See also:Spanish Jesuit, was
See also:born at
See also:Cuenca in 1535 . Having at the age of eighteen become a member of the Society of Jesus, he studied
See also:theology at
See also:Coimbra, and after-wards became
See also:professor in the university of
See also:Portugal . From this
See also:post he was called, at the end of twenty years, to the
See also:chair of moral theology in
See also:Madrid, where he died on the 12th of
See also:October ,600 . Besides other
See also:works he wrote Liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, providentia, praedestinatione et reprobation, concordia (4to,
See also:Lisbon, 1588) ; a commentary on the first
See also:part of the Summa of
See also:Thomas Aquinas (2 vols., fol., Cuenca, 1593); and a
See also:treatise De justitia et jure (6 vols., 1593-1609) . It is to the first of these that his fame is principally due . It was an attempt to reconcile, in words at least, the Augustinian doctrines of
See also:predestination and
See also:grace with the Semipelagianism which, as shown by the
See also:recent condemnation of BAIUs (q.v.), had become prevalent in the
See also:Roman Catholic
See also:Church . Assuming that man is
See also:free to perform or not to perform any
See also:act whatever,
See also:Molina maintains that this circumstance renders the grace of
See also:God neither unnecessary nor impossible: not impossible, for God never fails to bestow grace upon those who ask it with sincerity; and not unnecessary, for grace, although not an efficient, is still a sufficient cause of salvation . Nor, in Molina's view, does his
See also:doctrine of free-will exclude predestination . The omniscient God, by means of His " scientia
See also:media " (the phrase is Molina's invention, though the idea is also to be found in his older contemporary Fonseca), or power of knowing future contingent events, foresees how we shall employ our own free-will and treat His proffered grace, and667 upon this foreknowledge He can found His predestinating decrees . These doctrines, although in harmony with the prevailing feeling of the Roman Catholic Church of the
See also:period, and further recommended by their marked opposition to the teachings of
See also:Luther and
See also:Calvin,excited violent controversy in some quarters, especially on the part of the
See also:Dominicans, and at last rendered it necessary for the
See also:pope (
See also:Clement VIII.) to interfere . At first (1594) he simply enjoined silence on both parties so far as Spain was concerned; but ultimately, in 1598, he appointed the " Congregatio de auxiliis Gratiae " for the settlement of the dispute, which became more and more a party one . After holding very numerous sessions, the "
See also:congregation " was able to decide nothing, and in 1607 its meetings were suspended by Paul V., who in 1611 prohibited all further discussion of the question " de auxiliis," and studious efforts were made to
See also:control the publication even of commentaries on Aquinas .
The Molinist subsequently passed into the Jansenist controversy (see
See also:JANSENISM) . A full account of Molina's theology will be found in Schneeman's " Entstehung der thomistisch-molinistischen Controverse," published in the Appendices (Nos . 9, 13, 14) to the Jesuit periodical, Stimmen aus Maria-Laach . To the
See also:lay reader may be recommended Ernest
See also:Renan's article, "
See also:Les congregations de auxiliis" in his Nouvelles etudes d'histoire religieuse .
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