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MORDANT

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Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 751 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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MORDANT Cotouas.—The colouring matters of this class include some of the most important dyestuffs employed, since they furnish many colours remarkable for their fastness to light, washing and other influences. Employed by themselves, Mordant Colours are usually of little or no value as dyestuffs, because, with few exceptions, either they are not attracted by the fibre, particularly in the case of cotton, or they only yield a more or less fugitive stain. Their importance and value as dyestuffs are due to the fact that they act like weak acids and have the property of combining with metallic oxides to form insoluble coloured compounds termed " lakes," which vary in colour according to the metallic oxide or salt employed. The most stable lakes are those in which the colouring matter is combined with two metallic oxides, a sesquioxide and a monoxide—e.g. alumina and lime. In applying colouring matters of this class the object of the dyer is to precipitate and fix these coloured lakes upon and within the fibre, for which purpose two operations are necessary, namely, mordanting and dyeing. The mordanting operation aims at fixing upon the fibre the necessary metallic oxide or insoluble basic salt, which is called the mordant, although the term is also applied to the original metallic salt employed. In the subsequent dyeing operation the mordanted materialis boiled with a solution of the colouring matter, during which the metallic oxide attracts and chemically combines with the colouring matter, producing the coloured lake in situ on the fibre, which thus becomes dyed. The mode of applying the mordants varies according to the nature of the fibre and the metallic salt employed, the chief mordants at present in use being salts of chromium, aluminium, tin, copper and iron. The method of mordanting wool depends upon its property of decomposing metallic salts, and fixing upon itself an insoluble metallic compound, when boiled in their solutions. This decomposition is facilitated by the heating and by the dilution of the solution, but it is chiefly due to the action of the fibre itself. The exact nature of the substance fixed upon the fibre has not in all cases been determined; probably it is a compound of the metallic oxide with the wool-substance itself, which has the character of an amidoacid. The mordant most largely employed for wool is bichromate of potash, since, besides being simply applied, and leaving the wool with a soft feel, it yields with the various mordant-dyestuffs a large variety of fast colours. The wool is boiled for i to i a hours in a solution containing 2 to 3 % bichromate of potash on the weight of the wool employed. During this operation the wool at first attracts chromic acid, which is gradually reduced to chromium chromate, so that the mordanted fibre has finally a pale olive-yellow tint. In the dyebath, under the influence of a portion of the dyestuff, further complete reduction to chromic hydrate occurs before it combines with the colouring matter. Not unfrequently' certain so-called " assistants " are employed in small amount along with the bichromate of potash—e.g. sulphuric acid, cream of tartar, tartaric acid, lactic acid, &c. The use of the organic acids here mentioned ensures the complete reduction of the chromic acid on the wool to chromic hydrate already in the mordant bath, and the pale greenish mordanted wool is better adapted for dyeing with colours which are susceptible to oxidation—e.g. alizarin blue. For special purposes chromium fluoride, chrome alum, &c., are employed. Alum or aluminium sulphate (8 %), along with acid potassium tartrate (cream of tartar) (7 %), is used for brighter colours—e.g. reds, yellows, &c. The object of the tartar is to retard the mordanting process and ensure the penetration of the wool by the mordant, by preventing superficial precipitation through the action of ammonia liberated from the wool; it ensures the ultimate production of clear, bright, full colours. For still brighter colours, notably yellow and red, stannous chloride was at one time largely employed, now it is used less frequently; and the same may be said of copper and ferrous sulphate, which were used for dark colours. Silk may be often mordanted in the same manner as wool, but as a rule it is treated like cotton. The silk is steeped for several hours in cold neutral or basic solutions of chromium chloride, alum, ferric sulphate, &c., then rinsed in water slightly, and passed into a cold dilute solution of silicate of soda, in order to fix the mordants on the fibre as insoluble silicates. Cotton does not, like wool and silk, possess the property of decomposing metallic salts, hence the methods of mordanting this fibre are more complex, and vary according to the metallic