gaspar. Achille Chainaye (b. 1862) is not a prolific sculptor, but all his workis inspired, it would seem, by similar motives and ideas to those which inspired the early sculptors of Florence. The scarcity of his works may be accounted for by the fact that his productions were received with ridicule and derision. Meeting with scant success, he abandoned sculpture and devoted himself to journalism. The work of Jean. Marie Gaspar (b. 1864) shows the inspiration of a whole gamut of emotions, but hardly the continuity of purpose necessary to carry to completion half of his conceptions. He studied under Lambeaux, and, while still in his master's studio, he produced a wonderful group, " The Abduction," two men on furious, plunging horses wrestling for the possession of a struggling woman. This group was shown at the Paris Exposition of 1889, and brought immediate fame to the then unknown sculptor. Of his other finished works may be cited " The Brave," an Indian on horseback; " Adolescents," a charming group of two nude children embracing; " The Young Girl on a Rock," and the Panther," destined for the botanical gardens at Brussels. From the death in 1904 of Constantin Meunier (b. 1831) up to the year 1910 no man had advanced beyond the standard set up by that great sculptor. At the outset of his career Meunier had, like all pioneers, to contend with the hostility and derision of the public and of the press. His work touched a hitherto unawakened note. His sympathies lay all with the people who, obscure and unsung, work for the enrichment of the nation. Thus we find his energies and love of work wrapped around the iron foundry, the mine, the field and the factory. His art is not the art of the pseudo-classic, nor is he influenced by the masters of the Renaissance. His work is free and straightforward, true almost to brutality, but withal inspired by a love of doing homage to the workers of the people. He studied in the studio of Fraikin. But it is unlikely that he was much influenced by him, and he soon forsook sculpture for painting. He was for some years one of the group of independent painters, which included De Groux, Dubois, Boulanger, and Baron. When these artists fell apart, Meunier stood alone, painting where no painter had before ventured or given a thought, working amongst the machinery, the pits, and the great factory yards. He continued for twenty-five years to paint in this manner, ignoring public ridicule and neglect. Then Meunier suddenly returned to his old love and produced some small, statuettes. One of these—a puddler seated in an attitude of weariness, hard and rough and muscular, clad in little beyond his leathern apron—attracted much attention at the exhibition of the " Society of the XX." at Brussels. The subject and the treatment, so different to the recognized precepts of the schools, created a vast amount of discussion. From that time Meunier continued on the road he had taken, and produced works which gained to him new believers and new friends. Among his chief productions are " Fire-damp," in the Brussels Museum, ' The Mower," in the Jardin Botanique at Brussels, " The Glebe," and " Puddlers at the Furnace," both in the Luxembourg Museum, " The Hammerman," the statues on the facade of Notre Dame de la Chapelle, and the monument to Father Damien at Louvain. Jacques de Lalaing is the author of the masterly monument erected at Evere to the English officers and men who fell at Waterloo, an elaborate work full of imagination and sculptural force and originality. His statue to Robert Cavelier de la Salle, at Chicago, is also a noteworthy performance, and important decorative works by him are to be seen embellishing public gardens in Brussels. Among the leading sculptors of to-day is to be ,eckoned Charles Samuel, who leans towards the traditions of yesterday. Canova so dominated the world of sculpture at the beginning of the 19th century that the pseudo-classic style which he introduced remained typical of all the Italian sculpture of note until Bartolini led the movement which h1°dero ultimately * crushed it. In Rome Canova completely sculpture. overshadowed all other sculptors except perhaps Thorwaldsen, the Danish sculptor, who resided for some time in that city. It is true that Pompeo Marchesi (1789–1858) at the outset of his career enjoyed great popularity, but at the time of his death he was well-nigh forgotten. The interval between the death of Canova and the rise of Bartolini and the new school was filled in by men of mediocre talent, in whose work the influence of the leader of classicism is strongly marked. ' Francesco Carradori (1747–1824), Camillo Pacetti (1758–1826), Rinaldo Rinaldi (b. 1793) and Giuseppe Fabris (b. 'Soo) were all followers of Canova, the last three being pupils of that master. Lorenzo Bartolini (1777–1850) became the leader of the movement towards naturalism. This was nothing. more nor less than the servile copying of form—both in natural forms and in dress. Nevertheless Bartolini must be remembered as the pioneer of a different kind of naturalism which was of far greater importance than the manner of treating forms and texture. His , true originality lay in ' his representations of character. In place of the classic subjects invariably treated in his time, he applied himself to the study of actual life. Instead of the expressionless faces of the pseudo-classic, he gave vitality and energy. A sculptor who was much talked of in his day was Pietro Tenerani (1789–1869), a native of Torano near Carrara. He worked for some time as assistant to Thorwaldsen. Later these two sculptors jointly accepted a commission for the monument of Eugene Beauharnais, and as Thorwaldsen wished to suppress the younger man's name, they quarrelled and finally separated. Tenerani visited Munich and Berlin, where he enjoyed the patronage of Frederick William IV. During the disturbances of 1848 and 1849 he was obliged to leave Rome with his family, in consequence of his sympathy with