Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 341 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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NICKEL : 5 BRONZE: I and 2 centavos, 95 parts copper , 4 tin, I zinc. Provisions are also made for continuing the coinage of " trade dollars " for export, which have a wide circulation in the Orient but are not current at home. Fractional silver coin is not legal tender above 20 pesos, and bronze and nickel coins not above I peso, but the government maintains conversion offices where such coins can be converted into silver pesos without loss. The amount of gold in circulation is small, the bank notes convertible into gold taking its place. Foreign coins are permitted to circulate in the republic. There were 34 chartered banks in Mexico in 1908, of which 29 enjoyed the privilege of issuing bank notes; the total note circulation on the 31st of December 1906 was 97,787,878 pesos. These note issues are everywhere current at full nominal value, being secured under the provisions of the national banking law of 1896 by metallic reserves. The notes are not legal tender, and it is forbidden to count them as " cash on hand " in bank returns, but ample safe-guards both as to issue and redemption inspire full confidence in their employment as a substitute for gold. Restrictions on speculative operations in real estate and on the use of hypothecated and discounted paper as security for other transactions, together with the publication of detailed monthly balance sheets, have kept these banks free from unsound methods, and their record thus far (1909) has been conspicuously good. Mortgage and loan banks have also been established in accordance with the law of 1896, and are subject to official supervision. Private banks are numerous, but foreign banks are not encouraged to open agencies. The use of cheques is very limited because of the stamp tax. Weights and Measures.—Mexico adopted the metric system in 1862, and it is used in all official transactions, land measurements, railway calculations and public school work. The old Spanish weights and measures, modified in many particulars, continued in private use, however, and in T895 it became necessary to declare the metric system the only legal system and to make its use compulsory after the 16th of September 1896. Among the more popular works on Mexico are Baedeker's The United States, with Excursions to Mexico, eec. (Leipzig, 1909) ; H. H. Bancroft, Resources and Development of Mexico (San Francisco, 1893) ; M. Chevalier, Le Mexique ancien et moderne (Paris, 1886) ; A. Garcia Cubas, Etude geographique, statistique, descriptive et historique des Etats- Unis Mexicains (Mexico, 1889 ; in English, 1893) ; C. B. Dahlgreen, Minas historicas de la Republica Mexicana (tr. from Eng., 1887) ; J. Domenech, Guia general descriptive de la Repiiblica Mexicana (vol. i., Mexico, 1899) ; F. W. Egloffstein, Contributions to the Geology and Physical Geography of Mexico (New York, 1864) ; C. Reginald Enock, Mexico, its Ancient and Modern Civilization, &c. (London, 1909) ; Hans Gadow, Travels in Southern Mexico (London, 1908) ; Ernst von I-Iesse-Wartegg, Mexico, Land and Leute (Vienna, 189o) ; W. T. Hornaday, Camp Fires on Desert and Lava (London, 19o8); Alex. von Humboldt, Voyage aux regions equinoxiales du nouveau continent (Paris, 1807 sqq.) ; A. H. Keane, " Mexico " in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1904) ; H. Kessler, Notizen fiber Mexico (Berlin, 1898) ; Carl Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico (New York, 1902) ; C. F. Lummis, The Awakening of a Nation (New York, 1898) ; P. F. Martin, Mexico of the Twentieth Century (London, 1907) ; A. H. Noll, A Short History of Mexico (Chicago, 1903) ; Santiago Ramirez, Noticia histerica de la riqueza mineira de Mexico (Mexico, 1884); Friedrich Ratzel, Aus Mexico: Reiseskizzen aus den Jahren 1894–1876 (Breslau, 1878) ; Matias Romero, Geographical and Statistical Notes on Mexico (New York, 1898) ; idem, Mexico and the United States (New York, 1898) ; E. Seler, Mexico and Guatemala (Berlin, 1896) ; Justo Serra (editor), Mexico: Its Social Evolution, &c. (2 vols., Mexico, 1904) ; J. R. South-worth ,Mines of Mexico (9 vols., Mexico, 1905) ; Fredericl:Starr, Indians of Southern Mexico (Chicago, 1899) ; Sara V. Stevenson, Maximilian in Mexico (New York, 1899) T. Philip Terry, Mexico (Boston, 1909 ; an excellent guide) ; David A. Wells, A Study of Mexico (New York, 1887); W. E. Weyl, Labor Conditions in Mexico (Washington, 1902), Bull. No 38, Bureau of Labor; Nevin O. Winter, Mexico and her People of To-day (Boston, 1907) ; Marie R. Wright, Picturesque Mexico (Philadelphia, 1898) ; and Rafael de Zayas Enriquez, Les Etats-unis mexicains (Mexico, 1899). Important works of reference are: Anuario estadistico de la Republica Mexicana (Mexico) ; Mexican Year-book (London, 1908) ; Biological and botanical publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington) ; Statesman's Year-book (London) ; Hand-book of Mexico (Washington), published by the Bureau of American Republics; Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington) ; British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London) ; and the U.S. Consular Reports (Washington). (A. J. L.) HISTORY I.—Ancient Mexico. The name Mexico is connected with the name of the group of American tribes calling themselves Mexica (sing. Mexicali) or Azteca. The word is related to or derived from the name of the Mexican national war-god, Mexitl, better known as Huitzilopochtli. The Aztecs from the I2th century appear to have migrated from place to place over the mountain-walled plateau of Anahuac, the country " by the water," so called from its salt lagoons, which is now known as the Valley of Mexico. About 1325 they founded on the lake of Tezcuco the permanent settlement of Mexico Tenochtitlan, which is still represented by the capital city, Mexico. The name Mexico' was given by the Spanish conquerors to the group of countries over which the Aztec power more or less prevailed at the time of the European invasion. Clavigero (Storia entice del Messico, vol. i.) gives a map of the so-called " Mexican empire," which may be roughly described as reaching from the present Zacatecas to beyond Guatemala; it is noticeable that both these names are of Mexican origin, derived respectively from words for " straw " and " wood." Eventually Mexico and New Mexico came to designate the still vaster region of Spanish North America, which (till cut down by changes which have limited the modern republic of Mexico) reached as far as the Isthmus of Panama on the south and took in California and Texas on the north. Mexico in this wide sense is of high interest to the anthropologist from the several native American civilizations which appear within its limits, and which conveniently if loosely group themselves round two centres, the Mexican proper and the Central American. When early in the 16th century the Spaniards found their way from the West India Islands to this part of the mainland of America, they discovered not rude and simple tribes like the islanders of the Antilles, but nations with armies, official administrators, courts of justice, high agriculture and mechanical arts, and, what struck the white men especially, stone buildings whose architecture and sculpture were often of dimensions and elaborateness to astonish the builders and sculptors of Europe. Here was a problem which excited the liveliest curiosity and gave rise to a whole literature. Hernandez and Acosta shared the opinion of their time that the great fossil bones found in Mexico were remains of giants, and that, as before the deluge there were giants on the earth, therefore Mexico was peopled from the Old World in antediluvian times. On the other hand the multitude of native American languages suggested that the migration to America took place after the building of the tower of Babel, and Siguenza arrived at the curiously definite result that the Mexicans were descended from Naphtuhim, son of Mizraim and grandson of Noah, who left Egypt for Mexico shortly after the confusion of tongues. Although such speculations have fallen out of date, they induced the collection of native traditions and invaluable records of races, languages and customs, which otherwise would have been lost for ever. Even in the 19th century Lord Kingsborough spent a fortune in printing a magnificent compilation of Mexican picture-writings and documents in his Antiquities of Mexico to prove the theory advocated by Garcia a century earlier, that the Mexicans were the lost tribes of Israel. Modern archaeologists approach the question from a different standpoint, but the origin of the American aborigines and of Mexican civilization remains extremely obscure (see AMERICA, where the primitive Mexican cultures are fully illustrated, and CENTRAL AMERICA). Real information as to the nations of Mexico before Spanish r In this, as in all other Aztec names, the x (or j) represents the English sound sh; hence Mexitli and Mexico should be properly pronounced Meshitli, Meshico. But they do not appear to have ever been so pronounced by the Spaniards, who naturally gave to the x its ordinary Spanish sound of the German ch. 330 times is very imperfect, but not altogether wanting. The accurate and experienced Alexander von Humboldt considered the native Americans of both continents to be substantially similar in race-characters. Such a generalization will become sounder, if, as is now generally done by anthropologists, the Eskimo with their pyramidal skulls, dull complexion and flat noses are removed into a division by themselves. Apart from these polar nomads, the American indigenes group roughly into a single division of mankind, of course with local variations. If our attention is turned to the natives of Mexico especially, the unity of type will be found particularly close. The native population of the plateau of Mexico, mainly Aztecs, may still be seen by thousands without any trace of mixture of European blood. Their stature is estimated to be about 5 ft. 3 in., but they are of muscular and sturdy build. Measurements of their skulls show them mesocephalic (index about 78), or intermediate between the dolichocephalic and brachycephalic types of man-kind. The face is oval, with low forehead, high cheek-bones, long eyes sloping outward towards the temples, fleshy lips, nose wide and in some cases flattish but in others aquiline, coarsely moulded features, with a stolid and gloomy expression. Thickness of skin, masking the muscles, has been thought the cause of a peculiar heaviness in the outlines of body and face; the complexion varies from yellow-brown to chocolate (about 40 to 43 in the anthropological scale) ; eyes black; straight coarse glossy black hair; beard and moustache scanty. Among variations from this type may be mentioned higher stature in some districts, and lighter complexion in Tehuantepec and elsewhere. If now the native Americans be compared with the races of the regions across the oceans to their east and west, it will be seen that their unlikeness is extreme to the races eastward of them, whether white Europeans or black Africans. On the other hand they are considerably like the Mongoloid peoples of north and east Asia (less so to the Polynesians); so that the general tendency among anthropologists has been to admit a common origin, however remote, between the tribes of Tartary and of America. This original connexion, if it may be accepted, would seem to belong to a long-past period, to judge from the failure of all attempts to discover an affinity between the languages of America and Asia. At whatever date the Americans began to people America, they must have had time to import or develop the numerous families of languages actually found there, in none of which has community of origin been satisfactorily proved with any other language-group at home or abroad. In Mexico itself the languages of the Nahua nations, of which the Aztec is the best-known dialect, show no connexion of origin with the language of the Otomi tribes, nor either of these with the languages of the regions of the ruined cities of Central America, the Quiche of Guatemala and the Maya of Yucatan. The remarkable phenomenon of nations so similar in bodily make but so distinct in language can hardly be met except by supposing a long period to have elapsed since the country was first inhabited by the ancestors of peoples whose language has since passed into so different forms. The original peopling of America might then well date from the time when there was continuous land between it and Asia. It would not follow, however, that between these remote ages and the time of Columbus no fresh immigrants can have reached America. We may put out of the question the Scandinavian sea-rovers who sailed to Greenland about the loth century. But at all times communication has been open from east Asia, and even the South Sea Islands, to the west coast of America. The importance of this is evident when we consider that late in the loth century Japanese junks still drifted over by the ocean current to California at the rate of about one a year, often with some of the crew still alive. Further north, the Aleutian islands offer a line of easy sea passage, while in north-east Asia, near Bering's Strait, live Chukchi tribes who carry on intercourse with the American side. Moreover there are details of Mexican civilization which are most easily accounted for on the supposition that they were borrowed from Asia. They do not seem ancient enough to have to do with a remote Asiatic origin of the[ANCIENT HISTORY nations of America, but rather to be results of comparatively modern intercourse between Asia and America. Humboldt (Vues des Cordilleras, Pl. xxiii.) compared the Mexican calendar with that in use in eastern Asia. The Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese and other neighbouring nations have a cycle or series of twelve animals, viz. rat, bull, tiger, hare, dragon, serpent, horse, goat, ape, cock, dog, pig, which may possibly be an imitation of the ordinary Babylonian-Greek zodiac familiar to our-selves. The Mongolian peoples not only count their lunar months by these signs, but they reckon the successive days by them, rat-day, bull-day, tiger-day, &c., and also, by combining the twelve signs in rotation