See also:music, as the formal expression of
See also:national patriotism, is a comparatively
See also:modern developmentof ceremonial usage . In
See also:Europe the chief national anthems are: The
See also:Kingdom: "
See also:God save the
See also:king " (see below); France: " The Marseillaise," by Rouget de
See also:Lisle; Germany: " Heil
See also:im Siegeskranz," words by Balthasar Gerhard Schumacher, music of " God save the King ";
See also:Switzerland: " Rufst du, mein Vaterland," music of " God save the King "; Italy: the " Royal
See also:March " by G . Gabetti;
See also:Austria: " Gott erhalte unsern Kaiser," words by L . L . Haschka, music by
See also:Haydn; Hungary: " Isten ald meg a Magyart "; Belgium: " La Brabangonne," by F . Campenhout;
See also:Holland: " Wien Nierlansch "; Denmark: " Heil dir, dem Liebenden," words by H . Harries, music of " God save the King," and " King Kristian stod ved hojen
See also:mast," words by Ewald, music by Hartman; Sweden:- " Ur Svenska hjertans "; Russia: " Bozhe
See also:Zaria chrany," words by J . J . Canas, music by D . Jenko; Rumania: " Traeasca Regale," words by V . Alexandri, music by E .
A . Hubsch;Spain: " Himno de
See also:Riego," music by Herta . In the United States, the "
See also:Star Spangled Banner " (1814; words by F . S .
See also:Key, music by J . S .
See also:Smith) and "
See also:Columbia " (1798; words by
See also:Joseph Hopkinson, music by Fyles)
See also:share the duties of a national
See also:anthem, while the tune of " God save the King " is sung to words beginning " My
See also:country, 'tis of thee," by
See also:Samuel F . Smith (1808–1895) . The most celebrated of all national anthems is the
See also:English " God save the King," which is said to have been first sung as his own composition by
See also:Henry Carey in 1740; and a version was assigned by W .
See also:Chappell (Popular Music) to the
See also:Anglican of 1742 or 1743, but no copy exists and this is now doubted . Words and music were printed in the
See also:Magazine for
See also:October 1745 . There has been much controversy as to the authorship, which is complicated by the fact that earlier forms of the air and the words are recorded .
Such are an " Ayre " of 1619, attributed to
See also:John Bull, who has long been credited with the origin of the anthem; the Scottish
See also:carol, " Remember, 0 thou man," in
See also:Ravenscroft's Melismata, 1611; the ballad "
See also:Franklin is fled away " (printed 1669; and a piece in
See also:Purcell's Choice Collection for the
See also:Harpsichord (1696) . The words or
See also:part of them are also found in various forms from the 16th century . The question was discussed in
See also:Clarke's Account of the National Anthem (1822), and has been reinvestigated by Dr W . H . Cummings in his God save the King (1902) . Carey and Bull, in the general opinion of musical historians,
See also:divide the
See also:credit; but in his Minstrelsy of England (19o1)
See also:Frank Kidson introduced a new claimant,
See also:James Oswald, a Scotsman who settled in
See also:London in 1742, and worked for John
See also:Simpson, the publisher of the early copies of God save the King, and who became chamber composer to
See also:George III . What appears to be certain is that 1745 is the earliest date assignable to the substantial national anthem as we know it, and that both words and music had been evolved out of earlier forms . Bull's is the earliest
See also:form of the air; Carey's claim to the re-modelling of the anthem rests on an unauthoritative tradition; and, on general probabilities, Oswald is a strong
See also:candidate . The tune was adopted by Germany and by Denmark before the end of the 18th century .
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