Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 878 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DUKE OF TREVISO EDOUARD ADOLPHE CASIMIR JOSEPH MORTIER (1768-1835), marshal of France, was born at Cateau Cambresis on the 13th of February 1768, and entered the army as a sub-lieutenant in 1791. He served in the campaigns of 1792 and 1793 on the north-eastern frontier and in the Nether-lands, and subsequently on the Meuse and the Rhine. In the war against the second coalition in 1799 he was promoted successively general of brigade and general of division. His conduct of the French occupation of Hanover led Napoleon to include Mortier in the first list of marshals created in 1804. He commanded a corps of the grande armee in the Ulm campaign in which he distinguished himself particularly by his brilliant action of Diirrenstein; in 18o6 he was again in Hanover andnorth-western Germany, and in 1807 he served with the grande armee in the Friedland campaign. In 18o8 he was .created duke of Treviso, and shortly afterwards he commanded an army corps in Napoleon's campaign for the recapture of Madrid. He remained in Spain for two campaigns, winning the victory of Ocana in November 18og. In 1812 and 1813 he commanded the Young Guard, and in the " defensive campaign of 1814 he rendered brilliant services in command of rearguards and covering detachments. In 1815, after the flight of Louis XVIII., he rejoined Napoleon and was given a high command, but at the opening of the Waterloo campaign he fell ill. After the second restoration he was for a time in disgrace, but in 1818 he was readmitted to the Chamber of Peers and in 1825 received the Order of the Saint Esprit. In 183o-1831 he was ambassador of France at St Petersburg, and in 1834-1835 minister of war and president' of the council of ministers. In 1835, while accompanying Louis Philippe to a review, the marshal with eleven other persons was killed by the bomb aimed at the king by Fieschi (July 28, 1835).

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