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NOAILLES

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 723 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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NOAILLES, the name of a great French family, derived from the castle of Noailles in the territory of Ayen, between Brive and Turenne in the Limousin, and claiming to date back to the Iith century. It did not obtain fame until the 16th century, when its head, ANTOINE de Noailles (1504–1562), became admiral of France, and was ambassador in England during three important years, 1553–1556, maintaining a gallant but unsuccessful rivalry with the Spanish ambassador, Simon Renard. HENRI (1554–1623), son of Antoine, was a commander in the religious wars, and was made cornte d'Ayen by Henry IV. in 1593. ANNE (d. 1678), the grandson of the first count, played an important part in the Fronde and the early years of the reign of Louis XIV., became captain-general of the newly won province of Roussillon, and in 1663 was made duc d'Ayen, and peer of France. The sons of the first duke raised the family to its greatest fame. The eldest son, ANNE JULES (1650–1708), was one of the chief generals of France towards the end of the reign of Louis XIV., and, after raising the regiment of Noailles in 1689, he commanded in Spain during the war of the Spanish succession, and was made marshal of France in 1693. A younger son, Louis ANTOINE (1651-1729), was made archbishop of Paris in 1695, holding this high dignity until his death; he was made a cardinal in 1699. The name of Noailles occurs with almost confusing reiteration throughout the 18th century. ADRIEN MAURICE (1678-1766), the third duke, served in all the most important wars of the reign of Louis XV. in Italy and Germany, and became a marshal in 1734. His last command was in the war of the Austrian succession, when he was beaten by the English at the battle of Dettingen in 1743. He married Frangoise d'Aubigne, a niece of Madame de Maintenon and two of his sons also attained the rank of marshal of France. The elder, Lours (1713-1793), who bore the title of duc d'Ayen till his father's death in 1766, when he became duc de Noailles, served in most of the wars of the 18th century without particular distinction, but was nevertheless made a marshal in 1775. He refused to emigrate during the Revolution, but escaped the guillotine by dying in August 1793, before the Terror reached its height. On the 4th Thermidor (July 22) the aged duchesse de Noailles was executed with her daughter-in-law, the duchesse d'Ayen, and her granddaughter, the vicomtesse de Noailles. JEAN PAUL FRAN9oIS (1739-1824), the fifth duke, was in the army, but his tastes were scientific, and for his eminence as a chemist he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1777. He became duc d'Ayen in 1766 on his grand-father's death, and duc de Noailles on his father's in 1793. Having emigrated in 1792, he lived in Switzerland until the Restoration in 1814, when he took his seat as a peer of France. He had no son, and was succeeded as duc de Noailles by his grand-nephew, PAUL (1802-1885), who won some reputation as an author, and who became a member of the French Academy in the place of Chateaubriand in 1849. The grandfather of Paul de Noailles, and brother of the fifth duke, EMMANUEL MARIE LOUIS (1743-1822), marquis de Noailles, was ambassador at Amsterdam from 1720-1776, at London 1776-1783, and at Vienna 1783-1792. One other branch of the family deserves notice. PHILIPPE (1715-1794), comte de Noailles, afterwards duc de Mouchy, was a younger brother of the fourth duke, and a more distinguished soldier than his brother. He served at Minden and in other campaigns, and was made a marshal on the same day as his brother. He was long in great favour at court, and his wife was first lady of honour to Marie Antoinette, and was nicknamed by her Madame Etiquette. This court favour brought down punishment in the days of the Revolution, and the old marshal and his wife were guillotined on the 27th of June 1794. His two sons, the prince de Poix and the vicomte de Noailles, were members of the Constituent Assembly.
End of Article: NOAILLES
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