with the elements, they obtain a means of marking each year in the sixty-year cycle, as the wood-rat year, the fire-tiger year, &c. This method is highly artificial, and the reappearance of its principle in the Mexican and Central American calendar is suggestive of importation from Asia. Humboldt also discussed the Mexican doctrine of four ages of the world belonging to water, earth, air and fire, and ending respectively by .deluge, earthquake, tempest and conflagration. The resemblance of this to some versions of the Hindu doctrine of the four ages or yuga is hardly to be accounted for except on the hypothesis that the Mexican theology contains ideas learnt from Asiatics. Among Asiatic points of resemblance to which attention has since. been called is the Mexican belief in the nine stages of heaven and hell, an idea which nothing in nature would suggest directly to a barbaric people, but which corresponds to the idea of successive heavens and hells among Brahmans and Buddhists, who apparently learnt it (in common with our own ancestors) from the Babylonian-Greek astronomical theory of successive stages or concentric planetary spheres belonging to the planets, &c. The Spanish chronicles also give accounts of a Mexican game called patolli, played at the time of the conquest with coloured stones moved on the squares of a cross-shaped figure, according to the throws of beans marked on one side; the descriptions of this rather complicated game correspond closely with the Hindu backgammon called pachisi (see Tylor in Jour. Anthrop. Inst., viii. 116). The native history of Mexico and Central America is entitled to more respect than the mere recollections of savage tribes. The Mexican pictures so far approached writing proper as to set down legibly the names of persons and places and the dates of events, and at least helped the professional historians to remember the traditions repeated orally from generation to generation. Thus actual documents of native Aztec history, or copies of them, are still open to the study of scholars, while after the conquest interpretations of these were drawn up in writing by Spanish-educated Mexicans, and histories founded on them with the aid of traditional memory were written by Ixtilxochitl and Tezozomoc. In Central America the rows of complex hieroglyphs to be seen sculptured on the ruined temples probably served a similar purpose. The documents written by natives in later times thus more or less represent real records of the past, but the task of separating myth from history is of the utmost difficulty. Among the most curious documents of early America is the Popol-Vuh or national book of the Quiche kingdom of Guatemala, a compilation of traditions written down by native scribes, found and translated by Father Ximenez about 1700, and published by Scherzer (Vienna, 1857) and Brasseur de Bourbourg (Paris, 1861). This book begins with the time when there was only the heaven with its boundaries towards the four winds, but as yet there was no body, nothing that clung to any-thing else, nothing that balanced itself or rubbed together or made a sound; there was nought below but the calm sea alone in the silent darkness. Alone were the Creator, the Former, the Ruler, the Feathered Serpent, they who give being and whose name is Gucumatz. Then follows the creation, when the creators said " Earth," and the earth was formed like a cloud or a fog, and the mountains appeared like lobsters from the water, cypress and pine covered the hills and valleys, and their forests were peopled with beasts and birds, but these could not speak the name of their creators, but could only chatter and croak. So man was made first of clay, but he was strengthless and senseless and melted in the water; then they made a race of wooden mannikins, but these were useless creatures without heart or mind, and they were destroyed by a great flood and pitch poured down on them from heaven, those who were left of them being turned into the apes still to be seen in the woods. After this comes the creation of the four men and their wives who are the ancestors of the Quiches, and the tradition records the migrations of the nation to Tulan, otherwise called the Seven Caves, and thence across the sea, whose waters were divided for their passage. It is worth while to mention these few early incidents of the national legend of Guatemala, because their Biblical incidents show how native tradition incorporated matter learnt from the white men. Moreover, this Central American document, mythical as it is, has an historical importance from its bringing in names belonging also to the traditions of Mexico proper. Thus Gucumatz, " Feathered Serpent " corresponds ih name to the Mexican deity Quetzalcoatl; Tulan and the Seven Caves are familiar words in the Aztec migration traditions, and there is even mention of a chief of Toltecat, a name plainly referring to the famed Toltecs. Thus the legends of the Popol-Vuh confirm what is learnt from comparing the culture of Central America and Mexico proper, that, though these districts were not connected by language, the intercourse between them had been sufficient to justify the anthropologist in including both districts in one region. Historical value of the ordinary kind may be found in the latter part of the Popol-Vuh, which gives names of chiefs down to the time when they began to bear Spanish names and the great city of Quiche became the deserted ruin of Santa Cruz. The Maya district of Yucatan has also some vestiges of native traditions in the manuscript translated by D. Pio Perez (in Stephens, Incidents of Travel in Yucatan) and in the remark-able 16th century Relation de las cocas de Yucatan by Diego de Landa, published by Brasseur de Bourbourg (Paris, 1864). As in the Guatemala traditions, we hear of ancient migration from the Mexican legendary region of Tula; and here the leaders are four famous chiefs or ancestors who bear the Aztec name of the Tutul-Xiu, which means " Bird-Tree." Unfortunately for the historical standing of these four ancestors, there are in the Aztec picture-writings representations of four trees, each with a bird perched on it, and placed facing the four quarters, which make it probable that the four Tutul-Xiu of tradition may be only mythic personifications of the four cardinal points (see Schultz-Sellack in Zeitschr. f. Ethn., 1879, p. 209). Nevertheless, part of the later Maya records may be genuine—for instance, when they relate the war about three centuries before the Spanish conquest, when the king of Chichen-Itza destroyed the great city of Maya-pan. Though the Central American native kings have too little interest for traditions of them to be dwelt on here, they bring into view one important historical point—that the ruined cities of this region are not monuments of a forgotten past, but that at least some of them belong to history, having been inhabited up to the conquest, apparently by the very nations who built them. Turning now to the native chronicles of the Mexican nations, these are records going back to the 12th or 13th century, with some vague but not worthless recollections of national events from times some centuries earlier. These traditions, in some measure borne out by linguistic evidence of names, point to the immigration of detachments of a widespread race speaking a common language, which is represented by the Aztec, still a spoken language in Mexico. This language was called nahuatl, and one who spoke it as his native tongue was called nahuatlacatl, so that modern anthropologists are following native precedent when they use the term Nahua for the whole series of peoples now under consideration. Earliest of the Nahua nations, the Toltecs are traditionally related to have left their northern home of Huehuetlapallan in the 6th century; and there is other evidence of the real existence of the nation. Their name Toltecatl signifies an inhabitant of Tollan (land of reeds), a place which has a definite geographical site in the present Tulan or Tula, north of the valley of Anahuac, where a Toltec kingdom seems to have had its centre. To this nation was due the introductionof maize and cotton into Mexico, the skilful workmanship in gold and silver, the art of building on a scale of vastness still witnessed to by the mound of Cholula, said to be Toltec work, and the Mexican hieroglyphic writing and calendar. With the Toltecs is associated the tradition of Quetzalcoatl, a name which presents itself in Mexican religion as that of a great deity, god of the air, and in legend as that of a saintly ruler and civilizer. His brown and beardless worshippers describe him as of another race, a white man with noble features, long black hair and full beard, dressed in flowing robes. He came from Tulan or from Yucatan (for the stories differ widely), and dwelt twenty years among them, teaching men to follow his austere and virtuous life, to hate all violence and war, to sacrifice no men or beasts on the altars, but to give mild offerings of bread and flowers and perfumes, and to do penance by the votaries drawing blood with thorns from their own bodies. Legend tells stories of his teaching men picture-writing and the calendar, and also the artistic work of the silversmith, for which Cholula was long famed; but at last he departed, some say towards the unknown land of Tlapallan, but others to Coatzacoalcos on the Atlantic coast on the confines of Central America, where native tradition still keeps up the divine names of Gucumatz among the Quiches and Cukulcan among the Mayas, these names have the "same meaning as Quetzalcoatl in Aztec, viz. " Feathered Serpent." Native tradition held that when Quetzalcoatl reached the Atlantic he sent back his companions to tell the Cholulans that in a future age his brethren, white men and bearded like himself, should land there from the sea where the sun rises and come to rule the country. That there is a basis of reality in the Toltec traditions is shown by the word toltecatl having become among the later Aztecs a substantive signifying an artist or skilled craftsman. It is further related by the Mexican historians that the Toltec nation all but perished in the I1th century by years of drought, famine and pestilence, a few only of the survivors remaining in the land, while the rest migrated into Yucatan and Guatemala. After the Toltecs came the Chichimecs, whose name, derived from chici, dog, is applied to many rude tribes; they are said to have come from Amaquemecan under a king named Xolotl, names which being Aztec imply that the nation was Nahua; at any rate they appear afterwards as fusing with more cultured Nahua nations in the neighbourhood of Tezcuco. Lastly is recorded the Mexican immigration of the seven nations, Xochimilca, Chalca, Tepaneca, Acolhua, Tlahuica, Tlascalteca, Azteca. This dassification of the Nahuatlac tribes has a meaning and value. It is true that Aztlan, the land whence the Aztecs traced their name and source, cannot be identified, but the later stages of the long Aztec migration seem historical, and the map of Mexico still shows the names of several settlements recorded in the curious migration map, published by Gemelli Careri (Giro del mondo, Venice, 1728) and commented on by Humboldt; among these local names are Tzompanco, " place of skulls," now Zumpango in the north of the Mexican valley, and Chapultepec, " grasshopper hill," now a suburb of the city of Mexico itself, where the Aztecs are recorded to have celebrated in 1195 the festival of tying up the " bundle of years " and beginning a new cycle. The Aztecs moving from place to place in Anahuac found little welcome from the Nahua peoples already settled there. One of the first clear events of the Aztec arrival is their being made tributary by the Tepanecs, in whose service they showed their warlike prowess in the fight near Tepeyacac, where now stands the famous shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Thus they over-came the Acolhuas, who had made Tezcuco a centre of prosperity. By the 13th century the Aztecs by their ferocity had banded their neighbours together against them; some were driven to take refuge on the reedy lake shore at Acoculco, while others were taken as captives into Culhuacan. The king of this district was Coxcoxtli, whose name has gained an undeserved reputation even in Europe as " Coxcox, the Mexican Noah," from a scene in the native picture-writing where his name appears together with the figure of a man floating in a dug-out tree, which has been mistaken even by Humboldt for a representation of the Mexican deluge-myth. Coxcoxtli used the help of the Aztecs against the Xochimilco people;'but his own nation, horrified at their bloodthirsty sacrifice of prisoners, drove them out to the islands and swamps of the great salt lagoon, where they are said to have taken to making their chinampas or floating gardens of mud heaped on rafts of reeds and brush, which in later times were so remarkable a feature of Mexico. As one of the Aztec chiefs at the time of the founding of their city was called Tenoch, it is likely that from him was derived the name Tenochtitlan or " Stone-cactus place." Written as this name is in pictures or rebus, it probably suggested the invention of the well-known legend of a prophecy that the war-god's temple should be built where a prickly pear was found growing on a rock, and perched on it an eagle holding a serpent; this legend is still commemorated on the coins of Mexico. Mexico-Tenochtitlan, founded about 1325, for many years afterwards probably remained a cluster of huts, and the higher civilization of the country was still to be found, especially among the Acolhuas in Tezcuco. The wars of this nation with the Tepanecs, which went on into the 15th century, were merely destructive, but larger effects arose from the expeditions under the Culhua king Acamapichtli, where the Aztec warriors were prominent, and which extended far outside the valley of Anahuac. Especially a foray southward to Quauhnahuac, now Cuernavaca, on the watershed between the Atlantic and Pacific, brought goldsmiths and other craftsmen to Tenochtitlan, which now began to rise in arts, the Aztecs laying aside their rude garments of aloe-fibre for more costly clothing, and going out as traders for foreign merchandise. In the 14th century the last great national struggle took place. The Acolhuas had at first the