NIGER , a
See also:river of West Africa, inferior only to the
See also:Congo and Nile among the
See also:rivers of the continent, and the only river in Africa which, by means of its tributary the
See also:Benue, affords a waterway uninterrupted by rapids, and available for shallow-
See also:draught steamers, to the far interior . Rising within 150 M. of the
See also:sea in the mountainous zone which marks the N.E. frontiers of Sierra Leone and French
See also:Guinea, it traverses the interior plateaus in a vast
See also:curve, flowing N.E., E. and S.E., until it finally enters the Gulf of Guinea through an immense
See also:delta . Its
See also:total length is about 2600 m . About 250 M. from its mouth it is joined by the Benue, coming from the east from the mountainous region of
See also:Adamawa . From its mouth to the limit of navigability from the sea the river is in
See also:British territory; above that point it flows through French territory . The source of the Niger lies in 90 5' N. and ro° 47' W., and the most northerly point of the great
See also:bend is about 17° N . The
See also:area of the Niger
See also:basin, excluding the arid regions with a slope towards the stream, has been calculated by Dr . A . Bludau at 584,000 sq. m . The river is known locally under various names, the most
See also:common being Joliba (a Mandigo word meaning Great River) and Kworra or Quorra . By the last name the Niger was known in its
See also:lower reaches before its identity with the upper river was established . The stream considered the chief source of the Niger is called the Tembi .
A narrow The
See also:watershed separates it from the headwaters of the place of the river . streams flowing south-west through Sierra Leone . The birthplace of the Niger is in a deep
See also:ravine 2800 ft. above sea-level . From a
See also:rock a tiny
See also:spring issues and has made a
See also:pool below . This little stream is the Tembi, which within a
See also:short distance is joined by two other rivulets, the Tamincono and Falico, which have their origin in the same mountainous
See also:district . After flowing
See also:north for about 'co m., the river turns eastward and receives several tributaries from the south . At its confluence with the Tankisso (a
See also:northern tributary), 210 M. from its source, the river has attained dimensions sufficient to
See also:earn for itself the title Joliba . Taking at this point a decided trend northward, the Niger,
See also:room. lower down, at Bamako—the first considerable
See also:town on its banks—has a
See also:depth of 6 ft. with a breadth of 1300 ft . Seven or eight
See also:miles below Bamako the Sotuba rocks mark the end of what may be considered the upper river . From this point the navigable portion of the Niger begins .
See also:Thirty miles below Sotuba are the rapids of Tulimandio, but these are navigable when the river is at its highest, namely from
See also:July to
See also:October . A little lower down is Kulikoro, from which point the
See also:bed of the stream for over r000 m. is fairly
See also:free from impediments .
The river here turns more directly to the east and increases in
See also:volume and depth . At Sansandig the stream is deep enough to permit of steamers of considerable
See also:size plying upon the river . After Sansandig is passed the
See also:banks of The the stream become low and the Niger is split up into
See also:middle a number of channels . Mopti is at the junction of Niger and the
See also:main stream with a large right-
See also:hand backwater lake or tributary, the Bani or Mahel Balevel, on which region . is situated the important town of
See also:Jenne . The banks of the Niger below Mopti become swampy and treeless, and the first of a series of lakes (Debo) is reached . These lakes are chiefly on the
See also:left of the main stream, with which they are connected by channels conveying the
See also:water in one direction or the other according to the
See also:season . At high water most of these are
See also:united into one general inundation . The largest lake, Faguibini, is nearly 70 M. long by 12 M. broad, has high shores and reaches a depth exceeding, in parts, 16o ft . It is not until Kabara, the
See also:port of Timbuktu, is reached, a distance of 450 M. from Sansandig, that the labyrinth of lakes, creeks and backwaters ceases . Below Kabara the river reaches its most northerly point . At Bamba it is shut in by steep banks and narrows to 600 to 700 yds., again spreading out some distance down .
