See also:county of England, bounded N.W. by
See also:Yorkshire, W. by
See also:Derbyshire, S. by
See also:shire and E. and N.E. by
See also:Lincolnshire . The
See also:area is 843.4 sq. m . •The N. is included in the
See also:great plain of
See also:York, and in the extreme N. there is some extent of marshes . The valley of the
See also:lower Trent and that of the Idle are also very
See also:flat . In the S.W. between Nottingham and Warsop, the undulations swell into considerable elevations, reaching near Mansfield a height over 600 ft . This
See also:district includes the
See also:Forest (q.v.) . Some portions of it are still retained in their
See also:condition, and there are many very old oaks, especially in the portion known as the
See also:Dukeries (q.v.) . The county generally is finely wooded, although to the E. of the valley of the Soar there is a considerable stretch of wolds . The
See also:rivers are the Trent, the Erewash, the Soar and the Idle . The Trent, which enters the county near Thrumpton in the S.W., where it receives the Erewash from the N. and the Soar from the S., flows N.E. past Nottingham and Newark, where it takes a more northerly direction, forming the N.
See also:part of the E. boundary of the county till it reaches the Isle of Axholm (Lincolnshire) . The Soar forms for a
See also:short distance the boundary with
See also:Leicestershire, and the Erewash the boundary with Derbyshire . The Idle, which is formed of several streams in Sherwood Forest, flows N. to Bawtry, and then turns E. to the Trent .
Geology.—All formations, from Lower and
See also:Measures, overlain unconformably by
See also:Permian, to Lower
See also:crop out successively eastward across the county, with a general but slight dip away from the Pennine uplift . The strike of the Carboniferous rocks veers from S. to E. in the S.; that of younger formations bends to S.W . The Coal Measures, about 3000 ft. thick, continue the Derby-shire Coalfield . A
See also:boring at Ruddington proved the lowest measures, underlain by Millstone Grit . The remaining Lower and Middle Measures below the important Top Hard Coal, with the Kilburn,
See also:Main, Deep Hard and Soft Coals, crop out in the south and along the Erewash Valley; higher strata farther N . All these consist of shale,
See also:clay and little
See also:sandstone . They contain Carbonicola acuta, C. robusta, Neuropteris heterophylla, Alethopteris and Lepidodendron, showing essentially non-marine conditions . But several thin marine beds occur . The highest measures, divisible into red
See also:Etruria Marls, Newcastle Sandstones and a red sandy Keele series have been proved underground in eastward succession . A thin basal
See also:breccia, a sandy and marly
See also:group, the Magnesian
See also:Limestone with Productus horridus and Scluzodus obscurus (granular
See also:dolomite typically, its upper part locally a dolomitic sandstone, the Mansfield
See also:stone): red gypsiferous Middle Marls, an Upper Limestone, and Upper Red Marls, collectively 55o ft. thick in the
See also:north of.Notting- but dying out at Nottingham . Only t e lowest divisions persist so far . The more extensive Trias overlaps southward on to the Carboniferous .
Its lower sandstones (
See also:Bunter, 600 ft. thick, consisting of Lower Red Sandstone with breccias, and Pebble Beds;
See also:Keuper Waterstones, 200 ft. in the east, mainly
See also:brown sandstones, conglomeratic at the
See also:base and containing the
See also:fish Semionotus)
See also:form an undulating wooded district . Higher red and
See also:green Keuper Marl (700 ft.), with subordinate sandstones and
See also:gypsum, makes a low agricultural
See also:tract on the E., traversed longitudinally by the Trent . Black Rhaetic shales succeed with Pieria (Avicula) contorta, Protocardium rhaeticum and
See also:bone-beds, below
See also:light-coloured marls and limestones ("
See also:White Lias ") . Lower Lias, almost up to the Semicostatus zone, crops out within the county . The basal Planorbis zone contains argillaceous limestones, worked for
See also:cement at Barnston, and saurian remains . Of two types of Glacial
See also:boulder-clay, mainly confined to the Triassic and
See also:clays on the E. and S.E., one containing Carboniferous and some extraneous boulders probably came with the Pennine ice from the N.W . The other, uppermost where both occur, and full of
See also:chalk and
See also:flint, belongs to the Chalky Boulder Clay of the North
See also:Sea ice . Glacial gravels cap. the higher ground of the Triassic sandstones .
See also:Church Hole, one of the Magnesian Limestone caves of Creswell Crags, yielded remains of cave-lion, bear,
See also:rhinoceros, &c . Older
See also:river-gravels flank the pasture
See also:land of the Trent
See also:alluvium .
See also:Climate and
See also:Agriculture.— As the higher regions of Derbyshire and Yorkshire attract the
See also:rain clouds, the climate of
See also:Nottinghamshire is above the
See also:average in dryness; thus, the mean
See also:annual rainfall at Bawtry is 23.57 in. and at Nottingham 26.83 in . On this account crops ripen nearly as early as in the S. counties .