advantage, but Ixtlilxochitl did not follow up the beaten Aztecs but allowed them to make peace, whereupon, under professions of submission, they fell upon and sacked the city of Tezcuco. The next king of Tezcuco, Nezahualcoyotl, turned the course of war, when Azcapuzalco, the Tepanec stronghold, was taken and the inhabitants sold as slaves by the conquering Acolhuas and Aztecs; the place thus degraded became afterwards the great slave-market of Mexico. In this war we first meet with the Aztec name Moteuczoma, afterwards so famous in its Spanish form Montezuma. About 1430 took place the triple alliance of the Acolhua, Aztec and Tepanec kings, whose capitals were Tezcuco, Mexico and Tlacopan, the latter standing much below the other two. In fact the rest of native history may be fairly called the Aztec period, notwithstanding the magnificence and culture which make Tezcuco celebrated under Nezahualcoyotl and his son Nezahualpilli. When the first Moteuczoma was crowned king of the Aztecs, the Mexican sway extended far beyond the valley plateau of its origin, and the gods of conquered nations around had their shrines set up in Tenochtitlan in manifest inferiority to the temple of Huitzilopochtli, the war-god of the Aztec conquerors. The rich region of Quauhnahuac became tributary; the Miztec country.was invaded southward to the Pacific, and the Xicalanca region to what is now Vera Cruz. It was not merely for conquest and tribute that the fierce Mexicans ravaged the neighbour-lands, but they had a stronger motive than either in the desire to obtain multitudes of prisoners whose hearts were to be torn out by the sacrificing priests to propitiate a pantheon of gods who well personified their bloodthirsty worshippers. (E. B. T.) Ancient Civilization. While the prairie tribes of America lived under the loose sway of chiefs and councils of old men, the settled nations of Mexico had Govern- attained to a highly organized government. This may meat. be seen by the elaborate balance of power maintained in the federation of Mexico, Tezcuco and Tlacopan, where each king was absolute in his own country, but in war or other public interests they acted jointly, with powers in something like the proportion in which they divided conquered lands and spoil, which was two-fifths each to Mexico and Tezcuco and one-fifth to Tlacopan. The successor of the Aztec king was customarily a chosen brother or nephew, the eldest having the first claim unless set aside as incompetent; this mode of succession, which has been looked on as an elaborate device for securing practical advantages, seems rather to have arisen out of the law of choice among the descendants of the female line, found in American tribes of much lower culture. Something like this appears in the succession ofkings of Tezcuco and 'f lacopan, which went to sons by the principal wife, who was usually of the Aztec royal family. The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles. In the Zapotec district the Wiyatao or high-priest of Zopaa was a divine ruler before whom all prostrated themselves with faces to the ground ; he was even too sacred to allow his foot to touch the earth, and was only seen carried in a litter. The accounts of the palaces of the native kings must be taken with some reserve, from the tendency to use descriptive terms not actually untrue, but which convey erroneous ideas takenPalaces, 8c. from European architecture; thus what are called columns of porphyry and jasper supporting marble balconies might perhaps be better described as piers carrying slabs, while the apartments and terraces must have been more remarkable for number and extent than architectural grandeur, being but low one-storied ,buildings. The principal palace of Mexico consisted of hundreds of rooms ranged round three open squares, of such extent that one of the companions of Cortes records having four times wandered about till he was tired, without seeing the whole. Not less remarkable was the palace of Tezcuco, surrounded with its groves and pleasure-gardens; and, though now hardly anything remains of the buildings above ground, the neighbouring hill of Tezcotzinco still has its stone steps and terraces; and the immense embankment carrying the aqueduct-channel of hewn stone which supplied water to basins cut in. the solid ,rock still remains to prove that the chroniclers' descriptions, if highly coloured, were at any rate genuine. Till the 18th century the gigantic figures of Axayacatl and his son Montezuma were to be seen carved in the porphyry hill of Chapultepec, but these as well as the hanging gardens have been destroyed, and only the groves of ahuehuete (cypress) remain of the ancient beauties of the place. That in the palace gardens flowers from the tierra caliente were transplanted, and water-fowl bred near fresh and salt pools fit for each kind, that all kinds of birds and beasts were kept in well-appointed zoological gardens, where there were homes even for alligators and snakes—all this testifies to a cultivation of natural history which was really beyond the European level of the time. From the palaces and retinues of thousands of servants attached to the royal service may be inferred at once the despotic power of the Mexican rulers and the heavy taxation of the people; in fact some of the most remarkable of the picture-writings are tribute-rolls enumerating by hundreds and thousands the mantles, ocelot-skins, bags of gold-dust, bronze hatchets, loads of chocolate, &c., furnished periodically by the towns. Below the king was a numerous and powerful class of nobles, the highest of whom (tlatoani) were great vassals owing little more than homage and tribute to their feudal lord, while the natural result of the unruliness of the noble class was that the king to keep them in check increased their numbers, brought them to the capital as councillors, and balanced their influence by military and household officers, and by a rich and powerful merchant class. The nobles not only had privileges of rank and dignity, but substantial power over the plebeian or peasant class (macehualli). The greatest estates be-longed to the king, or had been granted to military chiefs whose sons succeeded them, or were the endowments of temples, but the calpulli or village community still survived, and each freeman of the tribe held and tilled his portion of the common lands. Below the freemen were the slaves, who were war-captives, persons enslaved for punishment, or children sold by their parents. Prisoners of war were mostly doomed to sacrifice, but other classes of slaves were mildly treated, retaining civil rights, and their children were born free. The superior courts of law formed part of the palace, and there were tribunals in the principal cities, over each of which presided a supreme judge or cihuacoatl, who was irremovable, and justice. whose criminal decisions not even the king might reverse; he appointed the lower judges and heard appeals from them; it is doubtful whether he judged in civil cases, but both kinds of suits were heard in the court below, by the tlacatecatl and his two associates, below whom were the ward-magistrates. Lands were set apart for the maintenance of the judges, and indeed nothing gives a higher idea of the elaborate civilization of Mexico than this judicial system, which culminated in a general court and council of state presided over by the king. The laws and records of suits were set down in picture-writings, of which some are still to be seen; sentence of death was recorded by drawing a line with an arrow across the portrait of the condemned, and the chronicles describe the barbaric solemnity with which the king passed sentence sitting on a golden and jewelled throne in the divine tribunal, with one hand on an ornamented skull and the golden arrow in the other. Among the resemblances to old-world law was the use of a judicial oath, the witness touching the ground with his finger and putting it to his lips, thus swearing by Mother Earth. The criminal laws were of extreme severity, even petty theft being punished by the thief being enslaved to the person he had robbed, while to steal a tobacco pouch or twenty ears of corn was death; he who pilfered in the market was then and there beaten to death, and he who insulted Xipe, the god of the gold- and silver-smiths, by stealing his precious metal, was skinned alive and sacrificed to the offended deity. Though aloe-beer or " pulque " was allowed for feasts and to invalids in moderation, and old people over seventy seem to be represented in one of the picture-writings as having liberty of drunkenness, young men found drunk were clubbed to death and young women stoned. For such offences as witchcraft, fraud, removing landmarks, and adultery the criminal had his heart cut out on the altar, or his head crushed between two stones, while even lesser punishments were harsh, such as that of slanderers, whose hair was singed with a pine-torch to the scalp. Based on conquest as the Aztec kingdom was, and with the most bloodthirsty religion the world ever saw, the nation was, above all, War. a fighting community. To be a tried soldier was the road to honour and office, and the king could not be enthroned till he had with his own hand taken captives to be butchered on the war-god's altar at his coronation. The common soldiers were promoted for acts of daring, and the children of chiefs were regularly trained to war, and initiated by being sent into battle with veterans, with whose aid the youth took his first prisoner, but his future rise depended on how many captives he took unaided in fight with warlike enemies; by such feats he gained the dignity of wearing coloured blankets, tassels and lip-jewels, and reached such military titles as that of " guiding eagle." The Mexican military costumes are to be seen in the picture-writings, where the military orders of princes, eagles and tigers are known by their braided hair, eagles' beaks and spotted armour. The common soldiers went into battle brilliant in savage war-paint, but those of higher rank had helmets like birds and beasts of prey, armour of gold and silver, wooden greaves, and especially the ichcapilli, the quilted cotton tunic two fingers thick, so serviceable as a protection from arrows that the Spanish invaders were glad to adopt it. The archers shot well and with strong bows, though their arrows were generally tipped only with stone or bone; their shields or targets, mostly round, were of ordinary barbaric forms; the spears or javelins had heads of obsidian or bronze, and were sometimes hurled with a spear-thrower or atlatl, of which pictures and specimens still exist, showing it to be similar in principle to those used by the Australians and Eskimo. The most characteristic weapon of the Mexicans was the maquahuitl or " hand-wood," a club set with two rows of large sharp obsidian flakes, a well-directed blow with which would cut down man or horse. These two last-mentioned weapons have the look of highly developed savage forms, while on the other hand the military organization was in some respects equal to that of an Asiatic nation, with its regular companies commanded each by its captain and provided with its standard. The armies were very large, an expedition often consisting of several divisions, each numbering eight thousand men; but the tactics of the commanders were quite rudimentary, consisting merely of attack by arrows and javelins at a distance, gradually closing into a hand-to-hand fight with clubs and spears, with an occasional feigned retreat to draw the enemy into an ambuscade. Fortification was well understood, as may still be seen in the remains of walled and escarped strongholds on hills and in steep ravines, while lagoon-cities like Mexico had the water approaches defended by fleets of boats and the causeways protected by towers and ditches; even after the town was entered, the pyramid-temples with their surrounding walls were forts capable of stubborn resistance. It was held unrighteous to invade another nation without a solemn embassy to warn their chiefs of the miseries to which they exposed themselves by refusing the submission demanded, and this again was followed by a declaration of war, but in Mexico this degenerated into a ceremonial farce, where tribute was claimed or an Aztec god was offered to be worshipped in order to pick a quarrel as a pretext for an invasion already planned to satisfy the soldiers with lands and plunder, and to meet the priests' incessant demands for more human sacrifices. Among the accounts of the Mexican religion are some passages referring to the belief in a supreme deity. The word teotl, god, has Rellglon. been thought in some cases to bear this signification, but its meaning is that of deity in general, and it is applied not only to the sun-god but to very inferior gods. It is related that Nezahualcoyotl, the poet-king of Tezcuco, built a nine-storied temple with a starry roof above, in honour of the invisible deity called Tloquenahuaque, " he who is all in himself," or Ipalnemoani, " he by whom we live," who had no image, and was propitiated, not by bloody sacrifices, but by incense and flowers. These divinities, however, seem to have had little or no place in the popular faith, which was occupied by polytheistic gods of the ordinary barbaric type. Tezcatlipoca was held to be the highest of these, and at the festival of all the gods his footsteps were expected to appear in the flour strewn to receive this sign of their coming. He was plainly an ancient deity of the race, for attributes of many kinds are crowded together in him. Between him and Quetzalcoatl, the ancient deity of Cholula, there had been old rivalry. As is related in the legends, Quetzalcoatl came into the land to teach men to till the soil, to work metals and to rule a well-ordered state; the two gods played their famous match at the ball-game, and Tezcatlipoca persuaded the weary Quetzalcoatl to drink the magic pulque that sent him roaming to the distant ocean, where he embarked in his boat and disappeared from among men.' These deities are not easily ' One of the most important sources for the ancient Mexican traditions and myths is the so-called " Codex Chimalpopoca," a manuscript in the Mexican language discovered by the Abbeanalysed, but on the other hand Tonatiuh and Metztli, the sun and moon, stand out distinctly as nature gods, and