At Barka (200 M. from Timbuktu) the stream turns south-east and preserves that direction throughout the
See also:remainder of its course . At Tosaye, just before the bend becomes pronounced, the Baror and Chahar rocks reduce the width of the river to less than 500 ft., and at low water the strength of the current is a serious danger to navigation . Below Timbuktu for a considerable distance the Niger receives no tributaries; from the north none until the region of the
See also:Sahara is passed . In places the
See also:desert approaches close to the river on both banks and immense sand
See also:dunes fill the
See also:horizon . At Ansongo, 430 M. below Timbuktu, the navigable reach of the middle Niger, in all 10J7 m., ends . Four huge
See also:flint rocks
See also:bar the river at Ansongo and effectually prevent further navigation except in very small vessels . From Ansongo to Say, some 250 m., the river flows through several rocky passes, the current attaining great velocity . Throughout this distance the river is a hopeless labyrinth of rocks, islands, reefs and rapids . From Say, where the stream is about 700 yds. in breadth, to
See also:Bussa, there is another navigable stretch of water extending 300 M . After the desert region is past the Niger receives the
See also:waters of the river
See also:Sokoto, a considerable stream flowing from the north-east . Some distance below this confluence are the Bussa rapids, which can only be navigated with considerable difficulty . These Bussa rapids and lower river .
675 Sapele . The other western mouths of the Niger have as a ride shallow and difficult bars . The delta is the largest in Africa and covers 14.g0o sq. m . The Benue is by far the most important of the affluents of the Niger . The name signifies in the
See also:tongue "
See also:Mother of Waters." The river rises in Adamawa in about 7° 4o' N. and 13° 15' E., The Benue. a little north of the town of Ngaundere, at a height of over 3000 ft. above the sea, being separated by a narrow water parting from one of the headstreams of the Logone, whose waters flow to Lake Chad . In its upper course the Benue is a
See also:mountain torrent falling over 2000 ft. in some Igo m . With the Chad
See also:system it is connected by the Kebbi or Mayo Kebbi, a right-hand tributary whose confluence is in about 92° N., 131° E . The Kebbi, fed by many torrents rising in the eastern versant of the Mandara Hills, issues from the S.W. end of the Tuburi marshes . These marshes occupy an extensive depression in the moderately elevated
See also:plateau east of the Mandara Hills, and are cut by to° N., 15° E . The central
See also:part of the marshes forms a deep lake, whence there is a channel going northward to the Logone and navigable for some months during the
See also:year . The Kebbi flows west, and soon after leaving '1 uburi passes through a rocky barrier marked by a series of rapids and a fall at Lata of 165 ft . Below these obstructions the Kebbi to its junction with the Benue has a depth of not less than 6 ft .
In places, as at Lere and Bifara, it widens into lake-like dimensions . Below the Kebbi confluence the Benue, now a considerable river, turns from a northerly to a
See also:westerly direction and is navigable all the year
See also:round by boats
See also:drawing not more than 22 ft . For some 40 M. below the confluence the river has an
See also:average width of 180 to 200 yds., and flows with a strong steady current, although a broad
See also:strip of
See also:country on each side is swampy or submerged . It is here joined by the
See also:Faro, which, rising in the Adamawa Mountains S.E. of Ngaundere, flows almost due north . About 5o m. below the junction of the Faro is
See also:Yola, the capital of Adamawa . It lies on the
See also:southern side of the Benue, some 85o m. by river from the sea and at an altitude of 600 ft . Here the width of the stream increases at
See also:time to moo or 'goo yds., and though it narrows at the some-what dangerous rapids of Rumde Gilla to 15o er 180 yds., it soon expands again . About 50 m. below Yola the Benue receives, on the right
See also:bank, the Gongola, which rises in the
See also:highlands and after a great curve north-east turns southward . It is over 300 m. long, and at flood time is navigable for about
See also:half of its course . The Benue receives several other tributaries both from the north and the south, but they are not of great importance . It flows onwards to the Niger with comparatively unobstructed current, its valleys marked for the most part by ranges of hills and its banks diversified with forests, villages and cultivated tracts . But though exception- rapids—though not such a hindrance to navigation—are of a more dangerous character than any encountered between Ansongo and Say .