See also:soil of about one-
See also:half the county is
See also:gravel and sand, including Sherwood Forest, where it inclines to sterility, and the valley of the Trent, where there is a
See also:mould on a stratum ofsand or gravel . The land along the
See also:banks of the Trent is equally suitable for crops and pasture . The farms generally are of moderate
See also:size, the great majority being under 300 acres . Most of the immediate occupants are tenants-atwill . Roughly four-fifths of the
See also:total area is under cultivation . Apples and
See also:pears are grown in considerable quantities, but there are not many orchards of large size . Shorthorns are the favourite breed of
See also:cattle, and
See also:dairy farming is considerably prosecuted . The old forest breed of
See also:sheep is almost
See also:extinct, Leicesters and various crosses being
See also:common .
See also:Industries.—Coal is
See also:mined chiefly on the S.W. border of the county near Nottingham and near Mansfield; there are also mines near
See also:Worksop . Clay, sandstone and limestone are also extensively raised . The
See also:lace and
See also:hosiery industries are of old
See also:establishment in the county, Nottingham being the principal centre . There are
See also:silk, worsted and
See also:cotton mills .
A large number of hands are employed in machinery
See also:works, and the cycle and motor manufacture of Beeston is important . The manufacture of
See also:tobacco add cigars is considerable at Nottingham and Hucknall Torkard . Communications.—The main
See also:line of the Midland railway touches the S.W. border of the county, with an alternative route through Nottingham, and branches thence N. through Hucknall and Mansfield to Worksop, to Newark and Lincoln, from Mansfield to Southwell and Newark, &c . The main line of the Great Central railway serves Nottingham and Hucknall . That of the Great
See also:Northern railway serves Newark and
See also:Retford, with a branch to Nottingham and
See also:local lines in that vicinity . A branch of the Great Central railway, formerly (till 1908) the main line of the
See also:Lancashire, Derbyshire and East
See also:Coast railway. enters the county on the W. from Chesterfield, and crosses the Dukeries by 011erton to Dukeries Junction (G.N.R.) and Lincoln . The Sheffield-
See also:Grimsby line of the Great Central crosses the N. of the county by Worksop and Retford . The Trent is navigable throughout the county, and the Idle between Bawtry and the Trent . The principal canals centre upon Nottingham . Population and Administration.—The area of the ancient county is 539,756 acres, with a population in 1901 of 514,578 . The area of the administrative county is 540,123 . The county contains the city and county and municipal
See also:borough of Notting-
See also:ham (pop .
239,743), and the municipal boroughs of Retford or East Retford (12,340), Mansfield (21,445) and Newark (14,992) . Theurban districts are
See also:Arnold (8757), Beeston (896o), Carlton (Io,c41), Eastwood (4815), Hucknall Torkard (15,250), Hucknall under Huthwaite (4076),
See also:Kirkby in Ashfield (10,318), Mansfield Woodhouse (4877), Sutton in Ashfield (14,862), Warsop (2132), West Bridgford (7018), Worksop (16,112) . For
See also:parliamentary purposes the ancient county is divided into four divisions (Bassetlaw, Newark, Rushcliffe and Mansfield), each returning one member; and the parliamentary borough of Nottingham returns one member for each of its three divisions . There are one
See also:court of quarter sessions and seven
See also:petty sessional divisions . The boroughs of Newark and Nottingham have
See also:separate commissions of the peace, also separate courts of quarter sessions; that of East Retford has a separate commission of the peace . The total number of
See also:civil parishes is 266 . The ancient county contains 231 ecclesiastical parishes and districts, wholly or in part; it is situated principally in the
See also:diocese of Southwell and partly in the diocese of York .
See also:History.—The earliest Teutonic settlers in the district which is now Nottinghamshire were an Anglian tribe who, not later than the 5th century, advanced from Lincolnshire along the Fosseway, and, pushing their way up the Trent valley, settled in the fertile districts of the S. and E., the whole W. region from Nottingham to within a short distance of Southwell being then occupied by the vast forest of Sherwood . At the end of the 6th century Nottinghamshire already existed as organized territory, though its W. limit probably extended no farther than the Saxon
See also:relics discovered at Oxton and Tuxford . Nottingham after the treaty of
See also:Wedmore became one of the five Danish boroughs . On the break-up of
See also:Mercia under Hardicanute, Nottinghamshire was included in the earldom of the Middle
See also:English, but in 1049 it again became part of
See also:Leofric's earldom of Mercia, and descended to Edwin and Morkere . The first mention of the shire of Notting-ham occurs in 1o16, when it was harried by Canute .