the traveller still sees in the huge adobe pyramids of Teotihuacan, with their sides oriented to the four quarters, an evidence of the importance of their worship. The war-god Huitzilopochtli was the real head of the Aztec pantheon; his idol remains in Mexico, a huge block of basalt on which is sculptured on the one side his hideous personage, adorned with the humming-bird feathers on the left hand which signify his name, while the not less frightful war-goddess Teoyaomiqui, or " divine war-death," occupies the other side. Centeotl, the goddess of the all-nourishing maize, was patroness of the earth and mother of the gods, while Mictlanteuctli, lord of dead-land, ruled over the departed in the dim under-world. There were numbers of lesser deities, such as Tlazolteotl, goddess of pleasure, worshipped by courtesans, Tezcatzoncatl, god of strong drink, whose garment in grim irony clothed the drunkard's corpse, and Xipe, patron of the goldsmiths. Below these were the nature-spirits of hills and groves, whose shrines were built by the roadside. The temples were called teocalli or " god's house," and rivalled in size as they resembled in form the temples of ancient Babylon. They were pyramids on a square or oblong base, rising in successive terraces to a small summit-platform. The great teocalli of Huitzilopochtli in the city of Mexico stood in an immense square, whence radiated the four principal thoroughfares, its courtyard being enclosed by a square, of which the stone wall, called the coatepantli or serpent-wall from its sculptured serpents, measured nearly a quarter of a mile on each side. In the centre, the oblong pyramid of rubble cased with hewn stone and cemented 375 X 300 ft. at the base, and rising steeply in five terraces to the height of 86 ft., showed conspicuously to the city the long processions of priests and victims winding along the terraces and up to corner flights of steps. On the paved platform were three-storey tower temples in whose ground-floor stood the stone images and altars, and before that of the war-god the green stone of sacrifice, humped so as to bend upward the body of the victim that the priest might more easily slash open the breast with his obsidian knife, tear out the heart and hold it up before the god, while the captor and his friends were waiting below for the carcase to be tumbled down the steps for them to carry home to be cooked for the feast of victory. Before the shrines reeking with the stench of slaughter the eternal fires were kept burning, and on the platform stood the huge drum, covered with snakes' skin, whose fearful sound was heard for miles. From the terrace could be seen seventy or more other temples within the enclosure, with their images and blazing fires, and the tzompantli or " skull-place," where the skulls of victims by tens of thousands were skewered on cross-sticks or built into towers. There also might be seen the flat circular temalacatl or " spindle-stone," where captives armed with wooden weapons were allowed the mockery of a gladiatorial fight against well-armed champions. The great pyramid of Cholula with its hemispherical temple of Quetzalcoatl at the top, now an almost shapeless hill surmounted by a church, was about thrice as long and twice as high as the teocalli of Mexico. A large fraction of the Mexican population were set apart as priests or attendants to the services of the gods. The rites performed were such as are found elsewhere—prayer, sacrifice, processions, dances, Brasseur de Bourbourg. It is the interpretation of different mythological and historical Mexican picture-writings, composed by an anonymous author some time after the conquest and copied by Fernando de Alva (Ixtlilxochitl, 1568-1648). It belonged to the priceless collection of Mexican documents brought together in the 18th century by Lorenzo Boturini (see his " Catalogo del Museo historico indiano," appendix of his Idea de una nueva historia general de la America septentrional, Madrid, 1746, § viii., No. 13). It is ' named there Historia de los reynos de Colhuacan y de Mexico. Other copies of the same manuscript, made by Leon y Gama, Jose Pichardo, Aubin and Brasseur, exist in the Paris National Library in the Aubin-Goupil collection. Brasseur died before he could realize his plan to publish the whole MS. in Nahuatl with a translation. Some extracts are to be found in his Histoire des nations civilisees du Mexique, and in Leon y Gama, Dos Piedras .. , ed. Bustamente (Mexico, 1832). Larger fragments of the Ixtlilxochitl copy were published in the Anales del museo national de Mexico, tom. iii., appx. pp. 7-70; but in this edition the Mexican text is very corrupt, and the two Spanish translations are by no means exact. The Paris MSS. and the Ixtlilxochitl copy were carefully collated by Dr Walter Lehmann (see Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic, 1906, pp. 952-760; Journal de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris, nouv. sers vol iii. No. 2 ; Dr E. Seler, Verhandcungen des X VI. Internationalen Amerikanisten-Kongresses, Vienna, 1909, II., pp. 129-150). The precious Ixtlilxochitl copy was found by Lehmann in the library of the National Museum of Mexico, and arrangements were made for the publication of the whole MS. by him in conjunction with Professor E. Seler. Another very important MS. was discovered by Dr Lehmann, in Guatemala. It is the MS. of Father Francisco Ximenez, Historia de la Provincia de San Vicente de Chiapa y de Guatemala, in three big volumes in folio, which contain the famous Spanish translation of the Quiche myths or the " Popol-Vuh." The MS. was bought at the expense of the duke of Loubat, who decided to present it, after the death of Dr Lehmann, to the Royal Library at Berlin. chants, fasting and other austerities, but there are some peculiarities of detail. Prayers and other formulas have been copied down by Sahagun and other chroniclers, of endless prolixity, but not without occasional touches of pathos. These prayers seem essentially genuine; indeed there was no European model from which they could have been imitated; but at the same time it must be remembered that they come down in Spanish writing, and not untouched by Spanish influence, as in one passage where there is a mention of sheep, an animal unknown to the Mexicans. As to sacrifice, maize and other vegetables were offered, and occasionally rabbits, quails, &c., but, in the absence of cattle, human sacrifice was the chief rite, and cannibalism prevailed at the feasts. Incense was constantly used, especially the copalli (copal) well known to us for varnish; little terra-cotta censers are among the commonest of Mexican antiquities. Long and severe religious fasts were customary at special seasons, and drawing blood from the arms, legs and body, by thrusting in aloe-thorns, and passing sharp sticks through the tongue, was an habitual act of devotion recalling the similar practices of devotees in India. The calendar of religious festivals for the Mexican year has been preserved. Each 20-day period had one or more such celebrations. In the month of the " diminishing of waters " the rain gods or Tlalocs were propitiated by a procession of priests with music of flutes and trumpets carrying on plumed litters infants with painted faces, in gay clothing with coloured paper wings, to be sacrificed on the mountains or in a whirlpool in the lake. It is said that the people wept as they passed by; but if so this may have been a customary formality, for the religion of these nations must have quenched all human sympathy. In the next month the god Xipe-totec, already mentioned, had his festival called the " flaying of men " from the human victims being flayed, after their hearts were torn out, for young men to dress in their skins and perform dances and sham fights. The succeeding festival of Camaxtli was marked by a severe fast of the priests, after which stone knives were prepared with which a hole was cut through the tongue of each, and numbers of sticks passed through. For the great festival of Tezcatlipoca, the handsomest and noblest of the captives of the year had been chosen as the incarnate representative of the god, and paraded the streets for public adoration dressed in an embroidered mantle with feathers and garlands on his head and a retinue like a king; for the last month they married him to four girls representing four goddesses; on the last day wives and pages escorted him to the little temple of Tlacochcalco, where he mounted the stairs, breaking an earthenware flute against each step; this was a symbolic farewell to the joys of the world, for as he reached the top he was seized by the priests, his heart torn out and held up to the sun, his head spitted on the tzompantli, and his body eaten as sacred food, the people drawing from his fate the moral lesson that riches and pleasure may turn into poverty and sorrow. The manner of the victim's death in these festivals afforded scope for variety; they dressed them and made them dance in character, threw them into the fire for the fire-god, or crushed them between two balanced stones at the harvest-festival. The ordinary pleasures of festivals were mingled with all this, such as dances in beast-masks, sham fights and children's games, but the type of a religious function was a sickening butchery followed by a cannibal feast. The Mexican priesthood were much concerned with the art of picture-writing, which they used systematically as a means of record- ing religious festivals and legends, as well as keeping calendars of years and recording the historical events which occurred in them. Facsimiles of several of these interesting documents, with their translations, may be seen in Kingsborough; splendid reproductions of the beautiful Mexican and Mixteco-Zapotecan codices have also been published at the expense of the duke of Loubat and by the " Junta Colombina (Mexico, 1892). Gods are represented with their appropriate attributes—the fire-god hurling his spear, the moon-goddess with a shell, &c.; the scenes of human life are pictures of warriors fighting with club and spear, men paddling in canoes, women spinning and weaving, &c. An important step towards phonetic writing appears in the picture-names of places and persons. The simplest forms of these depict the objects signified by the name, as where Chapul- tepec or " grasshopper-hill " is represented by a grasshopper on a hill, or a stone with a cactus on it stands for Tenoch or " stone- cactus," the founder of Tenochtitlan. The system had, however, risen a stage beyond this when objects were drawn to represent, not themselves, but the syllables forming their names, as where a trap, an eagle, a pricker, and a hand are put together not to represent these objects, but in order that the syllables of their names mo-quauh- zo-ma should spell the word Moquauhzoma (see Aubin's intro- duction to Brasseur, Hist. du Mexique, i. 68.). The analogy of this to the manner in which the Egyptian hieroglyphs passed into phonetic signs is remarkable, and writing might have been invented anew in Mexico had it not been for the Spanish conquest. The Aztec numerals, which were vigesimal or reckoned by scores, were depicted by dots or circles up to 20, which was represented by a flag, 400 (a score of scores) by a feather, and 8000 (a score of scores of scores) by a purse ; but for convenience these symbols might be halved and quartered, so that 534 might be shown by one feather, one quarter of a feather, one flag, one-half of a flag, and four dots. The Mexican calendar depended on the combination of numbers with picture-signs, of which the four principal were the rabbit, reed, flint, house— tochtli, acatl, tecpatl, calli. The cycle of 52 years was reckoned by combining these signs in rotation with numbers up to 13, thus: i rabbit, 2 reed, 3 flint, 4 house, 5 rabbit, 6 reed, &c. By accident this calendar may be exactly illustrated with a modern pack of cards laid out in rotation of the four suits, as, ace of hearts, 2 of spades, 3 of diamonds, 4 of clubs, 5 of hearts, 6 of spades, &c. In the Mexican ritual calendar of the days of the year, the same method is carried further, the series of twenty day-signs being combined in rotation with numbers up to i3; as this cycle of days only reaches 260, a series of nine other signs are affixed in addition, to make up the 365-day year. It is plain that this rotation of signs served no useful purpose whatever, being less convenient than ordinary counting such as the Mexicans employed in their other calendar already mentioned, where the 20-day periods had each a name like our months, and their days had signs in regular order. Its historical interest depends on its resemblance to the calendar-system of central and eastern Asia, where among Mongols, Tibetans, Chinese, &c., series of signs are thus combined to reckon years, months and days; for instance, the Mongol cycle of 6o years is recorded by the zodiac or series of 12 signs—mouse, bull, tiger, &c., combined in rotation with the five male and female elements—fire, earth, iron, water, wood ; as " male-fire-bull " year, &c. This comparison is worked out in Humboldt's flues des Cordilleres, as evidence of Mexican civilization being borrowed from Asia. Naturally the Mexican calendar-system lent itself to magic in the same way as the similar zodiac-signs of the Old World, each person's fate being affected by the qualities of the signs he was born under, and the astrologer-priests being called in to advise on every event of life. Of all Mexican festivals the most solemn was that of the xiuhmolpilli, or " year-binding," when the 52-year cycle or bundle of years came to an end. It was' believed that the destruction of the world, which after the Hindu manner the Mexicans held to have already taken place three or four times, would happen again at the end of a cycle. As the time drew near, the anxious population cleansed their houses and put out all fire, and on the last day after sunset the priests, dressed in the garb of gods, set out in procession for the hill of Huixachtla, there to watch for the approach of the Pleiades to the zenith, which gave the auspicious signal for the lighting of the new fire. The finest of the captives was thrown down and fire kindled on his breast by the wooden drill of the priest; then the victim's heart was torn out, and his body flung on the pile kindled with the new