the Papists and his friend-ship for Count Pellegrino Rossi, who was assassinated in 1848. Amongst Tenerani's works are a statue of Count Rossi, 4 monument to Pius VIII. in the sacristy of St Peter's, " The Angel of Resurrection " in the Friedenskirche at Potsdam, a low relief in the church at Castle-Ashby, Northamptonshire, and " The Descent from the Cross," in the Torlonia chapel in St John Lateran. The last-named reveals the close study of nature so characteristic of his work. The most distinguished Piedmontese sculptor of this period was Marochetti, who is referred to above in connexion with the British school. Although Vincenzio Vela (182o—1891) was Swiss by birth, he was Italian both by adoption and in his sympathies. In 1838 he won the prize offered by the government to the students of the Lombard-Venetian provinces of Austria, and became known by his statue of Spartacus. His chief works are a statue of Bishop Luini at Lugano; Desolation,' at the Villa Gabrina, Lugano; William Tell, at Lugano; the Alfieri and statues of Dr Gallo at the university, and of Cesare Balbo, all at Turin; the statues of Tommaso Grossi and Gabrio Piola at the Brera, Milan; Dante and ' Giotto at Padua; Joachim Murat at the Certosa, Bologna; and Cavour at Genoa. His masterpiece is the seated figure of Napoleon at Versailles. After Bartolini, sculpture in Italy slowly developed along the lines of " naturalism " suggested by that leader. Perhaps the greatest activity and advance are to be recorded around Naples, a city till then of subordinate importance in art. Tommaso Solari (b. 1820), who may be regarded as one of the group belonging to Naples, produced work which is hardly distinguishable from that of Vela. His statue of Carlo Poerio, which occupies an important position in Naples, is characteristic of his work. He was followed by several sculptors whose works betray but little originality except in some cases in the forcing of qualities they wished to accentuate,. and the selection of daring or dramatic subjects—qualities which reveal the true character of the Neapolitan. The work of Raffaele Belliazzi, another Neapolitan (b. 1835), like that of Solari, is full of conscientious study, but his naturalism shows no genius. Among his works are "The Sleeping Boy," in the Gallery of Modern Art, Rome; " A Woman and Child,' and two terra-cotta busts at Capodimonte. Emilio Franceschi (1839–1890) and kchille D'Orsi (b. 1845) both belonged to the Neapolitan group of sculptors. Though the former was not a native of Naples, he resided there from 1869 until his death. But while Franceschi was influenced to a very large extent by the Neapolitan school, D'Orsi broke away from it and created a distinctive style of his own. He studied in Rome, and in 1876 returned to Naples, where he produced " I1 Cabalista," followed by " The Parasites," the latter establishing his fame by its singularity both of subject and treatment. It represents two gluttons in a state of extreme intoxication. The group is remarkable as showing lYOrsi s powers of characterization. A man of perhaps greater original thought was Francesco Jerace, who seems to have been entirely free from the ` academic " smallness which characterized the followers of the naturalistic movement. He was born at Polistena in Calabria in 1853. His work bears the impress of his personality and his rather marked aloofness from his contemporaries. He is the author of the monument to Mary Somerville, the English mathematician, which is in the Protestant cemetery at Naples; Vittoria Colonna, exhibited at the Brera, Milan, in 1894; and the Beethoven exhibited at Venice, 1895. At Bergamo there is a statue of the musician Donizetti, which was placed there in 1897. Vincenzo Gemito was born at Naples in 1852 of parents in a very humble position. He picked up a living in various occupations until, at the age of fourteen, he entered the studio of Emanuele Caggiano (1866). He worked hard and to some purpose, for two years after he modelled " The Gamester," which is at Capodimonte. This work shows evidence of astounding precocity. His work is xEv. zsrealistic, but forcible and more alive than that of many sculptors of his day. Gemito was supremely confident of his powers, and in a manner this was justified by his early recognition both amongst critics and the public. He designed a statue of Charles V. for the facade of the Royal Palace at Naples. A small figure of a water-carrier upon a fountain is now in the Gallery of Modern Art at Rome; in the same gallery are his statuette of Meissonier and a terra-cotta figure of Brutus. A sculptor of quite a different class of subject is Costantinc Barbella, born at Chieti in 1853, who gave his entire attention to pastoral subjects, dealing with the costumes, types and occupations of the folk among whom his early life was spent. In the Royal Villa at Monza is a replica of his three peasant girls—a group in terra-cotta. In the national gallery at Rome there are a group of " The Departure of the Conscript," " The Conscript's Return," and another called April." For some years the activity amongst what may be called the Sicilian group of sculptors was headed by Benedetto Civiletti (b. Palermo, 1846). Civiletti was a pupil of Dupre, but his work bears little impress of his master's influence; it is characterized mostly by its force and meaning of gesture and facial expression.. His statue of " The Youth Dante " at the moment of the first meeting with Beatrice, and his seated figure of " The Young Caesar " are both works which successfully show his power of pose and facial expression. He is the author also of the famous Canaria group, " Christ in Gethsemane," " The Dead Christ," a group of the siege of Missolonghi, and a group of seventeen life-size figures representing the last stand of the Italians at the massacre of Dogali. The family of Ximenes of Palermo is noted on account of the three of its members who each became well known in the world of art: Empedocle, the