" In one pass, some S4 yds. wide, shut in between two large reefs, a
See also:good half of the waters of the Niger flings itself over with a tremendous roar " (Hourst) . The rapids extend for so m. or more; in a less obstructive
See also:form they continue to
See also:Rabba, but
See also:light-draught steamers ascending the stream during flood season experience little difficulty in reaching Bussa . A little above Rabba the river makes a
See also:loop south-west, at the
See also:head of the loop being (right bank) Jebba . Here the river is bridged by the railway from
See also:Lagos . Sixty miles lower down is the mouth of the (left hand) tributary the Kaduna, a river of some magnitude which gives
See also:access to Zungeru, the headquarters of the British administration in Northern
See also:Nigeria . The head waters of the Kaduna are not far from
See also:Kano . Below the mouth of the Kaduna, on the right bank of the Niger, is
See also:Barn, the starting-point of a railway to Kano . In 7° 50' N . 6° 45' E. the Niger is joined by its great tributary the Benue . At their confluence the Niger is about three-quarters of a mile broad and the Benue rather more than a mile . The united stream forms a lake-like expansion about 2 in. in width, dotted with islands and sandbanks; the peninsula at the junction is low, swampy, and intersected by numerous channels . On the western bank of the Niger at this point is situated
See also:Lokoja (q v.), an important commercial centre .
The stream, as far south as Iddah (
See also:Ida), a town on the east bank, rushes through a valley cut between the hills, the
See also:sandstone cliffs at some places rising 150 ft. high . Between Iddah and Onitsha, 8o m., the hanks are lower and the country flatter, and to the south of Onitsha the whole
See also:land is laid under water during the
See also:annual T he Delta, floods . Here may be said to begin the great delta of the Niger, which, extending along the
See also:coast for about 120 m., and 140 or 15o m inland, forms one of the most remarkable of all the swampy regions of Africa . The river breaks up into an intricate network of channels, dividing and subdividing, and intercrossing not only with each other but with the branches of other streams, so that it is exceedingly difficult to say where the Niger delta ends and another river system begins . The Rio Nun is a
See also:direct continuation of the
See also:line of the undivided ally free from obstruction by rapids, the river falls very low in the river, and is thus the main mouth of the Niger dry season, and for seven to eight months is almost useless for navi- From the sea the only indication of a river mouth is a break in the dark
See also:green mangroves which here universally fringe the coast . The
See also:crossing of the bar requires considerable care, and at. ebb
See also:tide the outward current runs 51 knots per
See also:hour . For the first 20 M . (or as far as
See also:Island, the limit of the sea tide in the dry season) dense lines of mangroves 40, 5o, or 6o ft in height shut in the channel; then palm and other trees begin to appear, and the widening river has
See also:regular banks . East of the Nun the estuaries known as the Brass,
See also:Sombrero, New
See also:Calabar, Bonny, Opobo (or Imo), &c . (with the exception, perhaps, of the first-named), seem to derive most of their water from
See also:independent streams such as the Orashi, rising in about 6° N., which is, however, linked with the Niger by the Onita Creek in 51° N . Behind the town of Okrika, some 30 M . Up the Bonny river, the swampy ground gives place to
See also:firm land, partially
See also:forest-clad West of the Nun all the estuaries up to the Forcados seem to be true mouths of the great river, while the
See also:Benin river, though linked to the others by transverse channels, may be more properly regarded as an independent stream .
(See BENIN.) In this direction the largest mouth is the Forcados, a
See also:noble stream with a safe and relatively deep bar Its banks in its lower course are densely wooded, but the
See also:beach is sandy and almost free from
See also:marsh and
See also:malaria . The mouth is 2 M. wide . It has supplanted the Nun river as the chief channel of communication with the interior . There are 17 to 19 ft. of water over the Forcados bar, as against 13 ft. at the Nun mouth . Moreover the Forcados bar shifts little laterally, and within the bar is a natural
See also:harbour with an area of 3 to 4 sq. m. having a depth of 3o ft. at low water spring tides . From the mouth of the Forcados to the main stream is 'og in., with a minimum depth in the dry season of 7 ft . A northern
See also:arm affords ocean-going vessels access to Wari and gation . The Benue lies within British territory to a point 3 M. below the mouth of the Faro, in about 13° 8' E . East of that point the river is in the German colony of Cameroon . As the Niger and the Benue have different gathering grounds, they are not in flood at the same time . The upper Niger rises in
See also:June as the result of the tropical rains, and decreases in Flood and
See also:December, n s breadth at Turella expanding from between low 2000 and 2500 ft. to not less than IZ m . The middle seasons .