flame. The people watching from their flat housetops all the country round saw with joy the flame on the sacred hill, and hailed it with a thank-offering of drops of blood drawn from their ears with sharp stone-flakes. Swift runners carried burning brands to re-kindle the fires of the land, the sacred fire on the teocalli of the war-god blazed up again, and the people began with feasting and rejoicing the new cycle. Mexican education, at any rate that of the upper class, was a systematic discipline much under the control of religion, which here presents itself under a more favourable light. After Bducatlon. the birth of a child, the tonalpouhqui or ",sun--calculator " drew its horoscope from the signs it was born under, and fixed the time for its solemn lustration or baptism, performed by the nurse with appropriate prayers to the gods, when a toy shield and bow were provided if it was a boy, or a toy spindle and distaff if it was a girl, and the child received its name. An interesting picture-writing, to be seen in Kingsborough, shows the details of the boy's and girl's education, from the early time when three small circles over the child show it to be three years old, and a drawing of half a tortilla or corn-cake shows its allowance for each meal; as they grow older the lads are seen beginning to carry burdens, paddle the canoe and fish, while the girls learn to spin and weave, grind maize, and cook—good conduct being enforced by punishments of increasing severity, up to pricking their bodies with aloe-thorns and holding their faces over burning chillies. The schools were extensive buildings attached to the temples, where from an early age boys and girls were taught by the priests to sweep the sanctuaries and keep up the sacred fires, to fast at proper seasons and draw blood for penance, and where they received moral teaching in long and verbose formulas. Those fit for a soldier's life were trained to the use of weapons and sent early to learn the hardships of war; children of craftsmen were usually taught by their fathers to follow their trade; and for the children of nobles there was elaborate instruction in history, picture-writing, astrology, religious doctrines and laws. Marriages depended much, as they marriage- pair do still in the East, on comparison of the horoscopes of the to ascertain if their birth-signs were compatible. Old women were employed as go-betweens, and the marriage ceremony was conducted by a priest who after moral exhortations united the young couple by tying their garments together in a knot, after which they walked seven times round the fire, casting incense into it; after the performance of the marriage ceremony, the pair entered together on a four days' fast and penance before the marriage was completed. The funeral rites of the Mexicans are best seen in the Funerals. ceremonies at the death of a king. The corpse laid out in state was provided by the priest with a jug of water for his journey. and with bunches of cut papers to pass him safely through each danger of the road—the place where the two mountains strike Picture-writing. together, the road guarded by.the great snake and the great alligator, the eight deserts and the eight hills; they gave him garments to protect him from the cutting wind, and buried a little dog by his side to carry him across the nine waters. Then the royal body was invested in the mantles of his patron-gods, especially that of the • war-god, for Mexican kings were warriors; on his face was placed a mask of turquoise mosaic, and a green chalchihuite-stone as a heart between his lips. In older times the dead king was buried on a throne with his property and dead attendants round him. But after cremation came in a mourning procession of servants and chiefs carrying the body to the funeral pyre to be burnt by the demon-dressed priests, after which the crowd of wives and slaves were exhorted to serve their lord faithfully in the next world, were sacrificed and their bodies burnt. Common people would not thus be provided with a ghostly retinue, but their simpler funeral ceremonies were as far as they went similar to those of their monarch. The staple food of the Mexicans before the conquest has continued with comparatively little change among the native race, and has Agriculture even been adopted by those of European blood. Maize and food. or Indian corn was cultivated on patches of ground where, as in the Hindu jdm, the trees and bushes were burnt and the seed planted in the soil manured by the ashes. A sharp-pointed planting stick, a wooden shovel, and a bronze-bladed hoe called a coral were the simple implements. The Mexicans understood digging channels for irrigation, especially for the cultivation of the cacahuatl, from which they taught the Europeans to prepare the beverage chocollatl ; these native names passed into English as the words cacao, or coco and chocolate. Other vegetables adopted from Mexico are the tomato (tomatl) and the chilli, used as flavouring to native dishes. The maize was ground with a stone roller on the grinding stone or metlatl, still known over Spanish America as the met ate, and the meal baked into thin oval cakes called by Aztecs tlaxcalli, and by Spaniards tortilla, which resemble the chapati of India and the oatcake of Scotland. The Mexicans were also skilful makers of earthen pots, in which were cooked the native beans called by the Spanish frijoles, and the various savoury stews still in vogue. . The juice extracted by tapping the great aloe before flowering was fermented into an intoxicating drink about the strength of beer, octli, by the Spaniards called pulque. Tobacco, smoked in leaves or cane-pipes or taken as snuff, was in use, clothing and especially at feasts. In old times Mexican clothing ornaments. was of skins of woven aloe and palm fibre, but at the time of the conquest cotton was largely cultivated in the hot lands, spun with a spindle, and woven in a rudimentary loom without a shuttle into the mantles and breech-cloths of the men and the chemises and skirts of the women, garments often of fine texture and embroidered in colours. Ornaments of gold and silver, and jewels of polished quartz and green chalchihuite were worn—not only the ears and nose but the lips being pierced for Metal-wor&. ornaments. The artificers in gold and silver melted the metals by means of a reed-blowpipe and cast them solid or hollow, and were also skilled in hammered work and chasing, as some fine specimens remain to show, though the famous animals modelled with gold and silver, fur, feathers and scales have disappeared. Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change. The vast size of the market-squares with their surrounding porticos, and the importance of the caravans of merchants who traded with other nations, show that mercantile had risen into some proportion to military interests. Nor was the wealth and luxury of Mexico and surrounding regions without a corre- Art and sponding development of art. The stone sculptures Pasttme. such as that remaining of Xochicalco, which is figured by Humboldt, as well as the ornamented woodwork, feather-mats, and vases, are not without artistic merit. The often-cited poems attributed to Nezahualcoyotl may not be quite genuine, but at any rate poetry had risen above the barbaric level, while the mention of ballads among the people, court odes, and the chants of temple choirs would indicate a vocal cultivation above that of the instrumental music of drums and horns, pipes and whistles, the latter often of pottery. Solemn and gay dances were frequent, and a sport called the bird-dance excited the admiration of foreigners for the skill and daring with which groups of performers dressed as birds let themselves down by ropes wound round the top of a high mast, so as to fly whirled in circles far above the ground. The ball-game of the Mexicans, called tlachtli, was, like tennis, the pastime of princes and nobles; special courts were built for it, and the ball of india-rubber (perhaps the first object in which Europeans became acquainted with this valuable material) might not be touched by the hands, but was driven against the walls by blows of the knee or elbow, shoulder or buttock. The favourite game of patolli has been already mentioned for its similarity to the pachisi of modern India. The accounts given by Spanish writers of the Central Americans in their state after the Spanish conquest are very scanty in coln-parison with the voluminous descriptions of Aztec life. They bring out perfectly, however, the fact of close connexion between the two civilizations. Some Central-American peoples antral. were actually Mexican in their language and culture, American especially the Pipils and a large part of the population of Nicaragua. The investigations made by Y)r Walter culture. Lehmann in Central America (1907-1909), prove that these Mexican elements were extended through Gnatemala, Salvador, a small part of Nicaragua (the territory of the Nicaraos) and on several places in the peninsula of Nicoya (Costa Rica) amongst the autochthonous Chorotega or Mangue. It is an error of the Spanish authorities to pretend that the Pipil civilization in Guatemala and Salvador is not older than the time of King Ahuitzotl (c. 1482-1486). The language spoken by the Pipils of Salvador (Balsam Coast) is a very old dialect of the Mexican language of the highland of Mexico. It has preserved in the conjugation and in the formation of the plural older forms than the classical Nahuatl itself. The separation of the Pipils from the chief tribes of the Nahuatl branch happened centuries before the conquest, and they developed a singular and characteristic civilization, which can be seen in the wonderful stone-reliefs and sculptures of Sta Lucia de Cozumalhuapa on the Pacific coast of Guatemala. Dr Lehmann's archaeological and linguistic researches, especially in Salvador and Nicaragua, also enabled him to prove another very important fact, viz. that these Pipils, who may he descendants from the peoples of the Mexican Plateau, migrated into territories previously occupied by an older race of Mayan origin. The archaeological and linguistic evidence proves also that a great part of Salvador and Honduras was once occupied by peoples of the Maya race—Pokomam, Chorti and perhaps other unknown tribes. They left typical Mayan ruins in Honduras (Tenampua) and in Salvador (Opico near Tehuacan, Quelepa near' San Miguel), which seem, however, to be destitute of Mayan hieroglyphic inscriptions. The easternmost limit of prehistoric Mayan civilization, on the Pacific coast of Central America, is Fonseca Bay, with the island of Zacate Grande. It is noteworthy that archaeological objects of the type characteristic of northern Honduras (Ulloa Valley) have been found on the Pacific coast of Salvador. A strange stone sculpture of the so-called Chac-Mol type, known before only from the country of the Tarascs, from Tlaxcala and Chichen Itza, was discovered in Salvador (Ahuachapan). In the nearly unexplored central part of Nicaragua Dr Lehmann found fragments of painted polychrome clay pottery similar to objects known from the Ulloa Valley (Honduras) amongst other ceramic pieces which seem to have been left by the ancestors of the Sumo Indians, now extinct in that territory. It is possible that these remains of Mayan pottery came into central Nicaragua as articles of commerce. It is significant that Mayan civilization cannot be traced in any other part of Nicaragua or Costa Rica. The above-mentioned prehistoric Mayan peoples lived in contact with " barbarous " nations and with another little-known civilized race. The barbarians belonged to the great family of the Sumo-Misquito Indians, the civilized race was that of the Chorotega or Mangue (Dirian, Orotiiian, &c.). The Sumo-Misquito Indians occupied the Atlantic coast and the interior of Nicaragua and Honduras, where they still live in small tribes; a dialect of the hitherto unknown Sumo languages is the Matagalpan, now extinct in Nicaragua, and nearly identical with the Matagalpan is the language spoken by the Indians of Cacaopera in Salvador (Ultra-Lempa territory). There is no doubt that, at the time of the Pipil invasion, tribes of the Sumo-Misquito family were the immediate neighbours of the Pipils towards the east and north. This fact is proved by the names of some places in Salvador, e.g. Santiago Nonohualco, San Juan Nonohualco and San Pedro Nonohualco. The word Nonohualco signifies in the Mexican language a place where a language changes, where another idiom begins. To the east of the three places whose names are compounded with " Nonohualco," must have dwelt, in the time of the Pipil Indians, the Nonoualca, called also by Mexican tribes Chontales or Popoloca. The western neighbours of the Sumo Indians were and are (though few still survive) the Lenca Indians, who formerly occupied large parts of Honduras. A linguistic relationship can be established between all the Indian languages spoken on the Atlantic coast and in the interior of Nicaragua and Honduras. Several tribes, such as the Paya (or Poya) and the Jicaques, form together with the Lenca, Sumo (Matagalpa, Tauakhca and Ulna) and Misquito one great family. The position of the isolated Xinca (or Sinca) Indians, regarded from this point of view, becomes very interesting. There are scientific reasons to believe that the Xinca also belong to the same great family as the Lenca, Jicaques, Paya, Misquito-Sumo. It may be possible either that these tribes are the autochthonous inhabitants who dwelt in Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua before the immigration of the prehistoric Maya peoples; or else that they invaded this region after it had been deserted by a prehistoric oriental branch of the Maya family. The Chorotega race had its centre in Nicaragua (Pacific coast) and at one time extended thence as far as Guanacaste (Costa Rica); at another time it extended as far as Honduras (actual department of Choluteca) and into eastern Salvador as far as the state of Chiapas in Mexico, where the Chorotega penetrated amongst the 1\/Iixe. The Chorotega or Mangue language, so closely affiliated to the Chiapanec, is now extinct, but its former extension is to be recognized by many Indian local names. It seems that there was formerly a mutual interpenetration between Lenca, Sumo and Chorotega tribes. The territories