painter. Eduardo, the writer, and Ettore, the sculptor. Ettore was a pupil of Morelli. His earliest work of note was a boy balancing himself upon a ball which he called " Equilibrium." He also produced La Rixe," " Le marmiton," Cuore del Re," " The Death of Ciceruacchio," " Achilles," and many others. His statue of " Revolution " is one of his best works. Giulio Monteverde's work is conspicuous for its gaiety and sparkle, but though he has had some influence upon the recent sculptors of Italy, his work follows the naturalistic precepts laid down by his predecessors. A group of his own children, full of vivacious merriment, is in the Palazzo Bianco at Genoa; a " Madonna and Child " is in the Camposanto, and a statue of Victor Emmanuel stands in the square in the centre of Bologna. Ettore Ferrari of Rome (b. 1849) is another sculptor whose work shows remarkable care and love of what is called finish. He has produced the statues Porcari," the medieval revolutionist, " Ovid," " Jacopo Ortis," " A Roman Slave," " Giordano Bruno," in the Campo di Fiori, and " Abraham Lincoln," in the New York Museum. To the Roman group of sculptors also belongs Ercole Rosa (b. 1846). That he was a man of considerable talent is shown by his group of the Cairoli at Rome and his monument of Victor Emmanuel near the cathedral at Milan. Emilio Gallori, who studied at the Florence academy, is the author of the colossal statue of St Peter on the facade of the cathedral at Florence. He won the competition for, and executed, the Garibaldi monument at Rome. A sculptor who is looked upon as the leader of the Venetian school is Antonio dal Zotto (b. 1841), a follower of Ferrari, at whose hands he received much of his training. He won the prix de Rome offered by the academy, and in Rome he met and became a friend of Tenerani. Being a man of independent views, however, he was but little affected by Tenerani's work. He was then twenty-five years old, and after spending two years in Rome and in other centres of artistic interest, he returned to Venice, where he produced a statue of St Anthony of Padua, one of Petrarch and another of Galileo. In 188o he completed his statue of Titian for the master's birth-place, Pieve di Cadore, and in 1883 he finished the figure of Goldoni In Venice. He is author also of a statue of Victor Emmanuel and a monument of Tartini the violinist, the former in the memorial tower on the battlefield of S. Martino near Brescia, the latter in a public square at Pirano. Turin boasts many sculptors who are known throughout the country. Chief of these is Odoardo Tabacchi (b. 1831). He is the joint author with Antonio Tantardini of the Cavour monument at Milan. He has modelled several subjects of a lighter type, such as " The Bather," exhibited in Milan in 1894. Lorenzo Bistolfi, a lounger man, conquered recognition chiefly by his composition of Grief Comforted by Memory." Amongst other Turin sculptors must be mentioned Luigi Belli, author of the Raphael monument at Urbino, and Davide Calandra, whose " L'Aratro " is in the national gallery at Rome. As everywhere in western and central Europe, national sculpture in Austria during the first half of the 19th century was altogether influenced by the classicism of the Italian Canova—in Austria perhaps more than in Modern Austrian other countries, since two of Canova's most important ccarptaro works came to Vienna in the early years of the century: the famous tomb of Marie Christine in the Augustinerkirche, 1i which was ordered by Duke Albrecht of Saxony, in 18o5, at the two imperial museums. Munich owns his monument of King price of 20,000 ducats; and the Theseus group, bought by the Ka Maximan II. rl Ku~ndmann~ b. 1838),stoawhose vigorous art Vienna owesthat the emperor Francis, in Rome, which is now in the Vienna Museum. Tegetthoff monument (based on the Duilius column), the Schubert Canova's pupil, Pompeo Marchesi, was the author of the emperor statue, the seated figure of Grillparzer, and the awkwardly placed Francis monument, unveiled in 1846, in the inner court of the " Minerva " in front of the houses of parliament. Joseph V. Mysl-Hofburg. beck (b. 1848) worked under Thomas Seidaus (183o–189o), and is The first national sculptor of note was the Tirolese Franz the author of the equestrian figure of St Vaelav, of The Crucified Saviour," and of the Sladkowsky tomb in Prague. The most successful Zauner (1746–1822), who was knighted in 1807 (the year in of the younger school was Edmund Hellmer (b. 1850), who executed which his Kaiser-Joseph monument was unveiled) and became the group on the pediment of the houses of parliament; " Francis director of the Vienna gallery and academy. Among his works Joseph granting the Constitution "; the Turkish monument at St the tomb of Leopold II. in the Augustinerkirche; the Stephen's; one of the wall fountains on the facade of the new Hofburg are (Austria's land power)—the companion figure (" Sea Power ") is tomb of General Laudon at Hadersdorf; the tomb of the poet by Rudolf Weyr (b. 1847) ;—the animated Bacchus frieze of the Heinrich von Collin in the Karlskirche in Vienna; and a number Court Theatre; the statue of Francis Joseph in the polytechnic of busts in the Empire style, which are by no means remarkable as institute; and the reliefs of the Grillparzer monument. of artistic individuality. Leopold Kiesling Like Hellmer and Weyr, Victor Tilgner (1844–1896) was a pupil of expressions (1770– F. Bauer; but he owed his training rather to Joseph von Gasser 1827), another Tirolese, whose first work on a large scale is the and Daniel Boehm. He produced a vast number of portrait busts Mars, Venus and Cupid, in the Imperial gallery, was sent by of his most prominent contemporaries in Vienna. Among his most his patron, Count Cobenzl, to Rome, where he was more attracted notable monuments are those to Mozart and Makart in Vienna, the by Canova than by the antique or the late Renaissance. Joseph Werndl figure at Steyr, Burgermeister Petersen