The boundaries have remained practically unaltered since the
See also:time of the Domesday Survey, and the eight Domesday wapentakes were unchanged in 161o; in 1719 they had been reduced to six, their
See also:present number, Oswaldbeck being absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay division, and " Side " in Thurgarton . Nottinghamshire was originally included in the diocese and province of York, and in 1291 formed an archdeaconry. comprising the deaneries of Nottingham, Newark,
See also:Bingham and Retford . By
See also:act of parliament of 1836 the county was transferred to the diocese of Lincoln and province of Canterbury, with the additional deanery of Southwell . In 1878 the deaneries of Mansfield, South Bingham, West Bingham, Collingham, Tuxford and Worksop were created, and in 1884 most of the county was transferred to the newly-created diocese of Southwell, the deaneries being unchanged . The deaneries of Bawtry, Bulwell, Gedling, East Newark and Norwell were created in 1888 . Until 1568 Nottinghamshire was
See also:united with Derbyshire under one
See also:sheriff, the courts and tourns being held at Nottingham until the reign of
See also:Henry III., when with -the assizes for both counties they were removed to Derby . In the time of
See also:Edward I. the assizes were again held at Nottingham, where they are held at the present
See also:day . The Peverel Court, founded before 1113 for the recovery of small debts, had jurisdiction over 127 towns in Nottinghamshire, and was held at Nottingham until 1321, in 1330 at Algarthorpe and in 1790 at Lenton, being finally abolished in 1849 . The most interesting historic figure in the Domesday Survey of Nottinghamshire is
See also:William Peverel . His
See also:fief represents the
See also:honour of Nottingham, and in ro68 he was appointed
See also:constable of the
See also:castle which William the Conqueror had raised at Nottingham . The Cliftons of
See also:Clifton and the Byrons of Newstead held lands in Nottinghamshire at the time of the Survey . Holme Pierrepoint belonged to the Pierrepoints from the time of Edward I.; Shelford was the seat of the Stanhopes, and Langer of the Tibetots, afterwards earls of
See also:Worcester .
See also:Cranmer was a descendant of the Cranmers of Aslockton near Bingham . The
See also:political history of Nottinghamshire centres
See also:round the
See also:town and castle of Nottingham, which was seized by Robert of
See also:Gloucester on behalf of Maud in 1140; captured by
See also:John in 1191; surrendered to Henry III. by the rebellious barons in 1264; formed an important station of Edward III. in the Scottish
See also:wars; and in 1397 was the scene of a council where three of the lords appellant were appealed of treason . In the Wars of the
See also:Roses the county as a whole favoured the Yorkist cause, Notting-ham being one of the most useful stations of Edward IV . In the Civil War of the 17th century most of the
See also:nobility and gentry favoured the Royalist cause, but Nottingham Castle was garrisoned for the parliament, and in 1651 was ordered to be demolished . Among the earliest industries of Nottinghamshire were the malting and woollen industries, which flourished in Normantimes . The latter declined in the 16th century, and was superseded by the hosiery manufacture which sprang up after the invention of the stocking-
See also:loom in 1589 . The earliest evidence of the working of the Nottinghamshire coalfield is in 1259, when
See also:Queen Eleanor was unable to remain in this county on account of the
See also:smoke of the sea-coal . Collieries are scarcely heard of in Nottinghamshire in the 17th century, but in 162o the justices of the peace for the shire
See also:report that there is no fear of scarcity of corn, as the counties which send up the Trent for coal bring corn in
See also:exchange, and in 1881
See also:thirty-nine collieries were at
See also:work in the county . Hops were formerly extensively grown, and Worksop was famous for its
See also:liquorice . Numerous cotton-mills were erected in Nottinghamshire in the 18th century, and there were silk-mills at Nottingham . The manufacture of
See also:tambour lace existed in Nottinghamshire in the 18th century, and was facilitated in the 19th century by the manufacture of machine-made
See also:net . From .1295 the county and town of Notting-ham each returned two members to parliament .
In 1572 East Retford was represented by two members, and in 1672 Newarkupon-Trent also . Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned four members in two divisions . By the act of 1885 it returned four members in four divisions; Newark and East Retford were disfranchised, and Nottingham returned three members in three divisions . Antiquities.—At thedissolution of the monasteries there were no fewer than
See also:forty religious houses in Nottinghamshire . The only important monastic remains, however, are those at New-
See also:stead, but the building is partly transformed into a
See also:mansion which was formerly the residence of
See also:Byron (see HuCKNALL TORKARD) . There are also traces of monastic ruins at Beauvale, Mattersey, Radford and Thurgarton . The finest
See also:parish church in the county is that of Newark . The churches of St Mary, Nottingham, and of Southwell were collegiate churches; South-well, now a
See also:cathedral, is a splendid building, principally Norman . The churches of Balderton, Bawtry, Hoveringham, Mansfield and Worksop are also partly Norman, and those of Coddington, Hawton and Upton St
See also:Peter near Southwell, Early English . Of the old castles, the principal remains are those at Newark, but there are several interesting old mansions, as at Kingshaugh, Scrooby, Shelford and Southwell . Wollaton
See also:Hall, near Notting-ham, is a
See also:fine old building (c.158o) . The finest residences of more
See also:modern date are Welbeck and others in the Dukeries (q.v.) .
See also:Victoria County History, Nottinghamshire; R . Thoroton, The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire (Lond., 1677; republished with additions by J . Thoresby, 3 vols., Lond., 1797) ;
See also:Annals of Nottinghamshire (4 vols., Lond., 1852–1856) ; J . P Briscoe, Old Nottinghamshire (1881); J .
See also:Ward, Descriptive
See also:Catalogue of Books
See also:relating to Nottinghamshire (Nottingham, 1892) .
EARLS OF NOTTINGHAM
NOUMENON (Gr. voouµevov, a thing known, from voeiv...
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