salts and colouring matters employed, as well as the particular effects to be obtained. One method is to impregnate the cotton with a solution of so-called " sulphated oil " or " Turkey-red oil "; the oil-prepared material is then dried and passed into a cold solution of some metallic salt—e.g. aluminium acetate, basic chromium chloride, &c. The mordant is thus fixed on the fibre as a metallic oleate, and after a passage through water containing a little chalk or silicate of soda to remove acidity, and a final rinsing, the cotton is ready for dyeing. Another method of mordanting cotton is to fix the metallic salt on the fibre as a tannate instead of an oleate. This is effected by first steeping the cotton in a cold solution of tannic acid or in a cold decoction of some tannin matter, e.g. sumach, in which operation the cotton attracts a consider-able amount of tannic acid; after squeezing, the material is steeped for an hour or more in a solution of the metallic salt, and finally washed. The mordants employed in this case are various—e.g. basic aluminium or ferric sulphate, basic chromium chloride, stannic chloride (cotton spirits), &c. There are other methods of mordanting cotton besides those mentioned, but the main object in all cases is to fix an insoluble metallic compound on the fibre. It is interesting to note that whether the metallic oxide is united with the substance of the fibre, as in the case of wool and silk, or precipitated as a tannate, oleate, silicate, &c., as in the case of cotton or silk, it still has the power of combining with the colouring matter in the dyebath to form the coloured " lake " or dye on the material. The dyeing operation consists in working the mordanted material in a solution of the necessary colouring matter, the dyebath being gradually raised to the boiling point. With many colouring matters, e.g. with alizarin, it is necessary to add a small percentage of calcium acetate to the dyebath, and also acetic acid if wool is being dyed. In wool-dyeing, also, the mordanting operation may follow that of dyeing instead of preceding it, in which case the boiling of the wool with dyestuff is termed "stuffing," and the subsequent developing of the colour by applying the mordant is termed " saddening," because this method has in the past been usually carried out with iron and copper mordants, which give dull or sad colours. The method of " stuffing and saddening " may, however, be carried out with other mordants, even for the production of bright colours, and it is now frequently employed with certain alizarin dyestuffs for the production of pale shades which require to be very even and regular in colour. There is still another method of applying Mordant Colours in wool-dyeing, in which the dyestuff and the mordant are applied simultaneously from the beginning; it is known as the " single-bath method. It is only successful, however, in the case of certain colouring matters and mordants, to some of which reference will be made in the following paragraphs. The Natural Mordant Colours.—It is interesting to note that nearly all the natural or vegetable dyestuffs employed belong to the class of Mordant Colours, the most important of these being included in the following list: Madder, Cochineal, Peachwood, Sapanwood, Limawood, Camwood, Barwood, Sanderswood, Old Fustic, Young Fustic, Quercitron Bark, Persian Berries, Weld, Logwood. Madder consists of the dried ground roots of Rubia tinctorum, a plant of Indian origin. Formerly cultivated largely in France and Holland, it was long one of the most important dyestuffs employed, chiefly in the production of Turkey-red and in calico-printing, also in wool-dyeing. With the different mordants it yields very distinct colours, all fast to light and soap, namely, red with aluminium, orange with tin, reddish brown with chromium, purple and black with iron. Madder contains two closely allied colouring matters, namely, alizarin and purpurin. The former, which is by far the more important, is now prepared artificially from the coal-tar product anthracene, and has almost entirely superseded madder. Cochineal is the dried scale-insect Coccus cacti, which lives on certain of the cactus plants of Mexico and elsewhere. The rearing of cochineal was once a large and important industry, and although still pursued, it has seriously declined, in consequence of the discovery of the azo scarlets derived from coal-tar. The colouring matter of cochineal, carminic acid, is believed by chemists to be a derivative of naphthalene, but its artificial production has not yet been accomplished. Cochineal dyes a purple colour with chromium mordant, crimson with aluminium, scarlet with tin, and grey or slate with iron. Its chief employment is for the purpose of dyeing crimson, and more especially scarlet, on wool. Crimson is dyed by mordanting the wool with alum and tartar and dyeing in a separate bath with ground cochineal. Scarlet on wool is obtained by the single-bath method, namely, by dyeing the wool with a mixture of stannous