in Hamburg, and a war memorial at Koniggratz, in addition to numerous monumental Klieber (1773–1850), also Tirolese, enjoyed the protection of fountains. Artistically on a higher plane than Tilgner stands Prince Johann Liechtenstein, who employed him in the plastic Arthur Strasser (b. 1854), who excelled in polychromatic work on a decoration of his town residence and country seats. His reputa- small scale. In the 'seventies his Japanese figures excited consider- excelled as sculptor of colossal figures for imperial triumphal arches able interest and attracted Makart's attention. He excelled in and loft tombs was so widespread that he was given the Egyptian and Indian genre figures, such aprhn Hindu between an lofty g two elephants. An Arab ab leaning against a Sphinx and a classic commission for the catafalque of Louis XVIII. in Paris. Many female figure with a funeral torch were strikingly decorative. His middle-class houses of the Empire period in .Vienna were decor- green patined bronze of " The Triumph of Antinous " with a team ated by him with reliefs of children. The elaborate relief figures of lions was awarded a first medal at the Paris Exhibition of. 1900. Vincent and on the Andreas Hofer monument in Innsbruck are the work of caryatids on n the (b. Vienna na h'wasouses th of the parliament, , anandd of t quadrigas the h Kigasolztitz itz his hand. His followers were less favoured by powerful protec- and Tiirck monuments. Contemporary with him were KarlCostetion and were forced into a definite direction: among them noble (b. 1837), Alois Dull (b. 1843), Otto Konig (b. 1838), Anton must be mentioned Johann Martin Fischer (1740-1820), who Schmidgruber (b. 1837), the craftsman Franz Schonthaler, Johann succeeded Zauner as head of the academy. His best-known work Vienna, Sinna, gel (b. 1839)—the author of the Liebenberg monument in and Anton Wagner (1534–1900), whose Goose Girl " is is " The Muscle-man," which still serves as model to students. one of the monumental features of the streets of Vienna. Classic Of the greatest importance for the development of Austrian form was represented by Johannes Benk, who did good work in sculpture in the second half of the 19th century was the influence groups for pediments. One of his latest productions is the Amerlin monument in the Vienna town park. Theodor Friedel (1842-1899) of Joseph Daniel Boehm (1794–1865), director of the academy excelled in decorative work on a large scale. His are " The Horse of coin-engravers, and discriminating collector of art treasures. Tamers " in front of the Hof-Stallgebaude. He was the father of Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, R.A. Emanuel Edmund Hofmann von Aspernburg (b. 1847) is the sculptor of the von Max (18ro–1900), who in conjunction with his brother Friedrich Schmidt monument, of the bronze centaurs in front of the h modelled the Radetzky monument in Prague, wrote Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, and of the monument of Archduke Joseph Karl Ludwig. The works of Stefan Schwartz (b. 1851) are remark-in his autobiography, concerning the year 1833 in Vienna: able for their vigour. He excelled in a new technique of embossing " Art, particularly sculpture, was at the lowest ebb. The portrait plaques in silver direct from life: He counts also among the appearance of a statuette or bust at an exhibition was considered best Viennese medallists, almost equalling Heinrich Natter (x844= became professor of sculture in wood. an event." But a strong movement began towards the end The veryetalent distatuet e-m ker Ludwig Dtirnbauer (186o–1895) of the 'fifties. Professor Franz Bauer, of the Vienna academy 'died almost at the beginning of what promised to be a brilliant (1797–1872), exercised a most stimulating influence upon the career. Other distinguished sculptors of statuettes and works on a rising generation. Among the earlier artists, whose life overlaps small scale were Hans Rathausky (b. 1858) and Johann Scherpe into the new era, were Anton Dietrich (1799–1872) who is (b. 1855), who was entrusted with the execution of the Anzengruber « „ monument. They all were pupils of Kundmann, as was also the best known by The Three Magi, on the porch of the church animal sculptor Lax. Karl Schwerzek is the author of the Lei}ati of St John, and by a very beautiful ivory crucifix; and Johann and Anastasias Grunbusts in Vienna, and Franz Vogl (b. 1861) of Preleuthner (b. x8ro). the poet Raimund's monument. Among Zumbusch's pupils were The architectural rejuvenation of Vienna led to the rise of an Anton Brenck, the creator of the emperor Joseph II. monuments original local school of sculpture. J. D. Boehm devoted himself in Brunn and Reichenberg; Emanuel Pendl, whose colossal marble almost entirely to goldsmith-work and medals, but with the aid of statue of " Justice " is placed in the law courts in Vienna; and Hans his great collections he taught the new generation and helped to Bitterlich (b. 1860), whose bust of Exner in the Vienna university develop original talent. Hans Gasser (1817–1868) owed him his is one of the most remarkable pieces of realistic portraiture in that introduction to society, for whom he produced many busts. He city. Another work of his is the Gutenberg monument. Othmar modelled the empress Elisabeth monument at the western railway Schimkowitz is remarkable for a strikingly original style. station in Vienna, the Wieland monument in Weimar, and the In the other provinces under the Austrian emperor's rule, the famous " Donauweibchen " in the Vienna town park. His brother, best-known sculptors are the Carniole Marcell Guicki (183o-1894), Joseph Gasser von Wallhorn (b. 1816), was a sculptor of figures of Lewandowski, Buracz, and the Tirolese Gurschner, who follows the saints, many of which decorate St Stephen's Cathedral and the modern French style of statuette sculptors. Votive Church in Vienna. Anton Fernkorn (1813–1878), born at In the art of the medallist, Professor Karl