See also:bishop of
See also:Myra, in
See also:Lycia, a
See also:saint honoured by the Greeks and the Latins on the 6th of
See also:December . His cult is as celebrated as his
See also:history is obscure . All the accounts that have come down to us are of a purely legendary character, and it is impossible to find any single incident confirmed historic-ally . The
See also:main facts of his
See also:life are usually given as follows . He was bishop of Myra in the
See also:time of the emperor
See also:Diocletian, was persecuted, tortured for the faith, and kept in prison until the more tolerant reign of
See also:Constantine, and was
See also:present at the council of Nicaea . It should be observed that this last circumstance is ignored by all the historians, and that St
See also:Athanasius, who knew all the notable bishops of the
See also:period, never mentions
See also:Nicholas, bishop of Myra . The
See also:oldest known
See also:monument of the cult of St Nicholas seems to be the
See also:church of SS
See also:Priscus and Nicholas built at Constantinople by the emperor Justinian (see
See also:Procopius, De aedif. i . 6) . In the West, the name of St Nicholas appears in the 9th century martyrologies, and churches dedicated to him are to be found at the beginning of the 11th century . It is more especially, however, from the time of the removal of his
See also:body to Bari, in Apulia, that his cult became popular . The inhabitants of Bari organized an expedition, seized his remains by means of a ruse, and transported them to Bari, where they were received in
See also:triumph on the 9th of May ro87, and where the
See also:foundations were laid of a new
See also:basilica in his
See also:honour . This was the origin of a famous and still popular pilgrimage .
There are nearly 400 churches inEngland dedicated to St Nicholas . He is the
See also:patron saint of Russia; the
See also:protector of
See also:children, scholars, merchants and sailors; and is invoked by travellers against robbers . In
See also:art St Nicholas is represented with various attributes, being most commonly depicted with three children
See also:standing in a tub by his side . Of the various interpretations of this, none is absolutely certain . One explanation has been sought in the
See also:legend of St Nicholas miraculously restoring to life three
See also:rich youths, who had been murdered, cut up and concealed in a salting tub by a thievish innkeeper or
See also:butcher, in whose
See also:house they had taken lodging . A legend of his surreptitious bestowal of dowries upon the three daughters of an impoverished
See also:citizen, who, unable to procure
See also:fit marriages for them, was on the point of giving them up to a life of shame, is said to have originated the old
See also:custom of giving presents in secret on the
See also:Eve of St Nicholas, subsequently transferred to
See also:Day . Hence the association of Christmas with "
See also:Santa Claus," an
See also:American corruption of the Dutch
See also:form "
See also:San Nicolaas," the custom being brought to
See also:America by the early Dutch colonists . (For the ceremony of the.boybishop elected on St Nicholas's Day see Boy-BISHOP.) See N . C . Falconius, Sancti Nicolai acta primigenia (Naples, 1751) ; Bibliotheca hagiographica Graeca (Brussels, 1895), p . 96; Bibl. hagiogr .
See also:Latina (Brussels, 1899), n .
61(34-6221; F . Nitti di Vito, Le Perganiene di S . Nicola di Bari (Bari, 1901);
See also:Charles Cahier, Caracteristiques
See also:saints (
See also:Paris, 1867), p . 354; Frances
See also:Forster, Studies in Church Dedications (
See also:London, 1899), i . 495-501 and
See also:Ili . 21 .
SIR EDWARD NICHOLAS (1593-1669)
JOHN NICHOLS (1745–1826)
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