chloride (or nitrate of tin), oxalic acid, and cochineal. It is usual to add also a small amount of the yellow dyestuff flavine in order to obtain a yellower shade of scarlet. The cochineal colours are very fast to light, but somewhat susceptible to the action of alkalis. Peachwood, Sapanwood and Limawood are usually referred to as the " soluble red-woods," because of the solubility in water of the colouring principle they contain. They consist of the ground wood of various species of Caesalpinia found in Central America, the East Indies and Peru. They all yield more or less similar colours with the different mordants—claret-brown with chromium, red with aluminium, bright red with tin, dark slate with iron. Owing to the fugitive character of all the colours to light, these dyewoods are now comparatively little employed in dyeing. Camwood, Barwood and Sanderswood represent the so-called " insoluble red-woods," their colouring principles being sparingly soluble even in boiling water. They are obtained from certain species of Pterocarpus and Baphia, large trees growing in the interior of West Africa. Their general dyeing properties are similar, a claret-brown being obtained with chromium mordant, a brownish red with aluminium, a brighter red with tin, and purplish brown with iron. Their chief employment is in wool-dyeing, for the production of various shades of brown, being best applied by the " stuffing and saddening " method above described; but since the colours are fugitive to light, they are now very largely replaced by alizarin. A brown on wool is obtained by first boiling for one to two hours in a decoction of the ground wood (5o%), and then boiling in a separate bath in solution of bichromate of potash (2 %) for half an hour. These dye-woods are also employed by the indigo-dyer, in order to give a brownish ground colour to the wool previous to dyeing in the indigo vat, and thus obtain a deeper, fuller blue. The colouring matters contained in these dyewoods have not been exhaustively examined. Fustic is a yellow dyestuff, and consists of the wood of the dyer's mulberry tree, Morus tinctoria, which grows in Cuba, Jamaica, &c. It is still an important and largely used dyestuff, being cheap, and the colours obtained from it being satisfactorily fast to light and other influences. With chromium mordant it yields an olive-yellow or " old-gold " shade; with aluminium, yellow; with tin, a brighter yellow; with iron, an olive-green. It is chiefly employed in wool-dyeing along with other dyestuffs, and furnishes the yellow in compound shades. Two colouring principles exist in Old Fustic, namely, morin and maclurin, the former being the most important, and generally regarded as the true colouring matter. Quercitron Bark consists of the inner bark of an oak-tree, Quercus tinctoria, which grows in the North American States. It dyes somewhat like Old Fustic, but gives with aluminium and tin mordants brighter yellows, for which colours it is chiefly used. The colouring principle of Quercitron Bark is called quercitrin, which by the action of boiling mineral acid solutions is decomposed, with the production of the true colouring matter termed quercetin. So-called Flavine is a commercial preparation of Quercitron Bark consisting of quercitrin or of quercetin; it is much used by wool-dyers for the production of bright yellow and orange colours. Wool is dyed in single bath by boiling with a mixture of Flavine (8 %), stannous chloride (4 %) and oxalic acid (2 %). Flavine is used in small quantity along with cochineal for dyeing scarlet on wool. Persian Berries are the dried unripe fruit of various species of Rhamnus growing in the Levant. The general dyeing properties are similar to those of Quercitron Bark, the orange colour given with tin mordant being particularly brilliant. The high price of this dyestuff causes its employment to be somewhat limited. The colouring matter of Persian Berries is called xanthorhamnin, which by the action of fermentation and acids yields the true dyestuff rhamnetin. Weld is the dried plant Reseda luteola, a species of wild mignonette, formerly largely cultivated in Europe. Its dyeing properties resemble those of Quercitron Bark, but the yellows with aluminium and tin mordants are much brighter and purer, and also faster to light. It is still used to a limited extent for dyeing a bright yellow on woollen cloth and braid for the decoration of military uniforms. Quite recently the colouring matter of Weld, namely, luteolin, has been prepared artificially, but the process is too expensive to be of practical use. Logwood is the heart-wood of Haematoxylon campechianum, a tree growing in Central America. It is the most important natural dyewood at present employed, being largely used for dyeing dark blues and black on silk, wool and cotton. With chromium and aluminium mordants logwood dyes a dark blue, and even black; with tin, a dark purple; and with iron, black. The colours are only moderately fast to light. On wool the mordant is bichromate of