Radnitzky the elder Erfurt, was Austrian by his art. He started as a metal worker, (b. 1818) led the way after J. D. Boehm; but he was surpassed'by and studied in Munich, but not at the academy. His talent was only his pupil Joseph Tautenhayn (b. 1837), whose large shield ' Struggle fully developed after he settled in Vienna, which city owes to him between the Centaurs and Lapithae” was the cause of his appoint-the bold equestrian bronze monuments of Archduke Charles (1859) ment as professor. More important still is Anton Scharff (b. 1845), and Prince Eugene of Savoy (1865). He became director of the a real master of the delicate art of the medallist. imperial bronze foundry, in which post he was followed by his pupil At the beginning of the 19th century the art of sculpture Franz Poenninger. Johann Meixner (b. 1819 in Bohemia) is the creator of the marble figures on the Albrecht Fountain, one of the was practically dead in Spain—or at least was mainly confined most famous and imposing monuments in Vienna: Vienna received to the mechanical production of images of saints. Spaais6 a few of her most important monuments from the strong personality But towards the middle of the century the two brothers 19tkopar h . I8 mo nue ands that of Marcia Theresa, an imposing t and skilfully Agapito and Venancio Vallmitjana, of Barcelona, pto designed work, which solves in admirable fashion the problem of encouraged by the enthusiasm with which some of placing a monument effectively between the heavy masses of the their works had been received by local connoisseurs, took part in the Paris Figure competition for the figure which decorates the entrance to the offices of that journal, and carried off the second prize. They afterwards obtained the first prize in other competitions at Madrid and other Spanish centres. Their chief works are: " Beauty dominating Strength," " St Vincent de Paul," the large statue erected at Valencia to Don Jaime Conquistador, and groups of Queen Isabella with the Prince of the Asturias, and Queen Marie Christine with Alfonso XIII. Another sculptor of distinction is Andres Aleu, professor of the Barcelona School of Fine Arts, whose principal works are the " St George and the Dragon " on the facade of the Barcelona Chamber of Deputies, and Marshal Concha, the equestrian statue in Madrid. Kosendo Novas, of Catalan birth, like most modern Spanish sculptors of eminence, is best known by his masterpiece, " The dead Torero." Manuel Oms, another Barcelona sculptor who leans to the naturalistic school, is the author of the monument to Isabella the Catholic, erected at the end of the Pasco de la Castellana in Madrid in 1883. Antonio Fabres, who at the beginning of his career was an eminent sculptor, devoted himself subsequently to painting. Agustin Querol, and Mariano Benlliure, of Valencia, were for many years the official favourites of the Spanish government, who entrusted them with numerous important commissions, though their work was neither lofty in conception nor particularly remarkable as regards execution, and occasionally, as in Querol's monument of Alfonso XII.—especially in the completed sketch of it—baroque in the extreme. Indeed, the genius of the Spanish race at all times, and particularly in the 19th century, found its expression in painting rather than in sculpture. Querol's group called " Tradition " is well imagined and expressive, and a good example of the best work achieved by a school in which freedom is the chief note. Towards the end of the 19th and in the early years of the 20th centuries, Joseph Llimona y Brugena (" The Communion ") and Blay, both of Catalan birth, were the most distinguished sculptors of Spain. The fame of Blay, who was a pupil of Chapu in Paris, has extended beyond the frontiers of his native country. His style has at the same time strength and delicacy. His chief works are the Miners' monument at Bilbao, and a group of an old man seated on a bench protecting a little girl from the cold. He also produced a great number of delicately wrought marble busts before his career was prematurely cut short. Joseph Llimona is the most personal and distinguished of all modern Spanish sculptors. His art ranges from the greatest delicacy to real power. At the International Exhibition at Barcelona in 1907 he was awarded the grand prize of honour for a group intended for the monument to Dr Robert in that city; and for a small marble figure of Pain, a work in which he has been thought to rival the Florentines of the best period. Jose Alcoverro, Pages y Serratora, Jose Gragera, Fuxa y Leal, Miguel Embil, and the brothers Osle are prominent members of the younger school and aim at giving " the personal note." The vigour displayed by them illustrates the revivification and rejuvenation of Spanish sculpture. Russian sculpture has practically no past to record. In its beginnings Russian art was entirely ruled by the Church, whose laws were inspired by Byzantinism, and who forced all Russian sculpture. artists to submit to strictly fixed rules as regards sculpt form and formula. Before the 18th century, Russian sculpture was practically non-existent, except in the form of peasant wood-carving. The early stone idols (Kamenyia baby) and primitive bas-reliefs belong to the sphere of archaeology rather than of art. Real sculpture only appears at the end of the 18th century, when Peter the Great, to use his own expression, " opened a window upon Europe " and ordered, together with a radical change in Russian society, the introduction of western art in Russia. From all European countries artists streamed into Russia and helped to educate native talent, and at the same time the tsar sent young artists abroad to study in foreign art centres. Among the foreign artists of this period were Conrad Hausner, Egelgrener and Schpekle; among the Russians Koulomjin, Issaeiv and Woynow. About 1776 Falconet and his wife arrived in Russia; then Gillet, whose pupil Schubin ranks among Russia's most gifted