NOVALIS , thepseudonym of
See also:LEOPOLD, FREIHERR VON HARDENBERG (1772-1801), German poet and novelist . The name was taken, according to
See also:family records, from an ancestral
See also:estate . He was
See also:born on the 2nd of May 1772 on his
See also:father's estate at Oberwiederstedt in Prussian Saxony . His parents were members of the Moravian (Herrnhuter)
See also:sect, and the strict religious training of his youth is largely reflected in his
See also:works . From the gymnasium of
See also:Eisleben he passed, in 1790, as a student of philosophy, to the university of
See also:Jena, where he was befriended by Schiller . He next studied
See also:law at
See also:Leipzig, when he formed a friendship with Friedrich
See also:Schlegel, and finally at
See also:Wittenberg, where, in 1794, he took his degree . His father's
See also:cousin, the Prussian
See also:minister Hardenberg, now offered him a
See also:post at Berlin; but the father feared the influence upon his son of the loose-living statesman, and sent him to learn the
See also:practical duties of his profession under the Kreisamtmann (
See also:administrator) of Tennstedt near
See also:Langensalza . In the following
See also:year he was appointed auditor to the government saltworks in
See also:Weissenfels, of which his father was director . His grief at the
See also:death in 1797 of Sophie von Kuhn, to whom he had become betrothed in Tennstedt, found expression in the beautiful Hymre,l an die Nacht (first published in the Athendum, 1800) . A few months later he entered the
See also:Mining Academy of
See also:Freiberg in Saxony to study geology under
See also:Professor Abraham Gottlob
See also:Werner (1750-1817), whom in the fragment Die Lehrlinge zu
See also:Sais he immortalized as the " Meister." Here he again became engaged to be married, and the next two years were fruitful in poetical productions . In the autumn of 1799 he read at Jena to the admiring circle of
See also:young romantic poets his Geistliche Lieder . Several of these, such as "Wenn alle untreu
See also:werden," Wenn ich ihn nur habe," " tinter tausend frohen Stunden," still retain, as
See also:great popularity .
In 1800 he wasappointed Amtshauptmann (
See also:magistrate) in Thuringia, and was preparing to marry and settle, when pulmonary
See also:consumption rapidly set in, of which he died at Weissenfels on the 25th of
See also:March 18o1 . His works were issued in two volumes by his friends Ludwig
See also:Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel (2 vols . 1802; a third
See also:volume was added in 1846) . They are for the most
See also:part fragments, of which Heinrich von Ofterdingen, an unfinished
See also:romance, is the chief . It was undertaken at the instance of Tieck, and reflects the ideas and tendencies of the older Romantic School, of which Hardenberg was a leading member . Heinrich von Ofterdingen's
See also:search for the mysterious " blue flower " is an allegory of the poet's
See also:life set in a romantic
See also:world . Novalis, however, did not succeed in blending his mystic and philosophical conceptions into a harmonious whole . The " fragments " contain idealistic though paradoxical views on philosophy,
See also:art, natural science,
See also:mathematics, &c . There are
See also:editions of his collected works by C . Meisner and B . Wile (1898), by E . Heilborn (3 vols., 1901), and by J .
Minor (3 vols., 1907) . Heinrich von Ofterdingen was published separately by J .
See also:Schmidt in 1876 . Novalis's
See also:Correspondence was edited by J . M . Raich in 1880 . See R .
See also:Haym, Die romantische Schule (Berlin, 1870) ; A . Schubart, Novalis' Leben, Dichten and Denken (1887) ; C . Busse, Novalis' Lyrik (1898) ; J . Bing, Friedrich von Hardenberg (
See also:Hamburg, 1899), E . Heilborn, Friedrich von Hardenberg (Berlin, 1901) .
See also:essay on Novalis (1829) is well known .
1ST MARQUIS DE MANUEL PAVIA Y LACY NOVALICHES (1814...
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