potash; on cotton and silk an iron mordant is employed. Before use by the dyer the logwood is ground and aged or oxidized, by allowing moistened heaps of the ground wood to ferment slightly, and by frequently turning it over to expose it freely to the air. By this means the colouring principle haematoxylin which logwood contains is changed into the true colouring matter haematein. The constitution of this colouring matter has been recently discovered; it is very closely allied to the brazilin of peachwood, sapanwood and limawood, and is also a member of the y-pyrone group of colouring matters. The importance of the above-mentioned natural dyestuffs is gradually diminishing in favour of mordant dyestuffs and others derived from coal-tar. Fustic and logwood are perhaps the most largely used, and may continue to be employed for many years, no satisfactory artificial substitutes having hitherto come into the market. The Artificial Mordant Colours are well represented by alizarin, the colouring matter of the madder root, which was the first natural dyestuff prepared artificially from the coal-tar product anthracene (1868). For this reason many of these colours are frequently referred to as the Alizarin Colours. At the present time, however, there are numerous Mordant Colours which are prepared from other initial materials than anthracene; they are not chemically related to alizarin, and for these the term Alizarin Colours is therefore inappropriate. The property, which Mordant Colours possess in common, of combining with metals and producing lakes, which readily adhere to the fibre, depends upon their chemical constitution, more particularly upon the general and relative position in the molecule of certain side atomic groups. In alizarin there are, for example, two characteristic hydroxyl groups (OH) occupying a special (ortho) position in the molecule, i.e. they are next to each other, and also next to one of the so-called ketone groups (C :0). In other Mordant Colours there are carboxyl (COOH) as well as hydroxyl groups, which are all-important in this respect. In addition to this, the general dyeing property is influenced by the constitution of the molecule itself, and by the presence of other side-groups, e.g. NH2, HSO3, &c., which modify the colour as to solubility or hue. Hence it is that the members of this group, while possessing the mordant-dyeing property in common, differ materially in other points. Some, like alizarin, are not in themselves to be regarded as colouring matters, but rather as colouring principles, because they only yield useful dyes in combination with metallic oxides. According to their constitution, these may yield one or many colours with the various metallic oxides employed, and they are used for cotton as well as for wool and silk. Other Mordant Colours, e.g. many of the Direct Colours and others, are capable of dyeing either the vegetable or animal fibres without the aid !of a mordant; they are fully developed colouring matters in themselves, and possess the mordant-dyeing property as an additional feature, in consequence of the details of their chemical constitution, to which reference has been made in the foregoing paragraphs. As a rule these yield, at most, various shades of one colour with the different oxides, and are only suitable for the animal fibres, particularly wool. In the following list, the most important artificial Mordant Colours are arranged according to the colour they give in con-junction with the aluminium mordant, unless otherwise indicated. Some of those named here dye the animal fibres, even without mordants; some are Direct Colours possessing mordant-dyeing properties, others are sulphonic acid derivatives of Alizarin Colours, suitable for wool but not for cotton. Red.—Alizarin, anthrapurpurin, flavopurpurin, purpurin, alizarin Bordeaux, alizarin garnet R, alizarin maroon, alizarin S, cloth red, diamine fast red, anthracene red, chrome red, chrome Bordeaux, salicine red, erio chrome red, emin red, milling red. Orange and Yellow.—Alizarin orange, alizarin orange G, alizarin yellow paste, alizarin yellow A, alizarin yellow- C, anthracene yellow, galloflavin, alizarin yellow GG, alizarin yellow R, diamond flavin G, chrome yellow D, Crumpsall yellow, fast yellow, diamond yellow, benzo orange R, cloth orange, carbazol yellow, chrysamine, milling orange. Green.—Coerulein, coerulein S, alizarin green S, fast green (Fe), naphthol green (Fe), Dioxin (Fe), Gambine (Fe), azo green, gallanil green, alizarin green G and B, acid alizarin green, alizarin cyanine green, alizarin viridine, diamond green, chrome green, Domingo green. Blue.—Alizarin blue, alizarin blue S, alizarin cyanine, anthracene blue, brilliant alizarin blue, alizarin indigo blue S, gallanilic indigo, acid alizarin blue, brilliant alizarin cyanine, alizarin grisole, alizarin sky blue, alizarin saphirole, gallanilide blue, delphine blue, gallamine blue, celestine blue, chrome blue, gallazine A, phenocyanine, coreine. Purple and Violet.