artists. Among his best-known works is the monument of Catherine II. His fame was rivalledby that of Schedrine. Kozlovski is known by his Souvorine monument. Other early sculptors of distinction were Demouth-Malinowski, the sculptor of the Soussaniev monument; Pimenow, Martos, and the medallist Count Theodore Tolstoi, who is also known as an able illustrator. Orlovsky, Vitali and the whole preceding group represent the pseudo-classic character acquired at foreign academies. Among animal sculptors Baron Klodt is known by his horses which decorate the Anitschkine bridge at St Petersburg. About the beginning of the 19th century the sculptor Kamenski inaugurated a more realistic tendency by his work which was inspired by contemporary life. He entered the academy after having exhibited a series of sculptures among which the most interesting were " The First Step " and " Children in the Rain." His contemporary Tschigoloff began his career in brilliant fashion, but devoted himself subsequently to the execution of commissions which did not give full scope to his gifts. The greatest talent of all was unquestionably Marc Antokolsky (1845-1902), a Jewish sculptor permitted to work outside the Pale, of whom the Paris correspondent of The Times wrote, about 1888, that French sculptors would benefit by studying under Antokolsky, and by learning from him the power of the inspiration drawn from the study of nature. The artist himself held his statue of Spinoza to be his finest achievement. " I have put into this statue," he wrote, " all that is best in me. In the hard moments of life I can find peace only before this work." Equally beautiful is " The Christian Martyr," in the creation of which Antokolsky definitely broke all the fetters of tradition and strove no longer to express linear beauty, but intense truth. The martyr is an ugly, deformed woman, tortured and suffering, but of such beautiful sentiment that under the influence of religious extasis her very soul seems to rise to the surface. Among his other works few are better known than " Mephistopheles " (which he wanted to call "The 19th Century ") and the powerful " Ivan the Terrible," which the Russian critic Starsoff called " The Torturer Tortured." The whole strange psychology of this ruler, whose compeer in history can only be found perhaps in the person of Louis XI., is strikingly expressed by Antokolsky. Very beautiful is the statue of Peter the Great, which breathes strength, intelligence, genius and devouring activity. To the works already mentioned must be added the statues of Ermak and of Nestor. Antokolsky has left to the world a gallery of the most striking figures in Russian history, giving to each one among them his proper psychology. His technique is always marked by perfect sureness and frequently by dazzling bravura. Antokolsky was twenty-one years of age when he left St Petersburg. The academy at that time was in a state of complete decadence, under the rule of worthy old professors who remained strangers to their pupils, just as their pupils remained strangers to them. When Professors Piminoff and Raimers died, soon after, the academy seemed quite deserted; but just at that time a number of very gifted students began to work with energy, learning all they could from one another, fired by the same purpose and spirit. Antokolsky was in close touch with his friend, the painter Repin, with whom he worked much, and so failed to come under the influence of the idealist M. V. Praklow, who soon began to deliver certain lectures on art which excited keen interest among the young workers. Antokolsky tried the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts, but finding it ruled by the same routine, he returned before long to St Petersburg, where within a short time he executed the statue of " Ivan the Terrible to which he owed his fame. This epoch became the starting-point of Russian sculpture, so that Antokolsky deserves an eminent position in the history of Russian art. Among his pupils was his faithful follower and friend Ilia Ginsbourg (b. 1859), who devoted himself to genre scenes and portraits in the spirit of his master, but with a degree of sincerity and enthusiasm which save him from the reproach of plagiarism. Lancet-6 (1848–1887) is known by his military statuettes. Liberich (1828-1883) has left few remarkable works. Leopold Bernstamm always practised in Paris; among his works are a great number of portraits and a few monuments that are not without merit. Among con-temporary sculptors, whose number is still restricted in Russia, and whose artistic merit remains stationary, without marked progress and with little evidence of evolution, are Beklemicheff, Bach, Brodsky, Mikechine, Tourgeneff, Auber and Bernstein. Prince Troubetzkoi, who is counted among the sculptors of Russia, though he was educated and worked in Italy, acquired some reputation by his skill in the rapid execution of cleverly-wrought impressionist statuettes of figures and horses as well as busts. Their value lies in the vivid representation they give of Russian life and types. Among the most original modern Russian sculptors is Naoum Aronson (b. 1872), whose best-known work is his Beethoven monument at Bonn. At Godesberg is his Narcissus fountain, whilst other works of his are at the Berlin, St Petersburg and Dublin Museums. (M. H. S.; P. G. K.) The early names in American sculpture—Shem Drowne, the maker of weather-vanes; Patience Wright (1725-1785); William United Rush (1765-1833), carver of portraits and of figure-heads states. for ships; John Frazer (1740-185o), the stonecutter; and Hezekiah Augur (1791-1858)—have the interest of chronicle at least. Hiram Powers (1805-1873) had a certain technical skill, and his statues of the " Greek Slave " (carved in 1843 in Rome and now at Raby castle, Darlington, the seat of Lord Barnard, with a replica at the Corcoran Gallery, Washing-ton, and others elsewhere) and " Eve before the Fall " were important agents in overcoming