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NAUHEIM

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Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 278 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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NAUHEIM, or BAD-NAU11EIM, a watering-place of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, situated on the north-east slope of the Taunus Mountains, 24 M. by rail N. of Frankforton-Main on the main line of railway to Cassel. Pop. (1905) 5054. It has three Evangelical, a Roman Catholic and an English church. Its thermal waters (84° to 95° F.), although known for centuries, were, prior to 1835, only employed for the extraction of salt. They now yield about 2000 tons annually. The town has several parks, the largest being the Kurpark, 125 acres in extent, in which are the Kurhaus and the two chief springs. The waters, which are saline, strongly impregnated with carbonic acid, and to a less extent with iron, are principally used for bathing, and are specific in cases of gout and rheumatism, but especially for heart affections. Three smaller springs, situated outside the Kurpark, supply water for drinking. In 1899—1900 a new spring (saline) was tapped at a depth of 682 ft. Another attraction of the place is the Johannisberg, a hill 773 ft. high, immediately overlooking the town. Nauheim, which was bestowed by Napoleon upon Marshal Davout, became a town in 1854. From 1815 to 1866 it belonged to the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, but in 1866 it was ceded to NAULETTE-NAUPACTUS The cathedral, an imposing building in the Romanesque Transition style (1207–1242), has a Gothic choir at each end, and contains some interesting medieval sculptures. It is remarkable for its large crypt and its towers, a fourth having been added in 1894, the gift of the emperor William II. There are also four other Protestant churches (of which the town church, dedicated to St Wenceslaus and restored in 1892–1894, possesses two pictures by Lucas Cranach the elder), a Roman Catholic church, a gymnasium, a modern school, an orphanage and three hospitals. A curious feature of the town is the custom, which has not yet died out, of labelling the houses with signs, such as the " swan," the " leopard " and the " lion." The industries of the place mainly consist in the manufacture of cotton and woollen fabrics, chemicals, combs, beer, vinegar and leather. On the hills to the north of the town, across the Unstrut, lies Schenkelburg, once the residence of the poet Gellert, and noticeable for the grotesque carvings in the sandstone rocks. In the loth century Naumburg was a stronghold of the mar-graves of Meissen, who in 1029 transferred to it the bishopric of Zeitz. In the history of Saxony it is memorable as the scene of various treaties; and in 1561 an assembly of Protestant princes was held there, which made a futile attempt to cement the doctrinal dissensions of the Protestants. In 1564 the last bishop died, and the bishopric fell to the elector of Saxony. In 1631 the town was taken by Tilly, and in 1632 by Gustavus Adolphus. It became Prussian in 1814. An annual festival, with a pro-cession of children, which is still held, is referred to an apocryphal siege of the town by the Hussites in 1432, but is probably connected with an incident in the brothers' war (1447–51), between the elector Frederick II. of Saxony and his brother Duke William. Karl Peter Lepsius (1775–1853), the antiquary and his more distinguished son Richard the Egyptologist, were born at Naumburg. See E. Borkowsky, Die Geschichte der Stadt Naumburg an der Saale (Stuttgart, 1897) ; E. Hoffmann, Naumburg an der Saale im Zeitalter der Reformation (Leipzig, 1900) ; S. Braun, Naumburger Annalen vom Jahre 799 bis 1613 (Naumburg, 1892) ; Puttrich, Naumburg an der Saale, sein Dom and andre altertumliche Bauwerke (Leipzig, 1841–1843); and Wispel, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Stadt Naumburg an der Saale (Naumburg, 1903).
End of Article: NAUHEIM
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