of all these tribes can be, more or less exactly, calculated by the existence of Indian local names. The Misquito country is characterized by names terminating in laya, water, or auala, river; the Sumo and Ulua country by names in uas, water; the Matagalpan by names in li, water; the Lenca by names in tique, lique, isque and (ai) quin. Such Lenca names occur on the north-eastern boundary of the Ultra-Lempa country of Salvador. It is strange that there is not a single place-name in Salvador either of Mayan origin, or, as it seems, of Chorotegan origin. Probably the Mexican elements superseded the Maya so completely that there remained no trace of the Maya except archaeological objects; it is to be supposed that the Lenca and Sumo tribes superseded the Chorotega in Salvador. If we can be sure—and the linguistic evidence admits of no doubt—that the Chorotega had their centre in Nicaragua and thence extended north-westwards, it may be hoped that Chorotegan remains will be found in the vast territory occupied for many centuries by the Maya peoples in the Pacific part of Guatemala. These remains would, of course, be archaeological or place-names. How closely related some of the Central-American nations were in institutions to the Mexicans appears, not only in their using the same peculiar weapons, but in the similarity of their religious rites; the connexion is evident in such points as the ceremony of marriage by tying together the garments of the couple, or in holding an offender's face over burning chillies as a punishment; the native legends of Central America make mention of the royal ball-play, which was the same as the Mexican game of tlachtli already mentioned. At the same time many of the Central-American customs differed from the Mexican; thus in Yucatan we find the custom of the youths sleeping in a great bachelor's house, an arrangement common in various parts of the world, but not in Mexico; the same remark applies to the Maya exogamous law of a man not taking a wife of his own family name (see Diego de Landa, Relation de Yucatan, ed. Brasseur de Bourbourg, p. 140), which does not correspond with Mexican custom. We have the means of comparing the personal appearance of the Mexicans and Central Americans by their portraits on early sculptures, vases, &c.; and, though there does not appear any clear distinction of race-type, the extraordinary back-sloping foreheads of such figures as those of the bas-reliefs of Palenque prove that the custom of flattening the skull in infancy prevailed in Central America to an extent quite beyond any such habit in Mexico. The notion that the ruined cities now buried in the Central-American forests were of great antiquity and the work of extinct nations has no solid evidence; some of them may have been already abandoned before the conquest, but others were inhabited by the ancestors of the Indians who now build their mean huts and till their patches of maize round the relics of the grander life of their ancestors. In comparing these ruins in Yucatan, Chiapas, Guatemala and Honduras, it is evident that, though they are the work of two or more nations highly distinct in language, yet these nations had a common system of pictorial or written characters. One specimen of a Central-American inscription may give a general idea of them all, whether it be from the sculptured facade of a temple sketched by Catherwood, or from the painted deerskin called the Dresden Codex (reproduced in Kingsborough), or from the chapter of Diego de Landa where he professes to explain and translate the characters themselves. These consist of combinations of faces, circles, lines, &c., arranged in compartments in so complex a manner that hardly two are found alike. How they conveyed their meaning, how far they pictorially represented ideas or spelt words in the different languages of the country, is a question not yet answered in a complete way; Landa's description (p. 320) gives a table of a number of their elements as phonetically representing letters or syllables, but, though there may be a partial truth in his rules, they are insufficient or too erroneous to serve for any general decipherment. One point as to the Central-American characters is clear, that part of them are calendar-signs recording dates. From the accounts given by Landa and other writers it is plain that the Central-American calendar, reckoning the year in twenty-eight periods of thirteen days, was the same in its principle of combining signs as that of Mexico. The four leading Maya signs called kan, muluc, ix, cauac corresponded in their position to the four Aztec signs rabbit, reed, flint, house, but the meanings of the Maya signs are, unlike the Aztec, very obscure. A remarkable feature of the Central-American ruins is the frequency of truncated pyramids built of hewn stone, with flights of steps up to the temple built on the platform at top. The resemblance of these structures to the old descriptions and pictures of the Mexican teocallis is so striking that this name is habitually given to them. The teocallis built by the Nahua or Mexican nations have been mostly destroyed, but two remain at Huatusco and Tusapan (figured in Bancroft, iv. 443, 456), which bear a strong resemblance to those of Palenque. On the whole it is not too much to say that, in spite of differences in style, the best means of judging what the temples and palacesof Mexico were like is to be gained from the actual ruins in Central America. On the other hand, there are features in Central-American architecture which scarcely appear in Mexican. Thus at Uxmal there stands on a terraced mound the long narrow building known as the governor's house (Casa del Gobernador), 322 ft. long, 39 ft. wide, 26 ft. high, built of rubble stone and mortar faced with square blocks of stone, the interior of the chambers rising into a sloping roof formed by courses of stonework gradually overlapping in a " false arch." The same construction is seen in the buildings forming the sides of a quadrangle and bearing the equally imaginary name of the nunnery (Casa de Monjas) ; the resemblance of the interior of one of its apartments to an Etruscan tomb has often been noticed (see Fergusson, History of Architecture, vol. i; Viollet-le-Duc, in Charnay). The explorations made by Dr Lehmann in 1909 in the famous ruins of Teotihuacan, near Mexico city throw new light upon certain chronological problems. Like the excavations made by Dr Max Uhle in Peru, they tend to determine the relative antiquity of the different periods of the ancient civilization. They also show that these various culture-periods followed one another among the Mexicans in much the same sequence as among the Peruvians. At a considerable depth below the foundations of a temple-palace at Teotihuacan, Dr Lehmann discovered certain ceramic fragments of a type quite different from any hitherto classed as Mexican. These are painted on a fine stucco in beautiful colours (notably a kind of turquoise-green) and represent archaic forms of flowers and butter-flies. The relation between the wall paintings of Teotihuacan and ornaments at Chichen Itza, as also the existence of sculptured stone yokes in Teotihuacan, in the country of the Totonacs, in Guatemala and in Salvador, furnish important material for the investigation of the obscure problems of the Toltecs and Olmecs, and of the extension of Maya peoples on the Atlantic coast of the Mexican Gulf from Campeche as far as Tabasco and Vera Cruz. Attempts to trace the architecture of Central America directly from Old-World types have not been successful, while on the other hand its decoration shows proof of original invention, especially in the imitations of woodwork which passed into sculptured ornament when the material became stone instead of wood. Thus the architectural remains, though they fail to solve the problem of the culture of the nations round the Gulf of Mexico, throw much light on it when their evidence is added to that of religion and customs. At any rate two things seem probable—first, that the civilizations of Mexico and Central America were pervaded by a common influence in religion, art, and custom; second, that this common element shows traces of the importation of Asiatic ideas into America. Ancient Cities of Mexico (Parts I. and II. Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 1895–1897) ; W. Lehmann, Ergebnisse and Aufgaben der mexikanischen Forschung (Archiv. fur Anthropologie, neue Folge, iii., 2; 1907), Eng. trans.: Methods and Results in Mexican Research, by Seymour de Ricci (Paris, 1909) ; Theobert Maler, Neue Entdeckung von Ruinen-Stadten in Mittel-Amerika (Globus, lxx. 149-150, Braunschweig, 1896), and also contributions to American archaeological publications; A. P. Maudslay, Biologia Central'-Americana-Archaeology (London, 1897) ; J. F. A. Nadaillac, Prehistoric America (New York, 1895) ; Zelia Nuttall, The Fundamental Principles of the Old and New World Civilizations (Arch. and Ethn. Papers, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, 1901); Antonio Penafiel, Monumentos del arte mexicano antiguo (1 vol. text, 2 vols. plates; Berlin, 1890); Carl Sapper, Das nordliche Mittel-Amerika (Braunschweig, 1897) ; Caecilie Saler, Auf alien Wegen in Mexico and Guatemala (Berlin, 1900) ; Eduard K. Seler, " Der Charakter der aztekischen and Maya-Handschriften " (Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Berlin, 1888), and other papers in various German publications; John L. Stephens (F. Catherwood, artist), Travels in Central America (2 vols., New York, 1841), and •Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (2 vols., New York, 1843). (E. B. T.; W. L.*) II.—Colonial Period. 1520-1821. The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish forces under Hernando Cortes (q.v.) in 1520, and the death of the last Aztec emperor, Guatemozin, introduced what is known as the colonial period of Mexican history, which lasted down to the enforced resignation of the last viceroy, O'Donoju, in 1821. During these three centuries, after a brief but most unsatisfactory experience of government by audiencias (1521–1535), sixty-four viceroys ruled over New Spain. Of these a few were ecclesiastics: two had two terms of office; only two or three were of native birth, and their previous official life had always been passed in other parts of the Spanish dominions. New Spain was one of four great viceroyalties, the other three being New Granada, Buenos Aires and Peru. Its viceroy ruled over districts differing in status and with over-New Spain: lapping and conflicting authorities, some of these Extent. being appointed directly by the king of Spain, and responsible to him. New Spain in its widest meaning includes the audiencias or judicial districts of Manila, San Domingo and Guatemala, and the viceroy had some sort of authority over them: but in its narrower meaning it comprised the audiencia district of Mexico and the subordinate audiencia district of Guadalajara, which together extended from Chiapas and Guatemala to beyond the eastern boundary of the modern state of Texas and northwards, eventually, to Vancouver's Island. In the course of the 18th century this came to consist of the following divisions: (I) the kingdom of Mexico, which included the peninsula of Yucatan but not the present state of Chiapas or a part of Tabasco, these belonging to Guatemala. Approximately its south border ran from a point slightly east of Tehuantepec to the bay of Honduras, and its north limit was that of the modern states of Michoacan and Guanajuato, then cutting across San Luis Potosi to a point just above Tampico. (2) The kingdom of New Galicia, including the present states of Zacatecas, Jalisco and part of San Luis Potosi. (3) The Nuevo Regno de Leon (the present state of that name). (4) The Provincias Irternas, i.e. " interior " regarded from the capital, viz. Nuevo Santander (Tamaulipas, and Texas to the bay of Corpus Christi, founded 1749), the several provinces of Nuevo Biscaya or Chihuahua, Durango, Sonora with Sinaloa, Coahuila, Texas (from Corpus Christi Bay to the mouth of the Mermenton in the present state of Louisiana), and the two Californias. The audiencia councils also advised the viceroy in matters of administration; and, as with other officials, his career was Government subject at its close to a formal examination by a and organ/- commission—a process known as " taking his zation. residencia." Local government till 1786 was largely in the hands of alcaldes majores and corregidores, the latter established in 1531 to look after the Indians, and both appointed by purchase. Towns, which were to some extent founded after the conquest as centres of civilization for the Indians, were governed by civic officials appointed in the first instance by the governor of the province, but subsequently as a rule purchasing their posts. The church rapidly supplemented the work of the conquerors. The first Franciscan mission arrived in 1524; other orders followed. The announcement of the apparition of The Church the Virgin to an Indian near Mexico City provided a and the place of pilgrimage and a patroness in Our Lady of People. Guadalupe; and the friars ingeniously used the hieroglyphic writing for instruction in Christian doctrine, and taught the natives trades, for which they showed much aptitude. The university of Mexico was founded in 1553. The Jesuits established themselves in 1572, devoting themselves actively to the education both of whites and of natives, and were a powerful factor in the exploring and civilizing of the northern districts. The Inquisition was introduced in 1571. With the natives south of the latitude of Tampico there was little trouble after the Mixton War (in Guadalajara) in 1540–1562, save for occasional risings in Yucatan, Tehuantepec, and in 1711 in the Nayarit mountain region west of Zacatecas, and Tamaulipas was conquered in 1748; but the wild Indians of Sonora and New Mexico gave constant trouble to the missions and outlying settlers. There were occasionally riots due to scarcity of corn (notably in Mexico itself in 1692). As in other Spanish possessions, Indian labour was replaced or supplemented by that of negro slaves, but these were almost wholly confined to the coast regions of Vera Cruz and Acapulco, and early in the 19th century there were only some 1o,000 in all. As the Spanish conquerors brought few women, there