MOUTHPIECE (Fr. embouchure; Ger. Mundstuck; Ital. bocchino) , in
See also:music, that
See also:part of a
See also:wind instrument into which the performer directs his breath in
See also:order to induce the
See also:regular series of vibrations to which musical sounds are due . The mouthpiece is either taken into the mouth or held to the lips; by an extension of the meaning of the word, mouthpiece is also applied to the corresponding part of an
See also:pipe through which the compressed wind is blown, and containing the
See also:sharp edge known as "
See also:lip," or the
See also:reed necessary for the production of sound . The quality of a musical
See also:tone is due primarily to the
See also:form or method of vibration by means of which sound-waves of a distinctive character are generated, each consisting of a
See also:pulse or
See also:wave of
See also:compression and of a pulse of rarefaction; the variety in the quality of tone, or " timbre," obtainable in various wind
See also:instruments is in a
See also:great measure due to the form and construction of the mouthpiece, taken in combination with the form of the
See also:column of air within the
See also:tube and consequently of the
See also:bore of the latter . The
See also:principal functions of the mouth-piece are (1) to facilitate the production of the natural
See also:harmonic scale of the instrument; (2) to assist in correcting errors in pitch as the ear directs; (3) to enable the performer to obtain the dynamic variations whereby he translates his emotional
See also:interpretation of the music into sound . Mouthpieces, therefore, serve as a means of classifying wind instruments . They fall into the following divisions: I . The
See also:syrinx or
See also:pan-pipe mouthpiece consists merely of the open end of the tube across (not into) which the player directs his breath in a current which impinges obliquely against the sharp edge of the pipe, producing the series of shocks or pulses required in the air stream from his lips; this in turn, when in a state of vibration, serves to generate the sound-waves within the pipe . This principle was embodied in the
See also:nay, or long oblique
See also:flute of the
See also:ancient Egyptians, which was probably the first mouthpiece discovered and put into
See also:practical use by prehistoric man . A modification of this principle has been applied to the transverse flute (q.v.), in which the air stream or exciting current is directed across a lateral hole in the
See also:head joint of the instrument . 2 . The
See also:whistle mouthpiece is based on that of the flute with this modification, that the air current, instead of being compressed by the lips of the performer and then directed through ambient air to break against the sharp edge of the lateral hole, is compressed mechanically in passing through a narrow channelso constructed within the mouthpiece that the stream of air impinges with force against the sharp edge of a lip cut into the pipe below the channel . The principle of the whistle mouth-piece has been applied with slight modifications to a variety of instruments such as the recorder (q.v.)
See also:family in England (Fr. flute d bec, flute
See also:douce, flute anglaise; Ger .
Schnabelflole, Plockflote; Ital. flautodolce, in which the channel assumes the form of a
See also:beak, the
See also:flageolet (q.v.), the
See also:penny whistle, &c . All these whistle or fipple pipes have at all times enjoyed great popularity owing to the ease with which they can be played) . The flute or flue-
See also:work of an organ is the result of the adaptation of the same principle to both open and stopped pipes (fig . 1) . Compressed air is fed in at an even pressure through the
See also:foot AB, and passing through the slit or channel EC, impinges with force against the lip D, producing the requisite series of pulsations in the pipe FF . By this elimination of the human
See also:element in the organ, all possibility of communicating the emotion of the performer becomes impossible . With a rigid mouthpiece any increase in wind pressure would affect the pitch, causing the note to become unsteady or to jump to the harmonics; the result could in no case be a crescendo . 3 . Reed Mouthpieces.—There are three kinds of reed mouthpieces: the
See also:double, the single or beating, and the
See also:free reed . The
See also:function of the reed, a
See also:term originally applied to part of a stalk of the Arundo donax or saliva, but now extended to any vibrating
See also:tongue of
See also:wood or
See also:metal, is to break up an exciting current of air, otherwise flowing in an uninterrupted even stream, into regular beats or pulses, corresponding with the beats or vibrations of the reed . Reeds proper or wooden vibrators, being flexible, are compelled to vibrate synchronously with the column of air within the tube and to accommodate their frequency of vibration to the length of the tube as it varies according A to the lateral holes which remain open ? From V .
