Online Encyclopedia

NIGERIA

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 684 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e. the Hausa States) and the greater part of Bonin. It embraces most of the territory in the square formed by the meridians of 3° and 14° E. and the parallels of 4° and 14° N., and has an area of about 338,000 sq. m. The protectorate is bounded W., N. and N.E. by French possessions (Dahomey, Upper Senegal and Niger colony, and Chad territory), S.E. by the German colony of Cameroon and S. by the Atlantic. Physical Features.—The country is divisible, broadly, into three zones running parallel with the coast: (I) the delta, (2) forest region, giving place to (3) the plateau region. The coast line, some Soo m. in length, extends along the Gulf of Guinea from 2° 46' 55" E. to 8° 45' E. ending at the Rio del Rey, the point where the great bend eastwards of the continent ceases and the land turns south. The Niger (q.v.), which enters the protectorate at its N.W. corner and flows thence S.E. to the Atlantic, receives, 250 M. from the sea, the Benue, which, rising in the mountains of Adamawa south of Lake Chad, flows west across the plateau. Into the huge delta of the Niger several other rivers (the " Oil Rivers ") empty themselves; the chief being, on the west, the Benin (q.v.), and on the east the Brass. East of the Niger delta is that formed by the Imo or Opobo, Bonny and other streams, and still farther east is the Calabar estuary, mainly formed by the Cross river (q.v.). West of the Niger delta are several independent streams discharging into lagoons, which here line the coast. The most westerly of these streams, the Ogun, enters the Lagos lagoon, which is connected by navigable waterways with the Niger (see LAGOS). , The delta region is swampy, and forms, for a distance of from 40 to 70 M. inland, a network of interlacing creeks.and broad sluggish channels fringed with monotonous mangrove forests. The main rivers are navigable for ocean-going steamers for a distance of from 15 to 40 M. from their mouths. Beyond the delta firm ground takes the place of mud and the mangroves disappear. The land rises gradually at first, becoming, however, in many districts very hilly, and is covered with dense forests. The Niger at its confluence with the Benue is not more than 250 It. above the sea. North of this point are hills forming the walls of the plateau which extends over the centre of the Emery Walker ao. U' Ambru S E N E G A L ° A N D °Aisa `~Kaddaio - `.. Buda Hill P E R Chibiri Zinder -oGaIdab. 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G'ashaka A E. °Jwa oaIbada = ,.. ser a ;, A S a ~ `~ y, ~ .w TT~~ g t B a...- S Katsena } n,~ k n Ttutitdq ZI I Ishoyy 1 !' \~,\ a .a . i %Pe tp, J S _, Mudi.,~'? t. , M ~'S A o Abeokuta Ond .° Ow 'ISI ka N ~~'~~ '3A t r §r 0 o O° Ekperri of oOgrugru t y i Baful ..• t End of Article: NIGERIA
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