—Gallein, alizarin heliotrope, anthraquinone violet, chrome prime, gallocyanine, chrome violet, anthracene chrome violet. Brown.—Anthracene brown, chromogen, cloth brown, diamond brown, alizarin brown, fast brown, alizarin acid brown, chrome brown, palatine chrome brown, erio chrome brown. Black.—Alizarin black, diamond black, alizarin blue black, alizarin cyanine black, alizarin fast grey, chromotrope, chrome black, erio chrome black, anthracite black, acid alizarin black, anthracene chrome black. A brief description of the application of a few of the more important of the above colouring matters will suffice. Alizarin, Anthrapurpurin and Flavopurpurin give somewhat similar shades with the different mordants, namely, brown with chromium, red with aluminium, orange with tin, and purple with iron. In wool-dyeing they are applied along with other Mordant Colours on chromium mordant for the production of a large variety of compound shades, browns, drabs, greys, &c., the presence of acetic acid in the dyebath being advantageous. When alum and tartar mordant is employed, for the production of reds, it is necessary to add a small amount (4 %) of calcium acetate to the dyebath, in order to neutralize the strong acidity of the mordanted wool, and to furnish the calcium of the colour-lake fixed upon the fibre, which is regarded as an aluminium-calcium compound of the colouring matter. In cotton-dyeing the above colouring matters are chiefly used for the production of so-called Turkey-red, a colour remarkable for its brilliancy and its fastness to light and soap. These properties are due to the preparation of the cotton with oil, in addition to the ordinary mordanting and dyeing, whereby there is fixed on the fibre a permanent and stable lake, in which aluminium and calcium are combined with alizarin and some form of fatty oxy-acid. In the older processes employed, the preparation of the cotton with oil was effected by passing the material several times through emulsions of olive oil and potassium carbonate solution; at a later date, and even now in the case of cloth, the cotton is first impregnated with hot oil (Steiner's process), then passed through solutions of alkali carbonate. After the preparation with oil or oil-emulsions, the cotton is " stoved," i.e. heated for several hours in special chambers or stoves to a temperature of about 7o° C., during which operation the oil is decomposed and oxidized and becomes indelibly attached to the fibre. The oil-prepared cotton is steeped in cold solutions of basic aluminium sulphate or acetate, washed, dyed with alizarin, and finally boiled for several hours with soap solution under pressure in order to brighten the colour. In the more recent and much more expeditious " sulphated-oil process," castor oil is employed instead of olive oil, and before use it is submitted to a treatment with sulphuric acid, the sulphated oil thus obtained being finally more or less neutralized with alkali. The cotton is impregnated with this sulphated-oil solution, dried, mordanted with aluminium acetate, dyed, dried, steamed and soaped. The operation of steaming plays an important part in brightening and fixing the colour-lake on the fibre. In these and all other Turkey-red processes, the oil, probably in the form of a fatty oxy-acid, acts as a fixing agent for the aluminium and enters into the composition of the red lake, imparting to it both brilliancy and permanency. Alizarin S is a sulphonic acid derivative of alizarin, and since it is much more soluble, it readily yields level colours. Silk is dyed in a similar manner to wool, the fibre being mordanted by the ordinary methods and then dyed in a separate bath. Diamine Fast Red is applied to cotton as a Direct Colour, with the addition of soda or soap to the dyebath. By treating the dyed colour with a solution of fluoride of chromium, its fastness to washing is materially increased. Wool is dyed in a similar manner, sodium sulphate being added to the dyebath, and the dyed colour treated with fluoride of chromium or bichromate of potash. On wool, the colour is so extremely fast to light and to milling that it may well serve as a substitute for alizarin. Alizarin Orange is employed in the same manner as alizarin. In wool-dyeing it is usually applied on chromium mordant for browns and a variety of compound shades in combination with other Alizarin Colours and dyewood extracts, less frequently on aluminium mordant. Galloflavin is used in wool and silk dyeing on chromium mordant as a substitute for fustic and other yellow dyewoods, to furnish the yellow part of compound shades. The alizarin yellows, R and GG, anthracene yellow, diamond flavine, chrome yellow, diamond yellow, carbazol yellow, chrysamine, &c., are Direct Colours with mordant-dyeing properties. They also serve as substitutes for fustic in wool or silk dyeing, and are dyed either on a chromium mordant, or first in an acid bath and afterwards saddened with bichromate of potash. Coerulein is employed in dyeing wool, silk or cotton with aluminium or chromium mordants, either