Mahillon, Elements d'acnu- A . The double reed is the most
See also:primitive and stique,by permission probably the
See also:oldest of the reed mouthpieces; it of C . Mahillon. was used by the ancient Egyptians.3 A
See also:straw FIG . 1.-
See also:Diagram flattened at one end and inserted into a pipe of a flue-pipe. having at the mouthpiece end the same diameter as the straw contains all the rudimentary features of the double-reed mouthpiece
See also:common to the members of the oboe family, i.e.
See also:cor anglais, bassoon, contra-fagotto, to the sarrusophone, and to the chaunter of the bagpipe . The earliest Greek autos (q.v.) was probably played by means of a double reed, since the mouthpiece was known as 1'euyor, signifying a pair of like things . The oboe reed (fig . 2) is made from two pieces of reed stalk, flattened and thinned at the end and bound together with waxed
See also:thread, thus forming a tube with a constriction in the
See also:middle, above which the section is
See also:oval and below circular . A double-reed mouthpiece may be enclosed in an air-chamber or
See also:reservoir, as in the 16th-century
See also:cromorne (q.v.), in the chaunter of the bagpipe (q.v.), in the reeds of organ-pipes and in certain instruments popular in France during the 17th century known as " hautbois de
See also:Poitou." In all of these the air-chamber is supplied with compressed air by the mouth of the performer, whose lips do not come into contact with the reed, a method which makes the production of harmonics impossible, and thus restricts the natural scale . As soon as the practice of over-blowing, i.e. the production of harmonics by increased pressure of breath accompanied by a proportional tension of the lips, became known, the air-chamber 1 See Rev . F . W . Galpin, " The Whistles and Reed Instruments of the
See also:Indians of the
See also:Coast," Proc .
Musical Assoc . (1903-1904), p . 115, with illustrations . 2 SeeVictor Mahillon, Elements d'acoustique musicale (
See also:Paris, 1873), pp . 167 and 83 . 3 A case excavated in
See also:Egypt was found to contain two pipes, and in addition five pieces of reed without bore or holes, and three pieces of straw suitable for making double-reed mouthpieces . See Victor Loret, "
See also:Les Flfltes egyptiennes antiques," Journal asiatique (Paris, 1889), , xiv. pp . 119, 200, 201 (note), 207, 211 and 217 . of the oboe was discarded and the reed taken directly into the mouth . It is certain that the ancient Greeks obtained the full compass of the
See also:aulos by overblowing, since the
See also:process by which a
See also:modern performer on the oboe or
See also:clarinet obtains the harmonics is described by Aristotle 1 and others.' The vibrating length of the reed is controlled by taking the latter more or less deeply into the mouth and by varying the pressure of the lips upon it; the shorter the free end the higher the pitch of the note or harmonic obtained . The
See also:action of the lips on the reed is imitated to some extent in reed organ-pipes by means of a tuning-
See also:wire, with the difference that, the lips being
See also:mobile, different notes can be obtained from the same pipe, whereas in the organ each reed is adapted to its own pipe and gives one note only . B .