the Puritanic abhorrence of the nude. Horatio Greenough (1805-1852), Joel T. Hart (1810-1877), S. V. Clevenger (1812-1843) and Clark Mills (1815-1883) all received many commissions but made no additions to the advancement of a true art-spirit. Thomas Crawford (1814-1857) began the bas-reliefs for the bronze doors of the Capitol, and they were finished by William H. Rinehart (1825-1874), whose " Latona " has considerable grace. Henry Kirke Brown (1814--1886) achieved, among less noteworthy works, the heroic " Washington " in Union Square, New York City. It is one of the noblest of equestrian statues in America, both in breadth and certainty of handling and in actual majesty, and reflects unwonted credit on its' period. Erastus D. Palmer (1817-1904) was the first to introduce the lyrical note into American sculpture; his statue, " The White Captive," and still more his relief, " Peace in Bondage," may be named in proof. There is undeniable skill, which yet lacks the highest qualities, in the work of Thomas Ball (b. 1819). William Wetmore Story (1819-1896), whose " Cleopatra," though cold, shows power; Randolph Rogers (1825-1892), best known for his blind " Nydia," and for his bronze doors of the Capitol at Washington; John Rogers (1829-1904), who struck out a new line in actuality, mainly of an anecdotal military kind; Harriet Hosmer (1830—1908), a classicist, whose recumbent " Beatrice Cenci " is perhaps her most graceful work; J. S. Hartley (b. 1845); Launt Thompson (1833-1894) are among the leaders of their day. The works of Olin L. Warner (1844-1896) and J. Q. A. Ward (1830-1910) reveal at times far greater originality than any of these. Warner's two graceful classical figures for a fountain in Portland, Oregon, and his admirable portrait statue of William Lloyd Garrison, reveal a nice discernment of the fitness of manner to matter. He was also successful in modelling medallions. Ward has a sturdiness, dignity, and individuality quite his own, and may be considered at the head of his own generation. In addition to these should be mentioned Larkin G. Mead' (b. 1835), George Bissell (b. 1839), Franklin Simmons (b. 1839), Martin Milmore (1844-1883), Howard Roberts (1843-1900), Moses Ezekiel (b. 1844), all of whom are prominent in the history and development of sculpture in America. By their time the sculptors of America had wakened completely, artistically speaking, to a sense of their own nationality. It was however later that came that inspired modernity, that sympathy with the present, which are in some senses vital to genuinely emotional art. American sculpture, like American painting, was awakened by French example. The leading spirit in the new movement was Augustus St Gaudens (q.v.), a great sculptor whose work is sufficiently dealt with in the separate article devoted to him. Two other Americans stand out, with St Gaudens, among their contemporaries, Daniel Chester French (q.v.) and Frederick Macmonnies (q.v.). French's " Gallaudet teaching a Deaf Mute " is an example of how a difficult subject can be turned into a triumph of grace. His " Death and the Young Sculptor " is a singularly beautiful rendering of the idea of the intervention of death. In collaboration with E. C. Potter he modelled various important groups,particularly " Indian Corn " and the equestrian " Washington," in Paris. The " Bacchante " of Macmonnies, instinct with Renaissance feeling, is a triumph of modelling and of joyous humour; while his statue of " Nathan Hale " in City Hall Park, New York, his " Horse Tamers," and his triumphal arch decorations for the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial at Brooklyn, show the artist's power in the treatment of a serious theme. The strenuous achievements of George Grey Barnard have both high skill and deep sincerity. His " Two Natures," his " Brotherly Love," his " Pan "'and the design for a monumental Norwegian stove are among the strongest efforts of modern American statuary. Ranking with him, though different in thought and method, stands Paul Wayland Bartlett. Success, too, artistically has been accorded to the fine works of John J. Boyle, William Couper, twenty years of whose life were passed in Florence, William O. Partridge, Hermon MacNeil and Lorado Taft. The beautiful busts of Herbert Adams; the thoroughly artistic miniature figures of Mrs Clio Hinton Bracken;' the graceful figurines of Mrs Potter Vonnoh; Edwin F. Elwell's " Egypt " and " Orchid "; and the work of F. Wellington Ruckstuhl should also be mentioned; also J. Massey Rhind, a Scotsman by birth and artistic education, John Donoghue, Charles H. Niehaus, Roland H. Perry (" Fountain of Neptune "), Andrew O'Connor, Jerome Conner, John H. Roudebush, and Louis Potter. Equally' noteworthy are Bela L. Pratt (" General Benjamin F. Butler memorial), Cyrus E. Dallin (with Wild West subjects), Richard E. Brooks, Charles Grafly ( Fountain of Life "), Alexander S. Calder, Edmund A. Stewardson (" The Bather ") and Douglas Tilden (" Mechanics' Fountain," San Francisco). The leading " animaliers include Edward Kemeys (representing the Southern states), Edward C. Potter, Phimister Proctor, Solon H. Borglum, Frederick G. Roth, and Frederick Remington. Among the women sculptors are Mrs Kitson, Mrs Hermon A. MacNeil, Miss Helen Mears, Miss Evelyn Longman, Miss Elise Ward, Miss Yandell and Miss Katherine Cohen. (M. H. S.) On Italian and Spanish sculpture, see Vasari, Trattato della scultura (Florence, 1568, vol. i.), and his Vite dei pittori, &c., ed. Milanesi (Florence, 188o); Rumohr, Italienische Forschungen (Leipzig, 1827-1831) ; Dohme, Kunst and K%instler Italiens (Leipzig, 1879) ; Perkins, Tuscan Sculptors (London, 1865), Italian Sculptors (1868) and Hand-book of Italian Sculpture (1883); Robinson, Italian Sculpture (London, 1862) ; Gruner, Marmor-Bildwerke der Pisaner (Leipzig, 1858); Ferreri, L' Arco di S. Agostino (Pavia, 1832); Symonds, Renaissance in Italy (London, 1877), vol. iii. ; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Hist. of