Niger, however, reaches its maximum near Timbuktu only in
See also:January; in
See also:February and
See also:March it sinks slowly above the narrows of Tosaye, and more rapidly below them, the level being kept up by supplies from backwaters and lakes; and by
See also:April there is a decrease of about 5 ft . In
See also:August the channel near Timbuktu is again navigable owing to
See also:rain in the southern highlands . The Benue reaches its greatest height in August or
See also:September, begins to fall in October, falls rapidly in
See also:November and slowly in the next three months, and reaches its lowest in March and April, when it is fordable in many places, has no perceptible flow and at the confluence begins to be covered with the water-
See also:weed Pistea Siratiotes . The flood rises with great rapidity, and reaches 50, 6o, or even 75 ft. above the low-water mark . The two confluents being so unlike, the united river differs from each under the influence of the other . Here the river is at its lowest in April and May; in June it is subject to great fluctuations; about the middle of August it usually begins to rise; and its maximum is reached in September . In October it sinks, often rapidly . A slight rise in January, known as the yangbe, is occasioned by water from the upper Niger . Between high- and low-water mark the difference is as much as 35 ft . The
See also:geological changes which have taken place in the Niger basin are imperfectly known . The French scientists E . F .
Gautier and R . Chudeau, summing up the evidence available in 1909, set forth the hypothesis that the existing upper Niger Geological and the existing lower Niger were distinct streams. changes . According to this theory the upper Niger, somewhat above where Timbuktu now stands, went north and north-west and emptied into the Juf, which in the beginning of the
See also:quaternary age was a
See also:salt-water lake, the remnant of an arm of the sea which in the
See also:tertiary age covered the northern Sudan and southern Sahara as far east as
See also:Bilma . Lake Fagubini is regarded as a remnant of the
See also:ancient course of the upper river . When the upper Niger had this direction, the
See also:Wadi Taffassassent, now a dried-up river of the central Sahara, which
See also:rose in the Ahaggar mountains, is believed to have formed the upper course of the existing lower Niger . While the upper and lower parts of the Niger have all the appearance of ancient streams, the middle Niger is the result of a
See also:recent " capture; " it has no past, it scarcely has a
See also:present " (see R . Chudeau, Sahara soudanais,
See also:Paris, 1909) . Vague ideas of the existence of the river were possessed by the ancients . The great river flowing eastward reached by the Nasamonians as reported by
See also:Herodotus can be no
See also:History other than the Niger . Pliny mentions a river Nigris, and ex- ploration. of the same nature with the Nile, separating Africa and Ethiopia, and forming the boundary of
See also:Gaetulia; and it is not improbable that this is the
See also:modern Niger . In
See also:Ptolemy, too, appears along with Gir (possibly the
See also:Shari) a certain Nigir (N1-yap) as one of the largest rivers of the interior; but so vague is his description that it is impossible definitely to identify it with the Niger.' Arabian geographers, such as
See also:Ibn Batuta, who were acquainted with the middle course of the river, called it the Nile of the Negroes . At the same time contradictory opinions were held as to the course of the stream .
It was supposed by some geographers to run west, anopinion probably first stated by
See also:Idrisi in the 12th century . Idrisi gave the Nile of
See also:Egypt and the Nile of the Negroes a common source in the Mountain of the
See also:Moon . Fountains from the mountain formed two lakes, whence issued streams which united in a very large lake . From this third lake issued two rivers—the Nile of Egypt flowing north, and that of the Negroes flowing west (see R . Dozy and M . J. de
See also:Goeje's Edrisi,
See also:Leiden, 1866: Premier Climat, 1st 4 sections) . From Idrisi's description it would appear that he regarded the Shari, Lake Chad, the Benue, Niger and
See also:Senegal as one great river which emptied into the
See also:Atlantic.2 That the Niger flowed west and reached the ocean was also stated by
See also:Africanus . The belief that a western branch of the Nile emptied itself into the Atlantic was held by
See also:Henry of
See also:Portugal, who instructed the navigators he despatched to Guinea to look for the mouth of the river, and when in 1445 they entered the estuary of the Senegal the Portuguese were convinced that they had discovered the Nile of the Negroes (see
See also:Discovery and
See also:Conquest of Guinea, Beazley and Prestage's
See also:translation, vol. ii.,
See also:London, 1899, chaps, lx. and lxi., and introduction and notes) . The Senegal being proved an independent river and the eastward flow of the Niger assumed, the theory that it ran into the Nile was revived, and almost to the very year in which the course of the river was actually demonstrated geographers and travellers, such as J . G .