was much mixture of races. Among the pure whites—who were practically all of Spanish extraction—there were two well-defined classes, the Gachu Ines or cha etones Races and p P , castes. Spaniards born in Europe, said to be so named in allusion to their spurs, from Aztec words meaning " prickers with the foot," and the native-born or creoles: the former, though a small minority, had almost all the higher positions both in the public services and in commerce. Besides these there were five well-defined castas: mestizoes (Indian and white); mulattoes (negro and white); Zambos (negro and Indian), who were regarded as specially vicious and dangerous; native Indians and negroes. But there were about a dozen inter-mediate " named varieties," of which the salto-atras (tending away from white) and tente en l'aire (tending towards white) may be mentioned; and many of the last named eventually passed into the Creole class, sometimes by the decree of a court. The fact that the trade route to Manila passed through Vera Cruz, Mexico City and Acapulco entailed the settlement also of a few Chinese and Malays, chiefly on the Pacific coast. The natives were subject to tribute and kept in perpetual tutelage: divided at the conquest, with the land, as serfs of the conquerors, in repartimientos or encomiendas, they were gradually freed at an early date from their Position of the Natives. serfage, and allowed to sell their labour as they pleased; they were, however, to a great extent kept in villages or settlements, compelled to cultivate land which they held for their life only, and strictly controlled by the friars or the priests. Their numbers were several times seriously reduced by the matlazhuatl, apparently analogous to yellow fever, but not attacking the whites, and unknown before the conquest. The negroes were allowed to buy their freedom gradually at rates fixed by the judicial authorities, and slavery seems never to have taken much hold except in the coast region. Of the events of this period only a bare outline can here be given. The term of office of the first viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza, was marked by the Mixton War, by an Leading attempt to suppress the encomienda system, and by Events: a violent epidemic among the natives. Under his '53.54822. successor, Velasco, the measures taken for the relief of the natives provoked the landowners to a conspiracy (repressed with great severity) to set up Cortes' son as king of New Spain. In 1568 the island of Sacrificios, near Vera Cruz, was seized by John Hawkins (q.v.), who was surprised by the Spanish fleet accompanying the new viceroy, de Almansa, and escaped with Sir Francis Drake (q.v.), but without the remaining ships of his squadron. In 1572 and 1578, however, Drake took abundant vengeance, and in 1587 Cavendish captured the Manila galleon—a success repeated in the next century. For the next sixty years an urgent question was the prevention of floods in the capital. Situated oh the lowest of four lakes, The Drain- whose waters had only one small outlet from the age of the valley, it was only 4 ft. above the level of the Capital. lowest, and was flooded on an average once in every twenty-five years. It had been protected under the native kings by a system of dikes, which were added to under the earlier viceroys, but serious inundations in 1553 and 158o flooded the city, and the latter suggested the relief of the highest lake, that of Zumpango, by a tunnel carrying its chief affluent into a tributary of the Panuco, and so to the Atlantic. This, however, was not then undertaken, and when mooted again in 1603 was opposed as certain to involve a heavy sacrifice of Indian life. Another inundation, in 1604, suggested the transfer of the city to Tacubaya, but the landowners opposing and the city being again inundated in 1607, the Nochistongo tunnel was begun under the auspices of a Jesuit, Enrico Martinez, and roughly completed in eleven months. It passed under a depression in the mountains of the extreme north of the valley. Humboldt states that it was 6600 metres long, 32 wide and 4 high. But it did nothing for the southern lakes, so that a further system of dikes was recommended in preference, in 1614, by the Dutch engineer Adrian Boot; it was inadequate for its work and, not being lined with masonry, it was liable to be choked by falls. Repairs were suspended in 1623, and a further inundation, with great losses of life, occurred from 1629 to 1634. The removal of the city was again mooted and, though sanctioned by the king of Spain, successfully opposed by the landowners. Another flood occurred in 1645. After a disastrous attempt to enlarge the tunnel in 1675, it was eventually converted into an open cutting, but the work was not finished till 1789, and the bottom was then 29 ft. 6 in. above the level of the lowest lake. The drainage was only satisfactorily accomplished at the end of the 19th century (see below). A negro revolt in the Vera Cruz region (1609) and an Indian rebellion in Sinaloa and Durango may be mentioned among the events of the earlier part of the 17th century. The church and regular and secular clergy had early come into con-State. flict, particularly over the tithe and the control of the Indians; and in 1621, the marquis de Gelves, an energetic reformer, who as viceroy favoured the appointment of the regulars to deal with the natives, came into conflict with Arch-bishop Serna of Mexico, who placed the city under interdict, excommunicated the viceroy and constrained him to hide from the mob. Some years later the bishop of Puebla, Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, transferred many native congregations from the friars to secular priests, and subsequently, in 1647, came into conflict with the Jesuits, whom he excommunicated; but who eventually triumphed with the aid of the Dominicans and the archbishop. The power of the church may be judged from the petition of the Ayuntamiento of Mexico to Philip IV. (1644) to stop the foundation of religious houses, which held half the property in the country, to suspend ordinations because there were 6000 unemployed priests, and to suppress feast days because there were at least two per week. To check the Dutch and British corsairs the Barlovento (" windward ") squadron had been set up in 1635; but the British capture of Jamaica (1655) aggravated the Buccaneer danger to the Spanish convoys. During the rest of Raids. the century the ports of Yucatan and Central America were frequently raided, and in 1682 Tampico suffered a like disaster; in May 1683 Vera Cruz itself was captured through stratagem by two buccaneers, Van Horn and Laurent, who plundered the town for ten days, committed shocking outrages, and escaped as the Spanish fleet arrived. In 1685–86 the Pacific coast was ravaged by Dampier and Swan, and in 1709 Woodes Rogers, with Dampier as pilot, captured the Manila treasure galleon, a feat repeated by Anson in 1743. But the European wars of the 18th century had little effect on Mexico, save that the privileges of trade given to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht facilitated smuggling. In the first half of the 18th century we may note the appearance, intermittently at first, of the first Mexican periodical—the Gaceta de Mexico—in 1722, a severe epidemic of yellow fever in 1736, and the establishment about Inc) of a standing army with a nucleus of Walloons and Swiss, negroes and Indians being excluded and the half-breeds admitted under restrictions. But the great event of the 18th century was the expulsion of the Jesuits from Mexico, as from the other Spanish dominions, in 1767, under orders from Charles III. They were arrested en masse on the night of the 26th of June; their goods were sequestrated, and they themselves deported to Havana, then to Cadiz, Genoa, and eventually Corsica. They had done much to civilize the natives and to educate the whites, and their expulsion, which was greatly resented by the Creoles, probably tended to increase the popular discontent and prepare for the overthrow of Spanish rule. In 1769 Don Jose de Galvez was sent out as special commissioner to devise reforms, with powers independent of the then viceroy, but without much immediate result. It centralized was, however, a consequence of his work that in Government. 1786 the provinces and kingdoms were replaced by twelve intendencias (Guadalajara, Zacatecas, Durango, Sonora, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Merida, Oaxaca, Valladolid, Guanajato, San Luis Potosi, Mexico), whose governors and minor officials were directly dependent on the viceroy, the former alcaldes, mayores and corregidores, who were very corrupt, being abolished. Possibly it is from this reform that we may date the antithesis of Federals and Centralists, which is so conspicuous in the history of republican Mexico. Among the later viceroys the Conde de Revillagigedo (1789–1794) deserves mention as a progressive ruler who developed commerce and improved administration, and took the first, but very imperfect, census, on which Humboldt based his estimate of the population in 1803 at 5,840,000. The European wars of the French revolutionary period interfered with the traffic with Spain, and so relaxed the bonds of a commercial system which hampered the manu- Beginnings factures of Mexico and drained away its wealth, of sever- Already in 1783 the Conde de Ara.nda had suggested ante. to the Spanish king the scheme of setting up three Spanish-American kingdoms bound to Spain by perpetual treaties of alliance and reciprocity and by frequent royal intermarriages, and with the king of Spain as overlord. The plan was devised as a means of rivalling Anglo-Saxon supremacy, but was rejected through fear of the mixed races predominating over the whites. A similar fear helped to keep down the tendencies inspired by French revolutionary literature, though plots occurred against the viceroy Branciforte in 1798 and 1799. But the real causes of the revolution were local. The chief was the Creole jealousy of the Spanish immigrants. There was oppressive taxation, restriction on commerce and manufacture in the interest of Spain, even vineyards having been prohibited; and the courts were very corrupt. But to these grievances was added in 1804 the sequestration, to provide for Spain's needs, of the benevolent funds (obras pias) in Mexico, amounting to about $45,000,000, and nearly all invested on mortgage. The mortgages were called in: forced sales were necessary, the mortgagers were frequently ruined, and less than a fourth of the total was realized. Other confiscations and exactions followed; and when the rule of Fernando VII. was succeeded by that of Joseph Bonaparte, the municipality of Mexico invited Iturrigaray, the viceroy, to declare the country independent. He proposed the convocation of a national congress, but was overthrown by a conspiracy of Spaniards under one Yermo, who feared that they would lose their privileged position through severance from Spain. The two next viceroys were incompetent; further demands from the Spanish authorities in revolt against Joseph Bonaparte increased the disaffection, which was not allayed by the grant of representation in the Spanish Cortes to the colonies; and, on the demands being repeated by a third viceroy, Venegas, Creole conspiracies arose in Queretaro and Guanajato. Their discovery in 1810 was followed by the outbreak of the revolution. Hidalgo, a parish priest, and Allende, a captain of cavalry, with forces consisting largely of Indians, captured a stronghold at Guanajato and even threatened the capital; but the revolutionists were defeated in 18rI at Calderon, and the leaders executed. Another priest, however, named Morelos, continued the movement, and, despite defeat in the terrible siege of Cuatla (now Morelos) on the 2nd of May 1812, raised the south, so that in the next year his forces overran most of the kingdom of Mexico and held its southern parts, and he was able to convoke a congress and issue a constitution. But he also was captured, and executed at Mexico City in 1815. Though revolutionary movements still continued, by 1817 only one leader, Vincente Guerrero, was left in the field. But in March 1820 the Spanish constitution, repudiated by King Fernando VII. soon after his restoration, was restored after a military rising in Spain. It was promulgated in Mexico, and the ecclesiastics and Spaniards, fearing that a Liberal Spanish government would force on them disendowment, toleration and other changes, induced Augustin de Iturbide, who had already been conspicuous in suppressing the risings, to take the field in order to effect what may be called a reactionary revolution. Thenceforward, till the second election of Porfirio Diaz to the presidency in 1884, the history of Mexico is one of almost General continuous warfare, in which Maximilian's empire Character- is a mere episode. The conflicts, which may at isms. first sight seem to be merely between rival generals, are seen upon closer examination to be mainly (I) between the privileged classes, i.e. the church and (at times) the army, and the mass of the other civilized population; (2) between Centralists and Federalists, the former being identical with the army, the church and the supporters of despotism, while the latter represent the desire for republicanism and local self-government. Similar conflicts are exhibited, though less continuously, by most of the other Spanish-American states. On both sides in Mexico there was an element consisting of honest doctrinaires; but rival military leaders exploited the struggles in their own interest, sometimes taking each side successively; and the instability was intensified by the extreme poverty of the peasantry, which made the soldiery reluctant to return to civil life, by the absence of a regular middle class, and by the concentration of wealth in a few hands, so that a revolutionary chief was generally sure both of money and of men. But after 1884 under the rule of Diaz, the Federal system continued in name, but it concealed in fact, with great benefit to the nation, a highly centralized administration, very intelligent, and on the whole both popular and successful—a modern form of rational despotism. Iturbide eventually combined with Guerrero, and proclaimed the " Plan of Iguala," which laid down, as the bases of the new General state, the