NOAILLES , the name of a
See also:great French
See also:family, derived from the
See also:castle of Noailles in the territory of Ayen, between
See also:Brive and
See also:Turenne in the
See also:Limousin, and claiming to date back to the Iith century . It did not obtain fame until the 16th century, when its
See also:ANTOINE de Noailles (1504–1562), became
See also:admiral of France, and was
See also:ambassador in England during three important years, 1553–1556, maintaining a gallant but unsuccessful rivalry with the
See also:Spanish ambassador,
See also:Simon Renard .
See also:HENRI (1554–1623), son of Antoine, was a
See also:commander in the religious
See also:wars, and was made cornte d'Ayen by
See also:Henry IV. in 1593 . ANNE (d . 1678), the
See also:grandson of the first count, played an important
See also:part in the
See also:Fronde and the early years of the reign of
See also:Louis XIV., became captain-general of the newly won province of
See also:Roussillon, and in 1663 was made duc d'Ayen, and peer of France . The sons of the first duke raised the family to its greatest fame . The eldest son, ANNE JULES (1650–1708), was one of the chief generals of France towards the end of the reign of Louis XIV., and, after raising the regiment of Noailles in 1689, he commanded in Spain during the war of the Spanish succession, and was made marshal of France in 1693 . A younger son, Louis ANTOINE (1651-1729), was made archbishop of
See also:Paris in 1695, holding this high dignity until his
See also:death; he was made a
See also:cardinal in 1699 . The name of Noailles occurs with almost confusing reiteration throughout the 18th century . ADRIEN
See also:MAURICE (1678-1766), the third duke, served in all the most important wars of the reign of Louis XV. in Italy and Germany, and became a marshal in 1734 . His last command was in the war of the
See also:Austrian succession, when he was beaten by the
See also:English at the
See also:battle of
See also:Dettingen in 1743 . He married Frangoise d'Aubigne, a niece of Madame de
See also:Maintenon and two of his sons also attained the
See also:rank of marshal of France .
Theelder, Lours (1713-1793), who
See also:bore the title of duc d'Ayen till his
See also:father's death in 1766, when he became duc de Noailles, served in most of the wars of the 18th century without particular distinction, but was nevertheless made a marshal in 1775 . He refused to emigrate during the Revolution, but escaped the
See also:guillotine by dying in
See also:August 1793, before the Terror reached its height . On the 4th Thermidor (
See also:July 22) the aged duchesse de Noailles was executed with her daughter-in-
See also:law, the duchesse d'Ayen, and her granddaughter, the vicomtesse de Noailles .
See also:JEAN PAUL FRAN9oIS (1739-1824), the fifth duke, was in the army, but his tastes were scientific, and for his
See also:eminence as a chemist he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1777 . He became duc d'Ayen in 1766 on his
See also:grand-father's death, and duc de Noailles on his father's in 1793 . Having emigrated in 1792, he lived in
See also:Switzerland until the Restoration in 1814, when he took his seat as a peer of France . He had no son, and was succeeded as duc de Noailles by his grand-
See also:nephew, PAUL (1802-1885), who won some reputation as an author, and who became a member of the French Academy in the place of Chateaubriand in 1849 . The grandfather of Paul de Noailles, and
See also:brother of the fifth duke,
See also:MARIE LOUIS (1743-1822),
See also:marquis de Noailles, was ambassador at Amsterdam from 1720-1776, at
See also:London 1776-1783, and at Vienna 1783-1792 . One other branch of the family deserves
See also:notice . PHILIPPE (1715-1794), comte de Noailles, afterwards duc de Mouchy, was a younger brother of the
See also:fourth duke, and a more distinguished soldier than his brother . He served at
See also:Minden and in other
See also:campaigns, and was made a marshal on the same
See also:day as his brother . He was long in great favour at
See also:court, and his wife was first
See also:lady of
See also:honour to Marie Antoinette, and was nicknamed by her Madame
See also:Etiquette .
This court favour brought downpunishment in the days of the Revolution, and the old marshal and his wife were guillotined on the 27th of
See also:June 1794 . His two sons, the
See also:prince de Poix and the vicomte de Noailles, were members of the Constituent
See also:Assembly .
NOAH (ni, rest; Septuagint, New Testament, Philo, J...
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