Painting in Italy (London, 1903) (new ed.), vol. i.; Selvatico, Arch. e scultura in Venezia (Venice, 1847) ; Ricci, Storia dell' arch. in Italia (Modena, 1857-186o) ; Street (Arundel Society), Sepulchral Monuments of Italy (1878); Gozzini, Monument% iepolcrali della Toscana (Florence, 1819); de Montault, La Sculpture religieuse d Rome (Rome, 1870), a French edition (with improved text) of Tosi and Becchio, Monumenti sacri di Roma (Rome, 1842); Cavallucci and Molinier, Les Della Robbia (Paris, 1884) ; Cicognara, Monumenti di Venezia (Venice, 1838-184o); Barges and Didron, Iconographie des chapitaux du palais ducal a Venue (Paris, 1857) (see also Ruskin's Stones of Venice) ; Richter, " Sculpture of S. Mark's at Venice," Macmillan's Mag. (June 1880) ; Temanza, Vite degli scultori veneziani (Venice, 1778); Diedo and Zanotto, Monuments di Venezia (Milan, 1839); Schulz, Denkmaler der Kunst in Unter-Italien (Dresden, 186o); Brinckmann, Die Scul tur von B. Cellini (Leipzig, 1867) ; Eug. Plon, Cellini, sa vie, &c. (Paris, 1882) ; John Addington Symonds, The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini (London, 1887); Moses and Cicognara, Works of Canova (London, 1824-1828) ; Piroli, Fontana and others, a series of engraved Plates of Canova's Works, s.l. et a.; Giulliot, Les Artistes en Espagne (Paris, 187o); Carderera y Solano, Iconografia espanola., siglo XI-X VII (Madrid, 1855-1864); Monumentos arquitectonicos de Espana, published by the Spanish government (1859), passim; Lord Balcartes, The Evolution of Italian Sculpture (London, 1910) ; L. Freeman, Italian Sculpture of the Renaissance (London, 1901) ; A. R. Willard, Hist. of Modern Italian Art (London, 1898). The recent literature on the subject is too copious to be catalogued here; every phase of the art has been critically dealt with and nearly every sculptor of importance has been made the subject of a biography; e.g. John Addington Symonds, The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti, 2nd ed. (London, 1898); Sir Charles Holroyd, Michael Angelo Buonarroti (London, 1903) ; Lord Balcarres, Donatello (London, 1903) ; and G. H. Hill, Pisanello (London, 1905). For repertoires of sculptural works, see collections such as Reale Galleria di Firenze: Statue (3 vols., 1817), and F.. von Reber and A. Bayersdorfer, Classical Sculpture Gallery (4 vols., London, 1897—1900). On French sculpture see Adams, Recueil de sculptures gothiques (Paris, 1858); Cerf, Description de Notre Dame de Reims (Reims, 1861) ; Emeric David, L'Art statuaire (Paris, 1805) and Histoire de la sculpture francaise (Paris, 1853); Guilhebaud, L'Architecture et la sculpture du V° au X VIe siecle (Paris, 1851—1859); Menard, Sculpture antique et moderne (Paris, 1867); Didron, Annales archeologiques, various articles; Felibien, Histoire de l'art en France (Paris, 1856) ; Lady Dilke (Mrs Pattison), Renaissance of Art in France (London, 1879) ; M•ontfaucon, Monumens de la monarchie francaise (Paris, 1729—1933); Jouy, Sculptures modernes du Louvre (Paris, 1855); Reveil, CEuvre de Jean Goujon (Paris, 1868); Lister, Jean Goujon (London, 1903) ; Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire de l'archilecture (Paris, 1869), art. " Sculpture," vol. viii. pp. 97-279; Claretie, Peintres et sculpteurs contemporains (Paris) ; Gonse, La Sculpture francaise depuis le XIV® siecle (Paris, 1895); W. C. Brownell, French Art: Classic and Contemporary Painting and Sculpture (London, 1901); Male, L'Art religzeux du XIIIe siecle en France (Paris, 1902) ; Vitry and Briere, Documents de sculpture francaise du moyen age (Paris, 1904); Lady Dilke, French Architects and Sculptors of the X VIIIth Century (London, 1900) ; Lanislas Lami, Dictionnaire des sculpteurs de,l'ecole francaise du moyen dge au regne de Louis XIV (Paris, 1898), a useful book to consult for the sake of the bibliographical references to nearly every artist entered; L. Benedite, Les Sculptuurs francais contemporains (Paris, 1901); E. Guillaume, " La Sculpture rangaise au XIX0 siecle," Gaz. des beaux-arts (1900). On German sculpture, see Foerster, Denkmale deutscher Baukunst (Leipzig, 1855). For an adequate but brief and concentrated account of recent work see A. Heilmeyer, Die moderne Plasbik in Deutschland (Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1903). On Austrian sculpture, see Camillo List, Bildhauer-Arbeiten in Oesterreich- Ungarn (Vienna, 1901). On Belgian sculpture, see Olivier Georges Destree, The Renaissance of Sculpture in Belgium (London, 1895). On Spanish sculpture, see Paul Laforid, La Sculpture espagnole (Paris, 1908). On English sculpture, see Carter, Specimens of Ancient Sculpture (London, 1780) ; Aldis, Sculpture of Worcester Cathedral (London, 1874) ; Cockerell, Iconography of Wells Cathedral (Oxford, 1851) ; Stothard, Monumental Effigies of Britain (London, 1817) ; Westmacott, " Sculpture in Westminster Abbey," in Old London (pub. by Archaeological Institute, 1866), p. 159 seq ; G. G. Scott, Gleanings from Westminster (London, 1862); W. Bell Scott, British School of Sculpture (London, 1872) ; W. M. Rossetti, " British Sculpture," in Fraser's Meg. (April 1861). The subject of recent British sculpture has been curiously neglected, except in newspaper notices and occasional articles in the periodical press, such as Edmund Gosse's " Living English Sculptors " in the Century Magazine for July 1883. The only volume published is M. H. Spielmann's British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day (London, 1901). For American sculpture, see Henry T. Tuckerman, Book of the Artists: American Artist Life (New York, 187o, and later editions) ; Lorado Taft, American Sculpture (New York and London, 1903) ; William J. Clark, Jnr., Great American Sculptures (Philadelphia, 1877) ; Charles H. Caffin, American Masters of Sculpture (New York, 1903); Sadikichi Hartmann, Modern American Sculpture (New York).
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