maintenance of the Roman Catholic Iturbide religion and the privileges of the clergy, the establish- becomes ment of a limited monarchy, and equality of rights Emperor, for Spaniards and native-born Mexicans. Iturbide 1822-1823. sought the co-operation of the viceroy Apodaca, who, however, refused; but he was presently superseded by General O'Donojfl, who, being unable to get beyond Vera Cruz, recognized the independence of Mexico. O'Donojil shortly after-wards died; the Spanish government repudiated his act; and Spanish troops held the fortress of San Juan de U16a, off Vera Cruz, till 1827. A provisional Junta, nominated by Iturbide, issued a declaration of independence (Oct. 1821), and nominated a regency of five, with Iturbide as its president. The first Mexican Congress met on the 24th of February 1822. A section of it favoured a republic; another, monarchy under Iturbide; another, which was broken up by the refusal of Spain (continued until 1836) to recognize Mexican independence, monarchy under a Bourbon prince. A conflict now arose between the republican majority and Iturbide, which was settled by a military pronunciamiento in his favour, and the Congress elected him emperor. He was crowned on the 21st of July 1822. Fresh conflicts broke out between him and the Congress, and Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, captain-general of Vera Cruz, proclaimed a republic, promising to support the Plan of Iguala. He was defeated at Jalapa and driven to Vera Cruz; but the army deserted Iturbide, who was compelled to abdicate (April 19, 1823). The Congress deported him to Italy, and granted him a pension. He returned almost immediately, on the pretext that Spain was intriguing against Mexican independence, and on landing (having been previously outlawed) was arrested and executed (July 1, 1824). The Congress had meanwhile undone much of his work, and had divided into Federalists and Centralists, the latter largely Monarchists and Freemasons. The Federalists were strong enough to secure the adoption of a constitution (Oct. 4, 1824) modelled on that of the United States, with additional clauses, notably one declaring the Roman Catholic religion to be alone recognized. A source of abundant discord was opened by the provision that each state should contribute its quota to the Federal revenues. No proper statistical basis for estimating the quotas existed, and the device gave each state a plausible reason for attempting secession on occasion. Moreover, the capital and some territory round it was made into a " Federal district "—another grievance intensifying the antagonism of the state to the central power. The Freemasons had been largely instrumental in overthrowing Iturbide; they now divided into the Escoceses (lodges of the Scottish ritual), who were Monarchist and Centralist, and the Yorkinos, who took their ritual from New York, and their cue, it was alleged, from the American minister, Joel Poinsett. An attempt at revolt, headed by Nicolas Bravo, vice-president, the Grand Master of the Escoceses, was suppressed, but dissensions ensued in the Yorkino party between the followers of President Guerrero (a man largely of native blood, and the last of the revolutionary leaders) and of Gomez Pedraza, the president war minister. A conflict broke out, the Guerrerists Guerrero, were victorious, and the pillage of foreign shops in 1825-1841. Mexico City (1828), among them that of a French baker, gave a basis for the foreign claims which, ten years later, caused the " Pastry War " with France. Meanwhile, attacks on Spanish ships off Cuba by a Mexican squadron, commanded by an American, David Porter, had induced Spain to send an expedition to reconquer Mexico (1829) which was checked at Tampico by Santa Anna. During the invasion Vice-President Antonio Bustamante declared against President Guerrero; the bulk of the army supported him. Guerrero was deposed, and his partisans in the south were defeated at Chilpancingo (Jan. 2, 1831); and Guerrero, retiring to Acapulco, was enticed on board an Italian merchant-ship, and treacherously seized, tried and executed (Jan.–Feb. 1831). Next year, how-ever, a revolt broke out against Bustamante, which was joined by Santa Anna, and eventually resulted in a pronunciamiento in favour of Gomez Pedraza. He, and his successor, Vice-President Gomez Farias (1833), assailed the exemption of the clergy and of military officers from the jurisdiction of the civil courts, and the latter attempted to laicize higher education and to relax monastic bonds. Santa Anna took advantage of the situation to assume the presidency. He eventually became Santa Anna, dictator, dissolved Congress (May 31, 1834) and the Dictator, state legislatures, and substituted creatures of his 1834. own for the governors of the states and mayors of towns, then retiring into private life. A new Congress, having resolved itself into a constituent assembly, followed up this Centralist policy (Dec. 30, 1836) by framing a new constitution, the Siete Leyes or Seven Laws, which converted the states into departments, ruled by governors appointed by the central authority, and considerably reduced popular representation. Antonio Bustamante became the first president under it. Bustamante, The French claims set up by the pillage of toreign President, shops in Mexico had, however, remained unsatisfied, 1837 and in 1838 a French fleet blockaded the coast, bombarded the fortress of San Juan de Ul6.a, off Vera Cruz, and occupied the town. The Mexican government gave way, threatened by Federalist risings and secessions of states, which culminated in 1841. Santa Anna appeared, nominally as a mediator, and put forward the bases of Tacubaya (Sept. 28, 1841), abolishing all the Siete Leyes except the part re-Santa Anna lating to the judicial system, arranging for a new Restored, constituent assembly, and reserving for the presi- 1841. dent (himself) full power of re-organizing the administration. The Centralist government, after a vain at-tempt to defeat him by professing a more thorough Federalism, gave way to force, and Bustamante was allowed to leave the country. But the new Congress was too Federalist for Santa Anna, and he retired, leaving the reins to Nicolas Bravo, under whom a new Centralist constitution was established (1843). This expressly retained the privileges of the clergy and army, and was in some respects more anti-Liberal than that of 1836. But new complications were now introduced by the question of Texas. Though a state of the Mexican Union, it had been The Texas settled from the United States in consequence of a Question. land grant given by the Spanish viceroy to Stephen Austin in 1820, and had been estranged from Mexico partly by the abolition of slavery under a decree of President Guerrero, and partly by the prospect of the Centralist constitution of 1836. It then seceded. Santa Anna attempted to reduce it, showing great severity, but was eventually defeated and captured by Houston at the battle of San Jacinto, and compelled to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence, which was disavowed on his return to Mexico. A state of war thus continued nominally between Mexico and its seceded member, whose independence was recognized by England, France and the United States. The slaveholders in the United States favoured annexation of Texas, and pressed the claims due from Mexico to American citizens, partly perhaps with the aim of forcing war. Most of these claims were settled by a mixed commission, with the king of Prussia as umpire, in 184o-1841, and a forced loan was raised to pay them in 1843, which stimulated the revolt of Paredes against Santa Anna, who had returned to power in 1844. It resulted in Santa Anna's downfall, imprisonment at Perote and eventual exile (Dec. 1844 to Jan. 1845), and the election of General Jose Joaquin Herrera as president. But Herrera was displaced in the last days of 1845 by a pronunciamiento in favour of Paredes, who undertook to uphold the national rights against the United States, and who was elected president on the 3rd of January 1846. Texas had meanwhile applied for admission into the American Union. The annexation, rejected in 1844 by the United States Senate, was sanctioned on the 1st of March 1845, and carried out on the 22nd of December 1845. The Mexican minister withdrew from Washington, and both sides made active preparations for war. The United States forces were ordered by President Polk to advance to the Rio Grande in January 1846. They established a war with depot at Point Ysabel (behind the opening of Brazos United Santiago), and erected a fort in Texan territory, com- States, manding Matamoros, on the Mexican side of the Rio 1846-48. Grande. This provoked the Mexican forces into a defensive invasion of Texas, to cut the American communications with Point Ysabel. They were, however, defeated at Palo Alto (May 8) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9). There was an out-burst of warlike feeling in the United States (with a counter-movement in the North), and an invasion of Mexico was planned by three routes—from Matamoros towards Monterey in New Leon, from San Antonio de Bexar to Chihuahua, and from Fort Leavenworth to New Mexico. Importance attaches chiefly to the movements of the first force under General Zachary Taylor. During the war preparations President Paredes, suspected of intriguing to overthrow the Republic and set up a Spanish prince, had to give place to his vice-president Bravo, who in his turn gave way before Santa Anna, who was hastily recalled from his exile at Havana to assume the presidency and the conduct of the war (Aug. 1846). He was allowed by the American squadron blockading Vera Cruz to pass in without hindrance. Probably it was thought his presence would divide the Mexicans. The preparations of the United States took some months. It was not till the 5th of September 1846 that General Zachary Taylor could leave his depot at Camargo on the Rio Grande,and march on Monterey. It was taken by assault on the 23rd of September; Santa Anna was defeated at Buena Vista (near Saltillo) on the 23rd of February 1847, and .forced back on San Luis Potosi. New Mexico was occupied without opposition; Chihuahua was occupied, but not held, owing to the difficulties in maintaining communications; and Upper California was seized in the autumn of 1846 by John C. Fremont, who had been exploring a route across the continent, and by the United States Pacific squadron, and made secure by the aid of the New Mexico expedition. But as Mexico still continued to fight, it was determined to reach the capital via Vera Cruz. That city was taken by General Scott after a siege and bombardment (March 7 to 29, 1847) ; and after winning the battle of Cerrogordo (April 18), and a long delay at Puebla, Scott marched on Mexico City, stormed its defences against greatly superior forces, and effected an entrance after severe fighting on the 13th of September 1847. This virtually ended the war; Santa Anna was deprived of his command, and the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, concluded on the 2nd of February 1848, ceded to the United States Texas, New Mexico and Upper California, in return for a payment ofPeace Treaty of . $15,000,000 by the United States to Mexico, and the assumption of liability by it for the claims of its subjects which it had hitherto been pressing against Mexico. This payment was doubtless intended to strengthen the United States' title to the conquered territory. It is generally admitted that Mexico was provoked into aggression in order that additional territory might be available for the extension of slavery. The American forces were withdrawn in May and June 1848 after the ratification of the treaty by Mexico. Under the presidency of Herrera (1848–1851) attempts were made to Herrera, restore order and the public credit. An arrangement President, was effected with English holders of Mexican stock; 18484851. an attempt was made to carry out .a consolidation of the internal debt, which failed; the army was reduced and reorganized, and the northern frontier was defended by military colonies, formed partly of civilized Seminole Indians from the United States. But the financial situation was desperate; the federal revenue, mostly from customs—which were evaded by extensive smuggling—was not half the expenditure; and Indian revolts in Yucatan (1847–1850) and in the Sierra Gorda had added to the strain. Arista succeeded Herrera as president (Jan. 1851), but resigned (Jan. 1853). After a sort of interregnum (Jan.–March 1853) Santa Anna was recalled (by a vote of the majority of the states under the Plan of Arroyozarco, on the 4th of February 1853, the result Santa Anna of a pronunciamiento), and made dictator in the in Power, interests of federation. His measures, partly in- 1853-1854. spired by an able Conservative leader, Lucas Alaman, proved strongly Centralist: one is especially noteworthy, the establishment of the ministry of " fomento," or encouragement to public works, education, and intellectual and economic development, which is a conspicuous aid to Mexican welfare to-day. He also negotiated (at the end of 1853) the sale of the Mesilla valley (now Arizona) to the United States, but the purchase money- was soon dissipated. On the 16th of December 1853 Santa Anna issued a decree making himself dictator, with the title of serene highness. On the 1st of March 1854, at Ayutla in Guerrero, a section of the army under Colonel Villareal proclaimed the Plan of Ayutla, demanding Santa Anna's deposition and the establishment of a provisional government to secure a new constitution. Among the leaders in the movement were Generals Alvarez and Comonfort, and it is said that Porfirio Diaz, subsequently president, then a young soldier, made his way to Benito Juarez, then in prison, and arranged with him the preliminaries of the revolt. It spread, and Santa Anna left the country (Aug. 1854).1 Two filibustering expeditions at this time—one by William Walker, afterwards notorious in Nicaragua, in Lower California 1 Santa Anna tried to get back to politics in Mexico a£t's Maximilian's fall, without success. He was amnestied with other exiles in 1874, and died in obscurity in 1876.
End of Article: NICKEL
NICIAS (d. 414 B.C.)
NICKEL (symbol Ni, atomic weight 58.68 (0=16))

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