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JULIUS MULLER (18oi-1878)

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Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 963 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JULIUS MULLER (18oi-1878), German Protestant theologian, was born at Brieg on the loth of April 18o,. He studied at Breslau, Gottingen and Berlin, first law, then theology; and in 1839 became professor ordinarius of theology at Halle (1839). In 1848 he helped to found the Deutsch-evang. Kirchentag, and two years later founded and edited (1850-1861), with Neander and K. I. Nitzsch, the Deutsche Zeitschrift fiir christliche Wissenschaft and christliches Leben. He died at Halle on the 27th of September 1878. A disciple of Neander and friend of Richard Rothe, Muller bitterly opposed the philosophy of Hegel and the criticism of F. C. Baur. His book, Uber den Gegensatz des Protestantismus and des Catholicismus (1833), called forth a reply from Baur, and he was one of those who attacked D. Strauss's Life of Jesus. In 1846 he had been deputed to attend the General Evangelical Synod at Berlin. Here he supported the Consensus-Union, and afterwards defended himself in the pamphlets Die erste Generalsynode der evang. Landeskirche Preussen (1847) and Die evangelische Union, ihr Wesen and gottliches Recht (1854). His chief work, however, was Die christliche Lehre der Siinde (2 vols., 1839; 5th ed., 1867; Eng. trans. from 5th ed.), in which he carried scholasticism so far as " to revive the ancient Gnostic theory of the fall of man before all time, a theory which found no favour amongst his theological friends " (Otto Pfieiderer). Miller's other works include Dogmat. Abhandlungen (187o), and Das christliche Leben (3rd ed., 1847). See M. Kahler, Julius Muller (1878); L. Schultze, Julius Muller (1879) and Julius Muller als Ethiker (1895).
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