See also:main tendencies of
See also:medieval philosophy, the other being
See also:Realism . The controversy between nominalists and realists arose from a passage in Boethius'
See also:translation of Porphyry's Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle, which propounded the problem of genera and
See also:species, (I) as to whether they subsist in themselves or only in the mind; (2) whether, if subsistent, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and (3) whether separated from sensible things or placed in them . The Realists held that universals alone have substantial reality, existing ante res; the Nominalists that universals are mere names invented to
See also:express the qualities of particular things and existing
See also:post res; while the Conceptualists, mediating between the two extremes, held that universals are concepts which exist in our minds and express real similarities in things themselves . Though a strong realist tendency is evident in the
See also:system of Erigena (9th century), the controversy was not definitely started till the rrth century: it lasted till the
See also:middle of the 12th, when the first
See also:period of scholastic philosophy ends . Under an appearance of much vain subtlety the controversy about universals involved issues of the greatest speculative and
See also:practical importance: realism represented a spiritual,
See also:nominalism an
See also:anti-spiritual, view of the
See also:world; while realism was evidently favourable, and nominalism unfavourable, to the teaching of the
See also:Church on the dogmas of the Trinity and the Eucharist . Nominalism was a
See also:doctrine of sceptics and suspected heretics, such as Berengar of
See also:Tours and Roscellinus . Even
See also:Abelard's mediating doctrine of
See also:conceptualism (q.v.) was sufficiently near to obnoxious ideas to involve him in lifelong persecution . The principles of the
See also:great orthodox philosophers of the later scholastic period which begins in the 13th century, Albertus
See also:Magnus and
See also:Thomas Aquinas, were those of moderate realism . When nominalism was revived in the 14th century by the
See also:English Franciscan,
See also:William of
See also:Occam, it gave evidence of a new tendency in thought, a distrust of abstractions and an impulse towards
See also:direct observation and inductive
See also:research, a tendency which had its fulfilment in the scientific
See also:movement of the
See also:Renaissance . Occam's dictum " Entia non multiplicanda sunt praeter necessitatem " was inspired by a spirit similar to that of
See also:Bacon . Though nominalism is properly a medieval theory, the tendency has passed over into
See also:modern philosophy: the
See also:term " nominalist " is often applied to thinkers of the empirical, sensationalist school, of whom J . S .
See also:Mill may be taken as the chief representative . (H .
NOMENTUM (mod. Mentana)
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