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KARL IMMANUEL NITZSCH (1787-1868)

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Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 718 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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KARL IMMANUEL NITZSCH (1787-1868), Lutheran divine, was born at the small Saxon town of Borna near Leipzig on the 21st of September 1787. His father, Karl Ludwig Nitzsch (1751–1831), who at that time was pastor and superintendent in Borna, and afterwards (1790) became professor at Wittenberg and director (1817) of the seminary for preachers, has also left a name of some distinction in the theological world by a number of writings, among which may be mentioned a work entitled De discrimine revelationis imperatoriae et didacticae prolusions academicae (2 vols., 1830). Theologically, he represented a combination of supernaturalism and rationalism (supernatural rationalism or a Kantian rational supernaturalism). Karl Immanuel was sent to study at Schulpforta in 1803, whence he proceeded to the university of Wittenberg in 1806. In 1809 he graduated, and in 1810 he became a Privatdozent at the university. Having become diaconus at the Schlosskirche in 1811, he showed remarkable energy and zeal during the bombardment and siege of the city in 1813. In 1817 he was appointed one of the preceptors in the preachers' seminary which had been established at Wittenberg after the suppression of the university. From 1820 to 1822 he was superintendent in Kemberg, and in the latter year he was appointed professor ordinarius of systematic and practical theology at Bonn. Here he remained until called to succeed Marheineke at Berlin in 1847; subsequently he became university preacher, rector of the university, provost of St Nicolai (in 1854) and member of the supreme council of the church, in which last capacity he was one of the ablest and most active promoters of the Evangelical Union. He died on the 21st of August 1868. He represented the Vermittelungstheologie of the school of Schleiermacher. His son, FRIEDRICH AUGUST NITZSCH (b. 1832), was made professor ordinarius of theology at Giessen in 1868 and at Kiel in 1872. He was the author of Grundriss der christl. Dogmengeschichte (187o, incomplete) and 'Das System des Boethius (1860), amongst other works. Karl Nitzsch's principal works are: System der christlichen Lehre (1829; 6th ed., 1851; Eng. trans., 1849), Praktische Theologie (1847-186o; 2nd ed., 1863-1868), Akademische Vortrdge fiber christliche Glaubenslehre (1858) and several series of Predigten. " He took as his starting-point the fundamental thought of Schleiermacher, that religion is not doctrine but life, direct consciousness, feeling. At the same time he sought to bring religious feeling into closer connexion with knowledge and volition than Schleiermacher had done; he laid special stress—and justly—on the recognition of a necessary and radical union of religion with morality, treating both dogmatics and ethics together accordingly in his System der christlichen Lehre" (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 123). His Protestantische Beantwortung, a reply to the Symbolik of Johann Adam Mohler (1796-1838), which originally appeared in the Studien u. Kritiken, of which he was one of the founders, may also be mentioned. See Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, and the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie; F. Lichtenberger, History of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century, pp. 185-196. NIU-CHWANG, a city of China, in the Manchurian province of Sheng-king (Liao-tung), in 40°' 53' N. and 122° 7' E., about 35 M. (90 M. by water) from the coast of the Gulf of Liao-tung, on what is now a small branch of the main eastern affluent of the Liao-ho. The population is estimated at 8o,000. The city proper is a comparatively unimportant place with broken-down walls, but it is surrounded by a number of large and flourishing suburbs. About the beginning of the Ta-ts'ing dynasty (1644) Niu-chwang was the chief port on the river, but in the reign of K'ien-lung, owing mainly to physical changes, it was supplanted by T'ien-chwang-tai farther down the stream, and towards the close of the 18th century this had in turn to give place to Ying-tsze still nearer the mouth. In ignorance of these facts Niu-chwang (now scarcely to be reached by a flat-bottomed river boat) was chosen as one of the ports to be opened to foreign trade by the treaty of Tien-tsin; and, though Ying-tsze had of necessitsy to be adopted as the site of the foreign settlements, Europeans still continue to speak of it as the port of Niu-chwang. Ying-tsze (otherwise known as Ying-k'ou, Niu-k'ou and in Mandarin as Muh-k'ou-ying) lies on the left bank of the Liao-ho on the lowest dry portion of the plain, not much above high-water mark. The British settlement immediately above the town.has a river frontage of I000 yds. opposite the deepest of the reaches, and runs back to the highway leading to Niu-chwang. Off the mouth of the river there is an extensive bar of hard mud which can only be crossed by certain channels at high tide, when it is covered by from 18 to 20 ft. of water; and the port is altogether closed by ice for four or five months of the year, between November and May. Niu-chwang has shown considerable vigour as a port of trade, sharing in the general prosperity of the provinces of Manchuria, of which it is the outlet. It was opened to foreign trade in 1858. In 1864 the total value of trade was £934,374, in 1878 £2,606,134, in 1898 £4,634,470, while in 1904 the figures reached £5,950,895. The principal exports (29%) are beans, bean-cake, bean-oil and wild silk. The bean-cake is a popular article of food with the natives of Kwang-tung and Fuh-kien, and is also largely employed for manuring the rice and sugar fields in the neighbourhood of Shanghai, Amoy, Swatow, &c. Of imports (71%) the principal are cotton yarn and cotton cloth, most of the latter being drawn from the United States in preference to English-made goods. The number of resident foreigners is about 150. Railways connect the port with Tientsin and Peking on the one hand, and with the Russian territories lying to the north on the other. In 1895 Niu-chwang was occupied by Japanese troops, and the town was included in the cession of territory originally granted by the treaty of peace. By a supplementary convention it was retroceded by the Japanese under pressure of France and Russia. Niu-chwang suffered considerably from the disturbances of 1900 and again during the Russo-Japanese war. In 1900 the Russians defeated the Chinese troops who attacked the town, and took possession `of the port,and administered affairs until they in their turn were driven out by Japanese. At the conclusion of the war the Japanese restored the port to China.
End of Article: KARL IMMANUEL NITZSCH (1787-1868)
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