The beating- or single-reed mouthpiece, also known as the clarinet mouthpiece, is likewise of great antiquity; the principle is the same as that of the modern
See also:Egyptian arghoul (q.v.), which has been traced once at least in the hieroglyphics and in a"
See also:fresco from the tombs at Saqqara.3 The mouthpiece of the arghoul is the primitive form of beating-reed known popularly in rural dis- tricts as a " squeaker." A lateral slit is made in a piece of reed and a little tongue is detached by slitting the reed back from the slit towards double-reed close and open the aperture at regular intervals, mouthpiece. and the exciting
See also:agent here acts by means of a series of concussions . The metal vibrator known as the beating-reed of organ reed-pipes is similarly constructed, except that the tongue is a
See also:separate piece of metal fixed by means of nuts over an aperture, the vibrating length'being regulated by means of a tuning-wire (see FREE REED VIBRATOR) . The clarinet mouthpiece (fig . 3) has the appearance of a beak with the point bevelled and thinned at the edge to correspond with the end of the reed, shaped like a spatula . The underpart of the mouth-piece is flattened in order to form a table for the support of the reed, which is adjusted thereon with great nicety by means of a ligature or metal
See also:band fastened by screws . A
See also:longitudinal aperture I in. long and z in. wide, communicating with the bore, is cut in the table and covered by the reed, so that the only opening is at the point, where for the distance of 3 to 4 in. the reed is thinned and the table curves backwards, leaving a
See also:gap of about I mm. between itself and the reed-tongue (for the Bb clarinet) . The
See also:curve of the table and the dimensions of the gap are therefore of considerable importance . The reed is set in vibration by the breath of the performer, and being flexible it beats against the table, alternately opening and closing the gap, and producing, as already mentioned above, a series of concussions in harmony with the vibrations of the air-column within the tube, according to the length determined by the opening of the lateral holes and keys . C . The free-reed, illustrated under FREE REED VIBRATOR, is similar in construction to the beating-reed, but the metal vibrator is cut slightly smaller than the aperture, through which it passes freely, alternately opening and closing it without concussion and with
See also:elasticity . The
See also:main difference in practice between these two outwardly similar reeds is a very important one . The reed being free remains uncontrolled, and increased pressure of wind therefore produces not an harmonic overtone but a crescendo .
The principal use of the free-reed is in theharmonium (q.v.) and in the reed-work of
See also:organs on the continent of
See also:Europe . In
See also:English organs the beating-reed is almost universal . The free-reed is further used in the
See also:cheng (q.v.), through which it became known in Europe in the 18th century, and in the accordion, concertina and mouth-organ, under which headings its acoustic properties are more fully discussed . 4 .
See also:Cup-Mouthpieces.—Brass wind instruments are played by means of cup or
See also:funnel-shaped mouthpieces, generally made of 1 See De audih. p . 8o4a . 2 Porphyrius (ed .
See also:Wallis), pp . 249 and 252 . See Victor Loret, L'Egypte au temps
See also:des Pharaons (Paris, 1889), illustrated on pp . 139 and 143 . The author gives no information as to this fresco except that it is in the Musee
See also:Guimet; it is probably identical with the second of the mural paintings described on p .
190 of the
See also:guide illustre du Musee Guimet (Paris, 1890).
See also:silver . The principal feature of the cup is the shape of the aperture in the bottom, where it communicates with the bore of the tube (known as the "
See also:grain" or "
See also:throat "), and its distance from the rim . The shallower the cup the more suitable it is for producing the higher harmonics . The lips of the per-former
See also:rest lightly but firmly against the rim of the mouth-piece, vibrating like double reeds from the force of the breath and communicating these vibrations in the form of pulses to the breath as it issues from them in a stream . This stream or exciting current passes into the cup ready to generate sound waves in the air column contained within the main tube . If, as in the
See also:trumpet and in a lesser degree in the trombone, the curve of the bottom of the cup terminates at the hole in an abrupt
See also:angle, the quality of the tone
See also:developed is brilliant and blaring, being broken up by the sharp edge of the throat . In the
See also:horn, which has a funnel-shaped mouthpiece, the timbre is in complete contrast when the instrument is properly played,' being elastic, sonorous and very mellow, qualities which may be attributed to the
See also:absence of angle or bottom to the cup, the sides gradually sloping and converging insensibly into the bore of the tube . (K .
MOUTH AND SALIVARY GLANDS
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