as a self-colour or for compound shades. With aluminium mordant the colour is a moderately bright green, more particularly on silk; with chromium mordant, an olive-green. Coerulein S is the more soluble bisulphite compound of the ordinary coerulein. It is applied in the same manner, care being taken, however, to dye for some time (one hour) at a temperature not exceeding 6o° C. until the bath is nearly exhausted, and then only raising the temperature to the boiling point. Without this precaution coerulein S is decomposed, and the ordinary insoluble coerulein is precipitated. The colours obtained are very fast to light. Fast Green, Dioxine and Gambine are chiefly of use in calico-printing and in wool-dyeing. With iron mordant they yield olive-greens, which on wool are extremely fast to light. Cotton is impregnated with ferrous acetate, dried, aged and fixed with silicate of soda, then dyed in a neutral bath. Wool is mordanted with ferrous sulphate and tartar (3 % of each) and dyed in a neutral bath. Acid Alizarin Green, Alizarin Cyanine Green and Diamond Green all dye wool direct in a bath acidified with acetic or sulphuric acid, and the dyed colour may be afterwards fixed or saddened with bichromate of potash, or they may he dyed on chromium-mordanted wool. The first method is very useful for pale shades, since the colours are very level or regular. Alizarin Blue is a dark blue dyestuff which, owing to the fastness of the colours it yields, has for many years been regarded as a worthy substitute for indigo in wool-dyeing. It is applied in the same manner as alizarin, the chromium mordant being alone employed. Alizarin blue S is the soluble sodium bisulphite compound of alizarin blue; it corresponds, therefore, to the above-mentioned coerulein S, and in its application the same precautions as to the temperature of the dyebath are necessary. The fastness of the dyed colours to light, milling and acid satisfy the highest requirements. Alizarin Cyanine, Anthracene Blue and Brilliant Alizarin Blue were discovered later than the above-mentioned alizarin blues, and, owing to their greater solubility and other advantages, they have largely replaced them as substitutes for indigo. They are dyed on chromium-mordanted wool, silk or cotton, and yield dark purplish or greenish blues, according to the particular brand em-. ployed. The fastness of the dyed colours to light, and general durability, are very satisfactory, but in fastness to milling and acids they are to some extent inferior to alizarin blue. Celestine Blue and Chrome Blue dye purplish blue and bright blue respectively, and are dyed in the ordinary way upon a chromium mordant. The colours they yield are inferior to the Alizarin Colours in fastness to light, but on account of their clear shades they are often used for brightening other colours. Brilliant Alizarin Cyanine, Alizarin Viridine and Alizarin Saphirole are true Alizarin Colours, and possess the same fastness to light as other colours of this class. Unlike most of the Alizarin Colours, they are capable of dyeing wool satisfactorily without the aid of a metallic mordant—namely, with the addition of sulphuric acid to the dyebath, in the same manner as the Acid Colours. If necessary, the dyed colours may be treated with bichromate of potash. The colours thus produced are very fast to light and very level, hence these dyestuffs are valuable in the production of the most delicate compound shades, such as drabs, slates, greys, &c., which are desired to be fast to light. Alizarin saphirole dyes clear blue, the colour produced being much more brilliant even than those of brilliant alizarin cyanine. Gallein, Gallocyanine, and especially Chrome Violet, dye some-what bright purple shades, and are hence frequently employed for brightening other colours, but they are only moderately fast to light. They are applied in the usual manner on a chromium mordant. Anthracene Brown is largely employed in the production of compound shades. It dyes a dark, somewhat reddish, brown on chromium mordant, the colour being very even and extremely fast to light. Alizarin Black is dyed on chromium mordant in the same manner as alizarin, and is used as a self-colour or in combination with other Alizarin Colours. Diamond Black is very useful for dyeing good blacks on wool, fast to light and acids. The wool is first dyed with the addition of acetic and finally sulphuric acid. When the dyebath is exhausted, bichromate of potash (2 %) is added, and boiling is continued for half an hour longer. The erio chrome colours (black, brown, red, &c.) are applied in wool dyeing like diamond black. Chromotrope, of which there are several brands, is an Acid Colour which is applied to wool in an acid bath in the usual manner. The red or purple colours thus obtained are saddened in the same bath with bichromate of potash and changed into black, the colouring matter being oxidized and simultaneously combined with chromium.
End of Article: MORDANT
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