See also:Jackson in his
See also:Empire of Marocco, first published in 1809, fought zealously for the identity of the Nile of the Negroes with the river of Egypt . The highest scientific authority of the
See also:day, Major
See also:Rennell, believed, however, that the Niger ended, by evaporation, in the country of "
See also:Wangara "—a region located by him, through a misreading of Idrisi, far too much 1
See also:Sir Rufane
See also:Donkin in a curious and learned
See also:work, A Dissertation on .
. . the Niger (1829), made the Niger join the Gir, which last stream he calls the Nile of
See also:Bornu . The united river ran north, disappeared underground in the Sahara and reached the Mediterranean at " the quicksands of the gulph of Sidra." Donkin believed that the desert, advancing eastwards, would overwhelm the
See also:Egyptian Nile also in its lower course . " The Delta," he exclaims, " shall become a plashy quicksand, a second Syrtis ! and the Nile shall cease to exist from the Lower
See also:Cataract downwards." 2 The hydrography of northern central Africa as now known largely explains the
See also:medieval belief in a connexion between the western rivers and the Egyptian Nile . Leaving out of account the Welle-
See also:Ubangi (and Idrisi's description of the two
See also:Niles may infer a knowledge of that stream, which was supposed by
See also:Schweinfurth to form part of the Chad system), there is an almost continuous water-way from the mouth of the Senegal to that of the Nile . The upper waters of the Bakoy branch of the Senegal and those of the navigable Niger are less than 40 m. apart; the Niger communicates directly through the Benue, Lake Tuburi and the Logone with the Shari; the easternmost affluents of the Shari and the most western tributaries of the
See also:Bahr el Ghazel affluent of the Nile are within 20 m. of one another . With but three short porterages a
See also:boat could be navigated the whole of this distance . Moreover, from the confluence of the Ghazel the Nile is navigable (at high water) the entire distance to the Mediterranean . (See also SHARI.)to the east, between 150 and 200 E . (see Rennell's map in
See also:Hornemann's Travels, 1802) . To Rennell the Benue was an east-flowing continuation of the Niger .3 The imagined existence of mountains—called
See also:Kong in the west and Komri (Lunar) in the east—stretching in a high and unbroken chain across Africa about ro° N. long prevented geographers from thinking of a possible southern bend to the Niger . That the vast network of rivers on the Guinea coast, of which the Nun was the chief, known as the Oil Rivers, formed the delta of the Niger does not appear to have been suspected before the beginning of the 19th century . Consequently it was from the direction of its source that the river was first explored in modern times .
In 1795 Mungo
See also:Park (q.v.) was sent out by the
See also:African Association, and was the first
See also:European to see and describe the upper river . Park landed at the
See also:Gambia, and struck the Niger near Segu (a town some distance above Sansandig) on the 20th of July 1796, where he beheld it " glittering in the
See also:sun as broad as the
See also:Thames at
See also:Westminster and flowing slowly to the eastward " (Travels, 1st ed. p . 194) . He descended the river some distance, and on his return
See also:journey went up stream as far as Bamako . In 1805 Park returned to Africa for the purpose of descending the Niger to its mouth . He started as before from the Gambia, reached the Niger, sailed down the river past Timbuktu, and on the
See also:eve of the successful accomplishment of his undertaking lost his
See also:life during an attack on his boat by the natives at Bussa (Nov. or Dec . 1805) . Park held to the opinion that the Niger and Congo were one river, though in 1802 C . G . Reichard, a German geographer, had suggested that the Rio Nun was the mouth of the Niger.4 Owing to Park's
See also:death the results of his second journey were lost, and the work had to be begun afresh . In 1822 Major A . G .
See also:Laing (who had reached Timbuktu by way of
See also:Tripoli) obtained some accurate information concerning the
See also:sources of the river, and in 1828 the French explorer Rene Caillie went by boat from Jenne to the port of Timbuktu . In 1826 Bussa was reached from Benin by Hugh
See also:Clapperton, and his servant
See also:Lander . On Clapperton's death Richard Lander and his
See also:John led in 183o an expedition which went overland from Badagry to the Niger . Canoeing down the river from Yawri—6o m. above Bussa—to the mouth of the Rio Nun they finally settled the doubt as to the lower course of the stream . In 1832 Macgregor
See also:Laird established the African Steamship
See also:Company, and Richard Lander and R . A . K .
