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FREIHERR VON EDWIN MANTEUFFEL (1809-1...

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Originally appearing in Volume V17, Page 604 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FREIHERR VON

EDWIN MANTEUFFEL (1809-1885)  , Prussian general field marshal, son of the president of the
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superior court of
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Magdeburg, was born at
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Dresden on the 24th of
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February 1809 . He was brought up with his cousin,
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Otto von Manteuffel (1805-1882), the Prussian statesman, entered the guard cavalry at Berlin in 1827, and became an officer in 1828 . After attending the War Academy for two years, and serving successively 'as aide-de-camp to General von Mu ling and to Prince Albert of Prussia, he was promoted captain in 1843 and major in 1848, when he became aide-de-camp to Frederick William IV., whose confidence he had gained during the revolutionary
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movement in Berlin . Promoted
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lieutenant-colonel in' 1852, and colonel to command the 5th Uhlans in 1.853, he. was sent on important
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diplomatic missions to Vienna and St
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Petersburg . In 1857 he became major-general and chief of the military
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cabinet . He gave hearty support to the prince regent's plans for the re-organization of the army . In 1861 he was violently attacked in a pamphlet by Karl Twesten (182o-i87o), a Liberal leader, whomwhich rank he was promoted on the coronation of William I., Oct . 18, 1861) in the Danish war of 1864, and at its conclusion was appointed
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civil and military governor of Schleswig . In the
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Austrian War of 1866 he first occupied Holstein and afterwards commanded a division under Vogel von Falkenstein in the Hanoverian
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campaign, and succeeded him, in
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July, in command of the Army of the Main (see SEVEN WEEKS' WAR) . His successful operations ended with the occupation of
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Wurzburg, and he received the order pour le Write . He was, however, on account of his monarchist
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political views and almost bigoted
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Roman Catholicism, regarded by the parliament as a reactionary, and, unlike the other army commanders, he was not granted a
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money
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reward for his services . He then went on a diplomatic
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mission to St Petersburg, where he was persona grata, and succeeded in gaining Russia's assent to the new position in north Germany .

On returning he was gazetted to the colonelcy of the 5th Dragoons . He was appointed to the command of the IX . (Schleswig-Holstein) army

corps in 1866 . But having formerly exercised both civil and military control in the Elbe duchies he was unwilling to be a purely military
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commander under one of his
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late civil subordinates, and retired from the army for a
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year . In 1868, however, he returned to active service . In the Franco-German War of 1870-71 he commanded the I. corps under Steinmetz, distinguishing himself in the
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battle of
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Colombey-Neuilly, and in the repulse of Bazaine at Noisseville (see FRANCO-GERMAN WAR; and
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METZ) . He succeeded Steinmetz in
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October in the command of the I. army, won the battle of
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Amiens against General Farre, and occupied
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Rouen, but was less fortunate against Faidherbe at Pont Noyelles and Bapaume . In
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January 1871 he commanded the newly formed Army of the South, which he led, in spite of hard frost, through the Cote d'Or and over the plateau of
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Langres, cut off Bourbaki's army of the east (8o,000 men), and, after the
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action of
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Pontarlier, compelled it to
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cross the Swiss frontier, where it was disarmed . His immediate reward was the
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Grand Cross of the order of the Iron Cross, and at the conclusion of peace he received the Black Eagle . When the
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Southern Army was disbanded Manteuffel commanded first the II. army, and, from
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June 1871 until 1873, the army of occupation
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left in France, showing
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great tact in a difficult position . On leaving France at the close of the occupation, the emperor promoted Manteuffel to the rank of general field Marshal and awarded him a large grant in money, and about the same time Alexander II. of Russia gave him the order of St Andrew . After this he was employed on several diplomatic missions, was for a time governor of Berlin, and in 1879, perhaps, as was commonly reported, because he was considered by Bismarck as a formidable
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rival, he was appointed governor-general of Alsace-
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Lorraine; and this office he exercised—more in the spirit, some said, of a Prussian than of a German. official—until his
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death at
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Carlsbad, Bohemia, on' the 17th of June 1885 .

See lives by v . Collas (Berlin, 1874), and K . H . Keck (

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Bielefeld and
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Leipzig, 189o) .

End of Article: FREIHERR VON EDWIN MANTEUFFEL (1809-1885)
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