See also:Oldfield (as members of its first expedition) ascended the Niger to Rabba, and the Benue as far as Dagbo (8o m.) . In 1841 an expedition, consisting of three steamers of the British
See also:navy, under Captain (afterwards
See also:Admiral) H . D . Trotter, went up to Egga (Egam), but was forced to return owing to sickness and mortality . Heinrich Barth (1851–1854) made known to
See also:Europe the course of the river from Timbuktu to Say .
Barth sailed down from Saraiyamo (situated on a tributary stream south-west of Timbukutu) to Kabara; then skirted the left bank to a small town called Bornu in 16° N., and the right thence to Say . In 188o–1881 the German E . R .
See also:Flegel ascended the Niger to Gomba opposite the confluence of the Sokoto river with the main stream, and about 7o m. below Barth's southmost point . Zweifel and Moustier, sent out by M . Verminck, a
See also:merchant, discovered (1879) the sources of the Falico, &c., and in 1885 the Tembi source was visited by Captain Brouet, a French officer . Indeed the additions to the knowledge of the Niger during the last two decades of the 19th century were largely the work of French
See also:officers engaged in the extension of French influence throughout the western Sudan . From 1880 onwards Colonel (afterward General)
See also:Gallieni took a leading part in the operations on the upper river, wherein 1883 a small gunboat, the Niger, was launched for the
See also:protection of the newly established French posts . In 1885 a voyage was made by Captain Delanneau 3In 1816 James McQueen correctly divined that there was a great west-flowing tributary (the Benue) to the Niger, and that after its confluence the river ran south to the Atlantic . See his View of Northern Central Africa (1820 and
See also:Geographical Survey of Africa (1840) . 4 See Ephemerides geographiques, vol. xii . (
See also:Weimar, Aug .
1803) . past the ruins of Sansandig, as far as Diafarabe . In 1887 the gunboat made a more extended voyage, reaching the port of Timbuktu, and correcting the mapping of the river down to that point . In 1894–1895
See also:attention was directed to the middle and lower Niger, to which several expeditions started from the coast of Guinea . A still more important expedition was that of
See also:Lieutenant Hourst, who, starting from Timbuktu in January 1896, navigated the Niger from that point to its mouth, executing a careful survey of the river and the various obstructions to navigation . A voyage made in 1897 by Lieutenant de Chevigne showed that at low water the section between Timbuktu and Ansongo presents great difficulties, but the voyage from Timbuktu to Say was again successfully accomplished in 1899 by Captain Granderye . In 1901 Captain E .
See also:Lenfant ascended the river with a flotilla from its mouth to Say, and he demonstrated the " normal practicability " of the route, despite the Bussa rapids . The delta of the Niger has been partially surveyed since it became British territory by various
See also:ship captains, officials of the Royal Niger Company and others, including Sir Harry
See also:Johnston, sometime British
See also:consul for the Oil Rivers . In addition to the main stream, the Niger basin was made known by exploration during the last quarter of the loth century and the early years of the loth . The journeys of the German traveller G . A .
Krause (north from the Gold Coast, 1886–1887) and the French Captain Binger (Senegal to Ivory Coast, r887–188g) first defined its southern limits by revealing the unexpected northward extension of the basins of the Guinea coast streams, especially the Volta and Komoe, a fact which explained the
See also:absence of important tributaries within the Niger bend . This was crossed for the first time, in its fullest extent, by Colonel P . L .
See also:Monteil (French) in 1890-1871 . At the eastern end of the basin much light has been thrown on the system of the Benue . In 1851 Barth crossed the Benue at its junction with the Faro, but the region of its sources was first explored by Flegel (1882–1884), who traversed the whole southern basin of the river and reached Ngaundere . Other German travellers added to the knowledge of the southern tributaries, the Tarabba,
See also:Donga and others, which in the rains bring down a large
See also:body of water from the highlands of southern Adamawa . British travellers who have done work in the same region are Sir W .
See also:Wallace, L . H . Moseley, W . P .
Hewby, P . A .Talbot and Captain Claud
See also:Alexander . The last-named two were members of an expedition led by Lieut .
See also:Boyd-Alexander, who himself crossed Africa from the Niger to the Nile . Messrs Talbot and Claud Alexander surveyed the country between Ibi on the Benue and Lake Chad, mapping (1004) a considerable part of the Gongola.' In 18J4 the Benue itself was ascended 400 M. by the "
See also:Pleiad " expedition, and in 1887 to 13-° E., and the Kebbi to Bifara by Major (afterwards Sir
See also:Macdonald, further progress towards the Tuburi marsh being prevented by the shallowness of the water . The upper basin of the Benue was also traversed by the French expeditions of Mizon (1892) and Maistre (1892–1893), the latter passing to the south of the Tuburi marsh without definitely settling the hydrographical question connected with it . This was accomplished by Captain Lenfant in 1903 . He ascended the Kebbi and discovered the Lata Fall, continuing up the river to its point of issue from Tuburi . Crossing the marshes he found and navigated the narrow river leading to the Logone . Save for the porterage round the Lata Fall the whole journey from the mouth of the Niger to Lake Chad was made by water . The Benue in the neighbourhood of Yola was mapped in 1903–1904 by an Anglo-German boundary commission .
From 1904 onwards the French undertook
See also:works on the Niger between Bamako—whence there is railway communication with the Senegal—and Ansongo with a view to deepening the channel and removing obstructions to navigation . In 1910 the British began dredging with the
See also:object of obtaining from the mouth of the river to Baro a minimum depth of 6 ft. of water . ' Captain Claud Alexander died of fever in northern Nigeria on the 30th of November 1904 . His brother, Lieut . Boyd Alexander, in a subsequent expedition across Africa was murdered in
See also:Wadai on the and of April 1910 .
See also:AuTH0RITIEs.—Mungo Park, Travels 'in the Interior Districts of Africa . . in the Years 1799, 1796 and 1797 (London, 1799) . A geographical appendix by Major James Rennell summarizes the information then available about the Niger . R. and J . Lander, Journal of an Expedition to explore the Course and Termination of the Niger . . (3 vols . London, 1833) ; H .
Barth, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa . . ., vols. iv. and v . (London, 185g–1858); Gen . J . S . Gallieni,
See also:Mission d'exploration du Haut Niger . . (Paris, 1885) ; E . Caron, De
See also:Louis an Port de Timbouktou; Voyage dune cannoniere francaise (Paris, 1891); M . Hourst, Sur le Niger et an pays
See also:des Touaregs (Paris, 1898),
See also:English translation, French Enterprise in Africa . . . Exploration of the Niger (London, 1898) . The
See also:political references in this
See also:book are marked by jealous hostility to the British .
Col . J . K . Trotter, The Niger Sources (London, 1897) ; Sir H . H . Johnston, " The Niger Delta," Proc . R.G.S . (December 1888) ; Sir F . Lugard, " An Expedition to
See also:Borgu on the Niger," Geo . Jnl . (September 1895) ; E . Lenfant, Le Niger; voie ouverte a notre empire africain (Paris, 1903), chiefly a demonstration that the Bussa rapids are not an absolute bar to navigation .
The foregoing books
See also:deal almost entirely with the Niger . For the Benue see, besides Barth's Travels, A . F . Mockler Ferryman, Up the Niger; Narrative of Major Claude Macdonald's Mission to the Niger and Benue Rivers . . . (London, 1892); L . Mizon, " Itineraire de la source de la Ben6ue au confluent des rivieres Kadel et Mambere" and other papers in the Bull .
See also:Soc . Geog . Paris for 1895 and 1896; C . Maistre, A travers l'Afrique central du Congo au Niger (Paris, 1895) ; E . Lenfant, La Grande Route du Chad (Paris, 1905) ; Col .
L . Jackson, " The Anglo-German Boundary Expedition in Nigeria," Geo . Jnl . (July 1905) ; P . A . Talbot, " Survey Work by the Alexander Gosling Expedition: Northern Nigeria 1904–1905, " idem (February 1906); Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, vol. i . (London, 1907) . The BritishBlue Books,
See also:relating to Railway Construction in Nigeria (1905) and Further Correspondence, &c . (1909), contain information about the navigability of the lower Niger and of the Kaduna . The best maps are those published by the French and British War Offices; an
See also:Atlas du
See also:tours du Niger de Tombouctou aux rapides de Boussa in 50 sheets on the scale of 1: 50,000, by Lieut . Hourst and others, was published in Paris in 1899 . (F .
NIGEL (d. 1168)
GAIUS PESCENNIUS NIGER
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